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Connectomics and Reverse Engineering the Human Brain

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  • marcel
    started a topic VIS Connectomics and Reverse Engineering the Human Brain

    Connectomics and Reverse Engineering the Human Brain


    Jeff Lichtman (Harvard University) presents “Connectomics and Reverse Engineering the Human Brain.”

    ABSTRACT: The cellular organization of the mammalian brain is more complicated than that of any other known biological tissue. As a result, much of the nervous system’s fine cellular structure is unexplored. My colleagues and I developed automated technologies to place thousands of very thin brain sections onto tape, image them with scanning electron microscopy, and analyze them with computer-assisted methods to generate a multi-scale datasets of the brain’s components and connections. This kind of high-resolution analysis may be essential for exploration of the function of neural circuits and learning why biological neural networks work so much more efficiently than man-made computers.

  • marcel
    replied
    Multisensory Conflict Resolution: Should I Stay or Should I Go?

    Neuron 2017
    Polley DB1.
    Abstract Swift action is often required in the face of indeterminate sensory evidence. In this issue of Neuron, Song et al. (2017) describe an inhibitory circuit in the posterior parietal cortex that evaluates conflicting auditory and visual cues and supports resolute perceptual decision making.

    full text link
    https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/po...euron_2017.pdf

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  • marcel
    replied
    Eye Smarter than Scientists Believed: Neural Computations in Circuits of the Retina

    TimGollisch12MarkusMeister3



    We rely on our visual system to cope with the vast barrage of incoming light patterns and to extract features from the scene that are relevant to our well-being. The necessary reduction of visual information already begins in the eye. In this review, we summarize recent progress in understanding the computations performed in the vertebrate retina and how they are implemented by the neural circuitry. A new picture emerges from these findings that helps resolve a vexing paradox between the retina's structure and function. Whereas the conventional wisdom treats the eye as a simple prefilter for visual images, it now appears that the retina solves a diverse set of specific tasks and provides the results explicitly to downstream brain areas.

    ...

    But what is that purpose? Most vision researchers will argue that the retina's principal function is to convey the visual image through the optic nerve to the brain, where the cortex can bring a great deal of clever circuitry to bear on it. They may acknowledge that light adaptation is an important retinal function, akin to an automatic gain control. On further thought, the retina also implements some lateral inhibition—embodied by the center-surround antagonism in the ganglion cell's receptive field—to sharpen the image in space and also in time. This picture of the retina as a simple spatiotemporal prefilter is espoused almost universally by textbooks and review articles (including one by a present author: Meister and Berry, 1999). And it is adopted, at least implicitly, by virtually all neuroscientists who work in visual areas beyond the retina, where the truly sophisticated, heavy-duty computations are thought to take place. Yet the paradox is clear: to implement simple functions, like light adaptation and image sharpening, there is no need for 50 neuron types with fantastically intricate network structure. In fact, the retina of the horseshoe crab accomplishes all this already within the layer of photoreceptors (Ratliff and Hartline, 1959; Fuortes and Hodgkin, 1964). What are the other 49 cell types doing in the vertebrate retina?
    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science...96627309009994
    Last edited by marcel; 28-11-2017, 02:22 PM.

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  • marcel
    replied
    Neural computation: a Ted talk about how predictive coding works in the retina
    By: Markus Meister, professor of biology his research opened a window onto the sophisticated computations performed by the retina.

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  • marcel
    replied
    Your welcome,

    More from Jeff Lichtman on ibiology.https://www.ibiology.org/?s=jeff+lichtman
    Last edited by marcel; 28-11-2017, 12:42 AM.

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  • Jo Bowyer
    replied
    This is amazing Marcel. Thankyou so much.

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