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  • #46
    Circadian Entrainment to the Natural Light-Dark Cycle across Seasons and the Weekend

    http://www.cell.com/current-biology/...822(16)31522-6

    Highlights
    •Living in the modern electrical lighting environment delays the human circadian clock

    •The human circadian clock adapts to seasonal changes in the natural light-dark cycle

    •A weekend camping trip prevented the typical weekend circadian and sleep delay

    Summary
    Reduced exposure to daytime sunlight and increased exposure to electrical lighting at night leads to late circadian and sleep timing [1, 2, 3]. We have previously shown that exposure to a natural summer 14 hr 40 min:9 hr 20 min light-dark cycle entrains the human circadian clock to solar time, such that the internal biological night begins near sunset and ends near sunrise [1]. Here we show that the beginning of the biological night and sleep occur earlier after a week’s exposure to a natural winter 9 hr 20 min:14 hr 40 min light-dark cycle as compared to the modern electrical lighting environment. Further, we find that the human circadian clock is sensitive to seasonal changes in the natural light-dark cycle, showing an expansion of the biological night in winter compared to summer, akin to that seen in non-humans [4, 5, 6, 7, 8]. We also show that circadian and sleep timing occur earlier after spending a weekend camping in a summer 14 hr 39 min:9 hr 21 min natural light-dark cycle compared to a typical weekend in the modern environment. Weekend exposure to natural light was sufficient to achieve ∼69% of the shift in circadian timing we previously reported after a week’s exposure to natural light [1]. These findings provide evidence that the human circadian clock adapts to seasonal changes in the natural light-dark cycle and is timed later in the modern environment in both winter and summer. Further, we demonstrate that earlier circadian timing can be rapidly achieved through natural light exposure during a weekend spent camping.
    Jo Bowyer
    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

    Comment


    • #47
      Advanced EEG Reveals Complex Beauty of the Sleeping Brain

      http://neurosciencenews.com/eeg-sleeping-brain-6079/

      “During sleep, the brain is engaged in a symphony of activity involving the dynamic interplay of different cortical and sub-cortical networks,” says Michael Prerau, PhD, of the MGH Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Management, lead author of the Physiology report. “Due to practical constraints and established practices, current clinical techniques greatly simplify the way the sleep is described, causing massive amounts of information to be lost. We therefore wanted to identify a more comprehensive way of characterizing brain activity during sleep that was easy to understand and quick to learn, yet mathematically principled and robust.”
      Jo Bowyer
      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

      Comment


      • #48
        Coordinated infraslow neural and cardiac oscillations mark fragility and offline periods in mammalian sleep

        http://advances.sciencemag.org/conte.../e1602026.full

        Abstract

        Rodents sleep in bouts lasting minutes; humans sleep for hours. What are the universal needs served by sleep given such variability? In sleeping mice and humans, through monitoring neural and cardiac activity (combined with assessment of arousability and overnight memory consolidation, respectively), we find a previously unrecognized hallmark of sleep that balances two fundamental yet opposing needs: to maintain sensory reactivity to the environment while promoting recovery and memory consolidation. Coordinated 0.02-Hz oscillations of the sleep spindle band, hippocampal ripple activity, and heart rate sequentially divide non–rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep into offline phases and phases of high susceptibility to external stimulation. A noise stimulus chosen such that sleeping mice woke up or slept through at comparable rates revealed that offline periods correspond to raising, whereas fragility periods correspond to declining portions of the 0.02-Hz oscillation in spindle activity. Oscillations were present throughout non-REM sleep in mice, yet confined to light non-REM sleep (stage 2) in humans. In both species, the 0.02-Hz oscillation predominated over posterior cortex. The strength of the 0.02-Hz oscillation predicted superior memory recall after sleep in a declarative memory task in humans. These oscillations point to a conserved function of mammalian non-REM sleep that cycles between environmental alertness and internal memory processing in 20- to 25-s intervals. Perturbed 0.02-Hz oscillations may cause memory impairment and ill-timed arousals in sleep disorders.
        Jo Bowyer
        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

        Comment


        • #49
          Prolonged sleep duration as a marker of early neurodegeneration predicting incident dementia

          http://www.neurology.org/content/ear...00003732.short

          ABSTRACT

          Objective: To evaluate the association between sleep duration and the risk of incident dementia and brain aging.

          Methods: Self-reported total hours of sleep were examined in the Framingham Heart Study (n = 2,457, mean age 72 ± 6 years, 57% women) as a 3-level variable: <6 hours (short), 6–9 hours (reference), and >9 hours (long), and was related to the risk of incident dementia over 10 years, and cross-sectionally to total cerebral brain volume (TCBV) and cognitive performance.

