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Some new files about PLACEBO

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  • Some new files about PLACEBO

    Hi SomaSimplers,

    I loaded some new free files about placebo.

    Preface
    The Placebo Response in Conditions Other Than Pain
    The Placebo Response as a Reward Mechanism
    Opioid and Placebo Analgesia Share the Same Network
    The Neural Bases of Placebo Effects in Anticipation and Pain
    Conditioning, Expectation, and Desire for Relief in Placebo Analgesia
    Clinical Relevance and Ethical Aspects of Placebos
    Making Space for the Placebo Effect in Pain Medicine
    Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication. L VINCI
    We are to admit no more causes of natural things than such as are both true and sufficient to explain their appearances. I NEWTON

    Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not a bit simpler.
    If you can't explain it simply, you don't understand it well enough. Albert Einstein
    bernard

  • #2
    Mechanisms of placebo analgesia: rACC recruitment of a subcortical antinociceptive network


    U. Bingela, b, , , J. Lorenzc, E. Schoella, C. Weillerd and C. Büchela

    aNeuroImage Nord, Institute for Systems Neuroscience, University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, Germany
    bNeuroImage Nord, Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, Germany
    cDepartment of Physiology, University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, Germany
    dDepartment of Neurology, University of Freiburg, Germany

    Received 31 January 2005; revised 19 July 2005; accepted 18 August 2005. AIB-05768. Available online 20 December 2005.



    Abstract

    Placebo analgesia is one of the most striking examples of the cognitive modulation of pain perception and the underlying mechanisms are finally beginning to be understood. According to pharmacological studies, the endogenous opioid system is essential for placebo analgesia. Recent functional imaging data provides evidence that the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) represents a crucial cortical area for this type of endogenous pain control. We therefore hypothesized that placebo analgesia recruits other brain areas outside the rACC and that interactions of the rACC with these brain areas mediate opioid-dependent endogenous antinociception as part of a top–down mechanism. Nineteen healthy subjects received and rated painful laser stimuli to the dorsum of both hands, one of them treated with a fake analgesic cream (placebo). Painful stimulation was preceded by an auditory cue, indicating the side of the next laser stimulation. BOLD-responses to the painful laser-stimulation during the placebo and no-placebo condition were assessed using event-related fMRI. After having confirmed placebo related activity in the rACC, a connectivity analysis identified placebo dependent contributions of rACC activity with bilateral amygdalae and the periaqueductal gray (PAG). This finding supports the view that placebo analgesia depends on the enhanced functional connectivity of the rACC with subcortical brain structures that are crucial for conditioned learning and descending inhibition of nociception.
    Keywords: Pain; Placebo; rACC; fMRI; PAG; Amygdala; PPI
    Attached Files
    Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication. L VINCI
    We are to admit no more causes of natural things than such as are both true and sufficient to explain their appearances. I NEWTON

    Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not a bit simpler.
    If you can't explain it simply, you don't understand it well enough. Albert Einstein
    bernard

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