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Controllability of structural brain networks

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  • #31
    Yes,

    I saw the PLOS paper. It is fairly close to home for me as I have a family member who takes on short term contracts and always gets short listed when his CV is read by a person, but can't get onto shortlists selected by algorithm.

    Diagnostic algorithms may have holes in them, which can be disastrous when hard pressed clinicians go into robot mode. Decades ago when I was carrying a respiratory bleep, I spent almost a minute listening for breath sounds before I realised that the patient was deceased. I was incredibly pressed for time, but no excuse.
    Jo Bowyer
    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

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    • #32
      Mnemonic Training Reshapes Brain Networks to Support Superior Memory

      http://www.cell.com/neuron/fulltext/...273(17)30087-9

      Highlights

      •Memory champions show distributed functional brain network connectivity changes

      •Mnemonic strategies for superior memory can be learned by naive subjects

      •Mnemonic training induces similarity with memory champion brain connectivity

      •Brain network dynamics of this effect differ between task and resting state
      Summary
      Memory skills strongly differ across the general population; however, little is known about the brain characteristics supporting superior memory performance. Here we assess functional brain network organization of 23 of the world’s most successful memory athletes and matched controls with fMRI during both task-free resting state baseline and active memory encoding. We demonstrate that, in a group of naive controls, functional connectivity changes induced by 6 weeks of mnemonic training were correlated with the network organization that distinguishes athletes from controls. During rest, this effect was mainly driven by connections between rather than within the visual, medial temporal lobe and default mode networks, whereas during task it was driven by connectivity within these networks. Similarity with memory athlete connectivity patterns predicted memory improvements up to 4 months after training. In conclusion, mnemonic training drives distributed rather than regional changes, reorganizing the brain’s functional network organization to enable superior memory performance.
      Junior doctors used to be able to do this. I remember someone writing an entire page from a textbook on Parkinsons Disease for me from memory, I wonder if the current generation can do this.

      Surgical trainees can still draw beautifully




      Only Three Fingers Write, but the Whole Brain Works†: A High-Density EEG Study Showing Advantages of Drawing Over Typing for Learning

      http://journal.frontiersin.org/artic...017.00706/full

      Are different parts of the brain active when we type on a keyboard as opposed to when we draw visual images on a tablet? Electroencephalogram (EEG) was used in young adults to study brain electrical activity as they were typing or describing in words visually presented PictionaryTM words using a keyboard, or as they were drawing pictures of the same words on a tablet using a stylus. Analyses of temporal spectral evolution (time-dependent amplitude changes) were performed on EEG data recorded with a 256-channel sensor array. We found that when drawing, brain areas in the parietal and occipital regions showed event related desynchronization activity in the theta/alpha range. Existing literature suggests that such oscillatory neuronal activity provides the brain with optimal conditions for learning. When describing the words using the keyboard, upper alpha/beta/gamma range activity in the central and frontal brain regions were observed, especially during the ideation phase. However, since this activity was highly synchronized, its relation to learning remains unclear. We concluded that because of the benefits for sensory-motor integration and learning, traditional handwritten notes are preferably combined with visualizations (e.g., small drawings, shapes, arrows, symbols) to facilitate and optimize learning.
      Introduction
      The general effectiveness of notetaking in educational settings is well-documented, but the evidence mainly stems from a time when laptop use in classrooms was not very common. Previous research has focused on how encoding affects learning (e.g., Kiewra, 1989). The encoding hypothesis proposes that the processing that occurs during notetaking enhances recall and retention. Notetaking can be generative (e.g., summarizing, reframing, paraphrasing) or non-generative (i.e., verbatim transcribing). Verbatim notetaking typically involves relatively shallow cognitive processing (Craik and Lockhart, 1972; Kiewra, 1985). Greater encoding benefits have been observed the more deeply information is processed during notetaking (DiVesta and Gray, 1973). Studies have shown that non-verbatim notetaking leads to better performance than verbatim notetaking, especially on conceptual items (Aiken et al., 1975; Bretzing and Kulhavy, 1979; Slotte and Lonka, 1999; Igo et al., 2005). Traditional laptop use, using the keyboard, promotes verbatim transcription of lecture content because most students can type much faster than they can write (Brown, 1988). Thus, typing may undermine the encoding benefits seen in past notetaking studies.
      09/05/2017
      Last edited by Jo Bowyer; 09-05-2017, 09:27 PM.
      Jo Bowyer
      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