          Results: We observed 234 cases of all-cause dementia over 10 years of follow-up. In multivariable analyses, prolonged sleep duration was associated with an increased risk of incident dementia (hazard ratio [HR] 2.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24–3.26). These findings were driven by persons with baseline mild cognitive impairment (HR 2.83; 95% CI 1.06–7.55) and persons without a high school degree (HR 6.05; 95% CI 3.00–12.18). Transitioning to sleeping >9 hours over a mean period of 13 years before baseline was associated with an increased risk of all-cause dementia (HR 2.43; 95% CI 1.44–4.11) and clinical Alzheimer disease (HR 2.20; 95% CI 1.17–4.13). Relative to sleeping 6–9 hours, long sleep duration was also associated cross-sectionally with smaller TCBV (β ± SE, −1.08 ± 0.41 mean units of TCBV difference) and poorer executive function (β ± SE, −0.41 ± 0.13 SD units of Trail Making Test B minus A score difference).

          Conclusions: Prolonged sleep duration may be a marker of early neurodegeneration and hence a useful clinical tool to identify those at a higher risk of progressing to clinical dementia within 10 years.

          Acoustic Enhancement of Sleep Slow Oscillations and Concomitant Memory Improvement in Older Adults

          http://journal.frontiersin.org/artic...017.00109/full

          Acoustic stimulation methods applied during sleep in young adults can increase slow wave activity (SWA) and improve sleep-dependent memory retention. It is unknown whether this approach enhances SWA and memory in older adults, who generally have reduced SWA compared to younger adults. Additionally, older adults are at risk for age-related cognitive impairment and therefore may benefit from non-invasive interventions. The aim of this study was to determine if acoustic stimulation can increase SWA and improve declarative memory in healthy older adults. Thirteen participants 60–84 years old completed one night of acoustic stimulation and one night of sham stimulation in random order. During sleep, a real-time algorithm using an adaptive phase-locked loop modeled the phase of endogenous slow waves in midline frontopolar electroencephalographic recordings. Pulses of pink noise were delivered when the upstate of the slow wave was predicted. Each interval of five pulses (“ON interval”) was followed by a pause of approximately equal length (“OFF interval”). SWA during the entire sleep period was similar between stimulation and sham conditions, whereas SWA and spindle activity were increased during ON intervals compared to matched periods during the sham night. The increases in SWA and spindle activity were sustained across almost the entire five-pulse ON interval compared to matched sham periods. Verbal paired-associate memory was tested before and after sleep. Overnight improvement in word recall was significantly greater with acoustic stimulation compared to sham and was correlated with changes in SWA between ON and OFF intervals. Using the phase-locked-loop method to precisely target acoustic stimulation to the upstate of sleep slow oscillations, we were able to enhance SWA and improve sleep-dependent memory storage in older adults, which strengthens the theoretical link between sleep and age-related memory integrity.
          Sleep in older adults is characterized by frequent awakenings and a prominent reduction in REM, SWS, and SWA (Ohayon et al., 2004; Edwards et al., 2010). Although word pair recall in older adults has been associated with duration of non-REM/REM sleep cycles (Mazzoni et al., 1999), REM sleep deprivation has been shown to have no effect on memory consolidation (Hornung et al., 2007). Much is unknown about the specific mechanisms of age-related changes in sleep physiology, but recent evidence suggests that gray-matter atrophy in the medial prefrontal cortex underlies age-related decline in SWA (Mander et al., 2013b). SWA has indeed been shown to be associated with declarative memory performance in older adults (Westerberg et al., 2012; Mander et al., 2013b). Given this evidence implicating SWA, it is biologically plausible that memory storage can be enhanced in older adults by promoting slow wave synchronization during sleep.




          Update 26/04/2017





          Longer sleep is associated with lower BMI and favorable metabolic profiles in UK adults: Findings from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey


