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  • #31
    Here's two more studies on the use of robots with people with dementia

    Unique Identifier 15106392
    Authors Libin A. Cohen-Mansfield J.

    Title Therapeutic robocat for nursing home residents with dementia: preliminary inquiry.

    Source American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease & Other Dementias. 19(2):111-6, 2004 Mar-Apr.

    Abstract

    Traditional pet therapy enhances individual well-being. However, there are situations where a substitute artificial companion (i.e., robotic pet) may serve as a better alternative because of insufficient available resources to care for a real pet, allergic responses to pets, or other difficulties. This pilot study, which compared the benefits of a robotic cat and a plush toy cat as interventions for elderly persons with dementia, was conducted at a special care unit of a large, not-for-profit nursing home. Various aspects of a person's engagement and affect were assessed through direct observations. Though not identical, similar trends were seen for the two cats. Interacting with the cats was linked with decreased agitation and increased pleasure and interest. The study is intended to pave the way for future research on robotherapy with nursing home residents.
    and

    Authors Tamura T. Yonemitsu S. Itoh A. Oikawa D. Kawakami A. Higashi Y. Fujimooto T. Nakajima K.

    Title Is an entertainment robot useful in the care of elderly people with severe dementia?.

    Source Journals of Gerontology Series A-Biological Sciences & Medical Sciences. 59(1):83-5, 2004 Jan.

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE: An entertainment robot was used as occupational therapy instead of animal-assisted therapy to avoid any danger or injury to the patient and maintain cleanliness. This study compared the effectiveness of a robot animal, AIBO, with a toy. METHOD: AIBO is made of metal and responds to spoken commands. We demonstrated AIBO to severely demented elderly people living in a geriatric home and observed their reactions. RESULTS: The most frequent reactions to AIBO consisted of looking at, communicating with, and caring for AIBO. The patients recognized that AIBO was a robot. However, once we dressed AIBO, the patients perceived AIBO as either a dog or a baby. Nevertheless, the presentation of AIBO resulted in positive outcomes for the severe dementia patients, including increased communication between the patients and AIBO. CONCLUSION: AIBO was clearly an effective rehabilitation tool in the treatment of severely demented patients.
    "I did a small amount of web-based research, and what I found is disturbing"--Bob Morris

    Comment


    • #32
      I think this thread is winding down and thanks to those that chimed in. I think there were some great insights. I'm left wondering about the value of the authenticity of the subjects in a relationship regardless of the authenticity of the relationship itself. Is it only the relationship that matters?

      The essay finishes with this

      One woman’s comment about AIBO, Sony’s household entertainment robot, is startling in what it suggests about the future of person-machine relationships: AIBO ‘is better than a real dog . . . It won’t do dangerous things, and it won’t betray you . . . Also, it won’t die suddenly and make you feel very sad.’ Relationships with computational creatures may be deeply compelling, perhaps educational. But they don’t teach us what we need to know about empathy, ambivalence and life lived in shades of grey. To say all of this about our love of our robots does not diminish their interest or importance. It just puts them in their place.
      I think this is very important and is my concern regarding the use of robots for therapeutic purposes. If we transfer behaviors born out of compassion to something that does not actually have it, will we then exert our compassion elsewhere to the benefit of all or will our compassion begin to fade like unpracticed language skills?
      "I did a small amount of web-based research, and what I found is disturbing"--Bob Morris

      Comment


      • #33
        Hi Jon,
        I think you are right about the authenticity of the subjects. At least in terms of a therapuetic relationship. As Barrett pointed out, there is an interaction that occurs between us and our patients that is dependant upon not only the pt.'s conscious and non-conscious behaviour but also our own. This interplay would be lost with a robotic therapy for mechanical pain. It would become a fix instead of a guidance through the process of resolution. Actually, maybe many of those in our profession treat like robots already, or at least try. The mimicry of the outward behaviour would not be able to mimic the non-conscious behaviour in my opinion.

        Thanks for this thread and podcast!
        Cory Blickenstaff, PT, OCS

        Pain Science and Sensibility Podcast
        Leaps and Bounds Blog
        My youtube channel

        Comment


        • #34
          I listened to Turkle’s comments n the podcast while in the air today and was struck by something she says she wrote down twenty years ago: In our culture of simulation the notion of authenticity is for us what sex was for the Victorians – Threat and Obsession, Taboo and Fascination.

          Precisely.
          Barrett L. Dorko

          Comment


          • #35
            Spine. 2006 May 1;31(10):E271-6. Related Articles, Links
            Stability of dynamic trunk movement.

            Granata KP, England SA.