      Comment


      • #33
        Potentiation of motor sub-networks for motor control but not working memory: Interaction of dACC and SMA revealed by resting-state directed functional connectivity

        http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0172531

        Abstract

        The dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex (dACC) and the Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) are known to interact during motor coordination behavior. We previously discovered that the directional influences underlying this interaction in a visuo-motor coordination task are asymmetric, with the dACC→SMA influence being significantly greater than that in the reverse direction. To assess the specificity of this effect, here we undertook an analysis of the interaction between dACC and SMA in two distinct contexts. In addition to the motor coordination task, we also assessed these effects during a (n-back) working memory task. We applied directed functional connectivity analysis to these two task paradigms, and also to the rest condition of each paradigm, in which rest blocks were interspersed with task blocks. We report here that the previously known asymmetric interaction between dACC and SMA, with dACC→SMA dominating, was significantly larger in the motor coordination task than the memory task. Moreover the asymmetry between dACC and SMA was reversed during the rest condition of the motor coordination task, but not of the working memory task. In sum, the dACC→SMA influence was significantly greater in the motor task than the memory task condition, and the SMA→dACC influence was significantly greater in the motor rest than the memory rest condition. We interpret these results as suggesting that the potentiation of motor sub-networks during the motor rest condition supports the motor control of SMA by dACC during the active motor task condition.
        Introduction

        How are brain networks potentiated for action? As with the muscles in the body, the potential for dynamics in the brain may be encoded in the relationship between the system’s rest state and its active state. This relationship has been extensively discussed in terms of the metabolic demands of the brain in both rest and task-active states, particularly from the perspective of the fMRI signal [1]. The explosion of interest in resting-state fMRI signals can in part be traced to these initial theoretical discussions. Nevertheless, much of resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI) research has been driven by the search for understanding default mode function in the brain [2], or in discovering network structure from spontaneous fluctuations in the fMRI signal [3, 4]. In large part, these initiatives have uncovered general structural constraints driving rsfMRI fluctuations that are spontaneous, induced by physiological stimulation [5], or constrained by task-active processing [6]. Yet, a parallel literature continues to investigate resting-state connectivity and its relationship to network function in the task-active state [7, 8]. These investigations indicate that functional connectivity between networks in the rest state, is predictive of the same in the task state [9].


        Is “Allostasis” The Brain’s Essential Function?......By Neuroskeptic May 5, 2017

        http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/ne.../#.WQ-RaojysdV

        A paper just published in Nature Human Behaviour makes some big claims about the brain. It’s called Evidence for a large-scale brain system supporting allostasis and interoception in humans, but how much is evidence and how much is speculation?

        The authors, Ian R. Kleckner and colleagues of Northeastern University, argue that a core function of the brain is allostasis, which they define as the process by which the brain “efficiently maintains energy regulation in the body”. Allostasis entails “anticipating the body’s energy needs [and] preparing to meet those needs before they arise.” Kleckner et al. point to “physical movements to cool the body’s temperature before it gets too hot” as one example of allostasis.

        A concept closely related to allostasis is interoception, the process by which the brain receives information about the body’s internal state from sensory nerves inside the body.
        There is a buzz around this paper at the moment. It's worth reading what NeuroSkeptic has to say and the comments following his piece.

        Update 07/05/2017
        Last edited by Jo Bowyer; 07-05-2017, 11:45 PM.
        Jo Bowyer
        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

        Comment

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