          http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0182195

          Abstract


          Ever more evidence associates short sleep with increased risk of metabolic diseases such as obesity, which may be related to a predisposition to non-homeostatic eating. Few studies have concurrently determined associations between sleep duration and objective measures of metabolic health as well as sleep duration and diet, however. We therefore analyzed associations between sleep duration, diet and metabolic health markers in UK adults, assessing associations between sleep duration and 1) adiposity, 2) selected metabolic health markers and 3) diet, using National Diet and Nutrition Survey data. Adults (n = 1,615, age 19–65 years, 57.1% female) completed questions about sleep duration and 3 to 4 days of food diaries. Blood pressure and waist circumference were recorded. Fasting blood lipids, glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), thyroid hormones, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured in a subset of participants. We used regression analyses to explore associations between sleep duration and outcomes. After adjustment for age, ethnicity, sex, smoking, and socioeconomic status, sleep duration was negatively associated with body mass index (-0.46 kg/m2 per hour, 95% CI -0.69 to -0.24 kg/m2, p < 0.001) and waist circumference (-0.9 cm per hour, 95% CI -1.5 to -0.3cm, p = 0.004), and positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.03 mmol/L per hour, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.05, p = 0.03). Sleep duration tended to be positively associated with free thyroxine levels and negatively associated with HbA1c and CRP (p = 0.09 to 0.10). Contrary to our hypothesis, sleep duration was not associated with any dietary measures (p ≥ 0.14). Together, our findings show that short-sleeping UK adults are more likely to have obesity, a disease with many comorbidities.



          Update 01/08/2017
          Last edited by Jo Bowyer; 01-08-2017, 01:33 PM.
          Jo Bowyer
          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

          Comment


          • #50
            Bidirectional, Temporal Associations of Sleep with Positive Events, Affect, and Stressors in Daily Life Across a Week

            https://link.springer.com/article/10...160-016-9864-y

            Abstract
            Background

            Sleep is intricately tied to emotional well-being, yet little is known about the reciprocal links between sleep and psychosocial experiences in the context of daily life.

            Purpose

            The aim of this study is to evaluate daily psychosocial experiences (positive and negative affect, positive events, and stressors) as predictors of same-night sleep quality and duration, in addition to the reversed associations of nightly sleep predicting next-day experiences.

            Methods

            Daily experiences and self-reported sleep were assessed via telephone interviews for eight consecutive evenings in two replicate samples of US employees (131 higher-income professionals and 181 lower-income hourly workers). Multilevel models evaluated within-person associations of daily experiences with sleep quality and duration. Analyses controlled for demographics, insomnia symptoms, the previous day’s experiences and sleep measures, and additional day-level covariates.

            Results

            Daily positive experiences were associated with improved as well as disrupted subsequent sleep. Specifically, positive events at home predicted better sleep quality in both samples, whereas greater positive affect was associated with shorter sleep duration among the higher-income professionals. Negative affect and stressors were unrelated to subsequent sleep. Results for the reversed direction revealed that better sleep quality (and, to a lesser degree, longer sleep duration) predicted emotional well-being and lower odds of encountering stressors on the following day.

            Conclusions

            Given the reciprocal relationships between sleep and daily experiences, efforts to improve well-being in daily life should reflect the importance of sleep.
            Keywords

            Sleep Daily stress Positive events Positive affect Negative affect
            Jo Bowyer
            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

            Comment


            • #51
              Constant Light Desynchronizes Olfactory versus Object and Visuospatial Recognition Memory Performance

              http://www.jneurosci.org/content/37/13/3555?etoc=
              Abstract

              Circadian rhythms optimize physiology and behavior to the varying demands of the 24 h day. The master circadian clock is located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus and it regulates circadian oscillators in tissues throughout the body to prevent internal desynchrony. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that, under standard 12 h:12 h light/dark (LD) cycles, object, visuospatial, and olfactory recognition performance in C57BL/6J mice is consistently better at midday relative to midnight. However, under repeated exposure to constant light (rLL), recognition performance becomes desynchronized, with object and visuospatial performance better at subjective midday and olfactory performance better at subjective midnight. This desynchrony in behavioral performance is mirrored by changes in expression of the canonical clock genes Period1and Period2 (Per1 and Per2), as well as the immediate-early gene Fos in the SCN, dorsal hippocampus, and olfactory bulb. Under rLL, rhythmic Per1 and Fos expression is attenuated in the SCN. In contrast, hippocampal gene expression remains rhythmic, mirroring object and visuospatial performance. Strikingly, Per1 and Fos expression in the olfactory bulb is reversed, mirroring the inverted olfactory performance. Temporal desynchrony among these regions does not result in arrhythmicity because core body temperature and exploratory activity rhythms persist under rLL. Our data provide the first demonstration that abnormal lighting conditions can give rise to temporal desynchrony between autonomous circadian oscillators in different regions, with different consequences for performance across different sensory domains. Such a dispersed network of dissociable circadian oscillators may provide greater flexibility when faced with conflicting environmental signals.

              SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A master circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus regulates physiology and behavior across the 24 h day by synchronizing peripheral clocks throughout the brain and body. Without the SCN, these peripheral clocks rapidly become desynchronized. Here, we provide a unique demonstration that, under lighting conditions in which the central clock in the SCN is dampened, peripheral oscillators in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb become desynchronized, along with the behavioral processes mediated by these clocks. Multiple clocks that adopt different phase relationships may enable processes occurring in different brain regions to be optimized to specific phases of the 24 h day. Moreover, such a dispersed network of dissociable circadian clocks may provide greater flexibility when faced with conflicting environmental signals (e.g., seasonal changes in photoperiod).
              What are the adaptive advantages of multiple dissociable oscillators? In nature, where resources and predators are encountered at varying times of day, anticipating the temporal regularities of these different events is essential to survival. Multiple clocks that adopt different phase relationships with one another may enable processes occurring in different regions to be optimized to specific phases of the 24 h cycle (Antle and Silver, 2009). Moreover, such a dispersed network of circadian oscillators may provide greater flexibility when faced with conflicting environmental signals.


              OK, we're not mice, but we do have some similarities. I used to work in situations, where I crossed time zones, worked 16 hour days and was on 24 hr call. It used to take me about three weeks to recover.

              Some of my patients are international business people and have horrendous schedules. Time was, when their companies would fly them out first or business class, this is increasingly rare nowadays.
              Jo Bowyer
              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

              Comment


              • #52
                Bmal1 function in skeletal muscle regulates sleep


                https://elifesciences.org/articles/26557


                Abstract


                Sleep loss can severely impair the ability to perform, yet the ability to recover from sleep loss is not well understood. Sleep regulatory processes are assumed to lie exclusively within the brain mainly due to the strong behavioral manifestations of sleep. Whole-body knockout of the circadian clock gene Bmal1 in mice affects several aspects of sleep, however, the cells/tissues responsible are unknown. We found that restoring Bmal1expression in the brains of Bmal1-knockout mice did not rescue Bmal1-dependent sleep phenotypes. Surprisingly, most sleep-amount, but not sleep-timing, phenotypes could be reproduced or rescued by knocking out or restoring BMAL1 exclusively in skeletal muscle, respectively. We also found that overexpression of skeletal-muscle Bmal1 reduced the recovery response to sleep loss. Together, these findings demonstrate that Bmal1expression in skeletal muscle is both necessary and sufficient to regulate total sleep amount and reveal that critical components of normal sleep regulation occur in muscle.
                Jo Bowyer
                Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                Comment


                • #53
                  Sleeping on the rubber-hand illusion: memory reactivation during sleep facilitates multisensory recalibration


                  https://academic.oup.com/nc/article-...1093/nc/niw020

                  Abstract

                  Plasticity is essential in body perception so that physical changes in the body can be accommodated and assimilated. Multisensory integration of visual, auditory, tactile, and proprioceptive signals contributes both to conscious perception of the body’s current state and to associated learning. However, much is unknown about how novel information is assimilated into body perception networks in the brain. Sleep-based consolidation can facilitate various types of learning via the reactivation of networks involved in prior encoding or through synaptic down-scaling. Sleep may likewise contribute to perceptual learning of bodily information by providing an optimal time for multisensory recalibration. Here we used methods for targeted memory reactivation (TMR) during slow-wave sleep (SWS) to examine the influence of sleep-based reactivation of experimentally induced alterations in body perception. The rubber-hand illusion (RHI) was induced with concomitant auditory stimulation in 24 healthy participants on 3 consecutive days. While each participant was sleeping in his or her own bed during intervening nights, electrophysiological detection of SWS prompted covert stimulation with either the sound heard during illusion induction, a counterbalanced novel sound, or neither. TMR systematically enhanced spatial recalibration of perceived hand location during subsequent inductions of the RHI. Illusory feelings of body ownership for the rubber hand also differed as a function of whether the novel or RHI-associated sound was played on the prior night. This evidence for sleep-based modulation of a body-perception illusion demonstrates that the recalibration of multisensory signals can be altered overnight to modify new learning of bodily representations. Sleep-based memory processing may thus constitute a fundamental component of body-image plasticity.
                  embodiment, slow-wave sleep, memory replay, consolidation, binding, multisensory integration
                  Jo Bowyer
                  Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                  "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                  Comment


                  • #54
                    A world between dream and reality: the science – and horror – of sleep paralysis

                    https://aeon.co/videos/a-world-betwe...af36d-69418129

                    Jo Bowyer
                    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                    Comment


                    • #55
                      Is ADHD Really a Sleep Problem?

                      http://neurosciencenews.com/adhd-sleep-7404/

                      • In 75% of ADHD patients, the physiological sleep phase — where people show the physiological signs associated with sleep, such as changes in the level of the sleep hormone melatonin, and changes in sleep-related movement – is delayed by 1.5 hours.
                      • Core body temperature changes associated with sleep are also delayed (reflecting melatonin changes)
                      • Many sleep-related disorders are associated with ADHD, including restless-leg syndrome, sleep apnea, and the circadian rhythm disturbance, the delayed sleep phase syndrome
                      • ADHD people often show greater alertness in the evening, which is the opposite of what is found in the general population
                      • Many sufferers benefit from taking melatonin in the evening or bright light therapy in the morning, which can help reset the circadian rhythm
                      • Recent work has shown that around 70% of adult ADHD sufferers show an oversensitivity of the eyes to light, leading many to wear sunglasses for long periods during the day – which may reinforce the problems associated with a ‘circadian shift’.
                      • Chronic late sleep leads to a chronic sleep debt, associated with obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. This cascade of negative health consequences may in part be preventable by resetting the sleep rhythm.
                      Jo Bowyer
                      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                      Comment


                      • #56
                        How feeling upset might increase pain after a bad night

                        http://www.bodyinmind.org/emotions-s...ody+in+Mind%29

                        Emotions, sleep and pain are interlinked; however, we understand little about how these aspects of our wellbeing are connected. Does a poor night’s sleep make us feel grumpy, which in turn makes our pain worse? Or does feeling sad in the first place make people less likely to recover from a poor night’s sleep and wake up with increased bodily pain? We set out to answer these questions in a cross-sectional study of 213 children and adolescents attending a specialist chronic pain clinic. The first question asks about mediation, or whether negative emotion explains the relationship between poor sleep and increased pain, while the second asks about moderation; that is, what amount of negative emotion is needed to make the relationship between poor sleep and pain even worse. This distinction is important, because if we know how feelings change sleep and pain then we can better tailor interventions to reduce pain. If negative emotion explains the general sleep-pain relationship, then modifying emotions should help most people’s pain. Alternatively, if only the grumpy feel the ill effects of poor sleep, then we might want to focus on interventions for people with high amounts of negative emotion.
                        Jo Bowyer
                        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                        Comment


                        • #57
                          Relationships between sleep duration, physical activity and body mass index in young New Zealanders: An isotemporal substitution analysis


                          http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0184472

                          Abstract

                          Background


                          The evidence regarding the unique effect of sedentary behaviour on obesity among children is unclear. Moreover, the effect of substituting sedentary behaviour with physical activity of different intensities on the body composition of children has received limited empirical study.

                          Objective


                          To examine the mathematical effects on Body Mass Index (BMI) of substituting sedentary behaviours with physical activities of different intensities on children and youth aged 5–14 years old in New Zealand.

                          Methods


                          Secondary analysis of accelerometer data from the National Survey of Children and Young People’s Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviours in New Zealand (2008/09) was conducted. A total of 1812 children and youth aged 5–24 years provided accelerometer-derived data on daily sedentary time (SB), light intensity physical activity (LPA) and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Sleep time was assessed with a validated computerised use-of-time tool. BMI was assessed using anthropometric measurements. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine the independent associations of SB, Sleep time, LPA, and MVPA on BMI. The isotemporal substitution approach was used to ascertain the mathematical effect of substituting each of the other behaviours on BMI. Analyses were stratified by age groups.

                          Results


                          SB showed a unique (inverse) association with BMI across all age groups (p<0.05) but 20–24 years (p>0.05). Similarly, MVPA was positively associated (p<0.001) across all age groups. Among age groups 5–9 years, 10–14 years and 15–19 years, the estimated impact of replacing 60 min/day of SB with the same amount of MVPA time resulted in decreased BMI for all age groups (p<0.001), ranging from -1.26 (5–9 years) to -1.43 units (15–19 years). Similar results were achieved when SB was replaced with LPA or sleeping time for children (5–19 years). In young people (age group 20–24), the impact of replacing 30 min/day of SB with MVPA resulted in an estimated -1 BMI units decrease (p<0.001).

                          Conclusion


                          MVPA and SB have a unique effect on BMI. Further, substituting SB with LPA or MVPA was associated with a favourable effect on BMI across all age groups; with MVPA having the strongest association.
                          These authors found that sleep duration didn't make a difference.
                          Jo Bowyer
                          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                          Comment


                          • #58
                            Meta-Analysis of the Antidepressant Effects of Acute Sleep Deprivation

                            http://www.psychiatrist.com/JCP/arti.../16r11332.aspx
                            Jo Bowyer
                            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                            Comment


                            • #59
                              Jellyfish Sleep Like the Rest of Us

                              http://neurosciencenews.com/sleep-jellyfish-7539/
                              Jo Bowyer
                              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                              Comment

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