            Musculoskeletal Biomechanics Laboratories, Department of Engineering Science & Mechanics, School of Biomedical Engineering & Science, Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. Granata@VT.edu

            STUDY DESIGN: Nonlinear systems analyses of trunk kinematics were performed to estimate control of dynamic stability during repetitive flexion and extension movements. OBJECTIVE: Determine whether movement pace and movement direction of dynamic trunk flexion and extension influence control of local dynamic stability. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Spinal stability has been previously characterized in static, but not in dynamic movements. Biomechanical models make inferences about static spinal stability, but existing analyses provide limited insight into stability of dynamic movement. Stability during dynamic movements can be estimated from Lyapunov analyses of empirical data. METHODS: There were 20 healthy subjects who performed repetitive trunk flexion and extension movements at 20 and 40 cycles per minute. Maximum Lyapunov exponents describing the expansion of the kinematic state-space were calculated from the measured trunk kinematics to estimate stability of the dynamic system. RESULTS: The complexity of torso movement dynamics required at least 5 embedded dimensions, which suggests that stability components of lumbar lordosis may be empirically measurable in addition to global stability of trunk dynamics. Repeated trajectories from fast paced movements diverged more quickly than slower movement, indicating that local dynamic stability is limited in fast movements. Movements in the midsagittal plane showed higher multidimensional kinematic divergence than asymmetric movements. CONCLUSION: Nonlinear dynamic systems analyses were successfully applied to empirically measured data, which were used to characterize the neuromuscular control of stability during repetitive dynamic trunk movements. Movement pace and movement direction influenced the control of spinal stability. These stability assessment techniques are recommended for improved workplace design and the clinical assessment of spinal stability in patients with low back pain.

            Publication Types:PMID: 16648732 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


            20/min or 40/min ! That's all I need for my human robots.
            Hope that the next generation will work at a better rate !
            Attached Files
            Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication. L VINCI
            We are to admit no more causes of natural things than such as are both true and sufficient to explain their appearances. I NEWTON

            Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not a bit simpler.
            If you can't explain it simply, you don't understand it well enough. Albert Einstein
            bernard

            Comment


            • #36
              Precisely indeed.

              The brain scan that can read people's intentions
              "I did a small amount of web-based research, and what I found is disturbing"--Bob Morris

              Comment


              • #37
                Since I've started this thread I've taken the opportunity to watch again for the first time "Blade Runner". Just so you know, the timeline for that story will be realized in just 12 years; although the neon sign advertising Atari in the background makes me think that that science future is surely fiction. (It wasn't the only clue.)

                My rumination has me wondering how all this relates to E.O. Wilson's Biophilia Hypothesis?

                Does our interest in AI, therapeutic robots, etc., support or undermine the hypothesis?
                "I did a small amount of web-based research, and what I found is disturbing"--Bob Morris

                Comment


                • #38
                  Jon,

                  I loved Blade Runner but it is essentially an action movie. I do not think that we will be able in a near future (12 years) to create such humanoids.

                  It becomes understandable that creatures wanted to meet their God and wanted to live.

                  It is a story by Philip K Dick Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep?

                  The book goes far deeper than the film and introduces a God notion that is discarded in the Ridley Scott Picture.
                  Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication. L VINCI
                  We are to admit no more causes of natural things than such as are both true and sufficient to explain their appearances. I NEWTON

                  Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not a bit simpler.
                  If you can't explain it simply, you don't understand it well enough. Albert Einstein
                  bernard

                  Comment


                  • #39
                    But Azimov brings more things and questions with his collection.
                    The Complete Robot (Robot Series)
                    Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication. L VINCI
                    We are to admit no more causes of natural things than such as are both true and sufficient to explain their appearances. I NEWTON

                    Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not a bit simpler.
                    If you can't explain it simply, you don't understand it well enough. Albert Einstein
                    bernard

                    Comment


                    • #40
                      One has to wonder what the world will come to. I saw a documentary recently, on CBC, The Perfect Fake, about artificial women.

                      (Gee. I wonder if this means women will one day create our own society free of men? A fantasy bonobo throwback?)
                      Diane
                      www.dermoneuromodulation.com
                      SensibleSolutionsPhysiotherapy
                      HumanAntiGravitySuit blog
                      Neurotonics PT Teamblog
                      Canadian Physiotherapy Pain Science Division (Archived newsletters, paincasts)
                      Canadian Physiotherapy Association Pain Science Division Facebook page
                      @PainPhysiosCan
                      WCPT PhysiotherapyPainNetwork on Facebook
                      @WCPTPTPN
                      Neuroscience and Pain Science for Manual PTs Facebook page

                      @dfjpt
                      SomaSimple on Facebook
                      @somasimple

                      "Rene Descartes was very very smart, but as it turned out, he was wrong." ~Lorimer Moseley

                      “Comment is free, but the facts are sacred.” ~Charles Prestwich Scott, nephew of founder and editor (1872-1929) of The Guardian , in a 1921 Centenary editorial

                      “If you make people think they're thinking, they'll love you, but if you really make them think, they'll hate you." ~Don Marquis

                      "In times of change, learners inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists" ~Roland Barth

                      "Doubt is not a pleasant mental state, but certainty is a ridiculous one."~Voltaire

                      Comment


                      • #41
                        Diane you're hilarious. I don't have a good segue after that.

                        I recently found this study and remain both obsessed and threatened. I think it is intersting on many levels despite the study design.
                        Attached Files
                        "I did a small amount of web-based research, and what I found is disturbing"--Bob Morris

                        Comment


                        • #42
                          I have a segue... here is an article about robotic physiotherapy. I found it on Eugene's PABC blog.
                          Yikes.
                          Diane
                          www.dermoneuromodulation.com
                          SensibleSolutionsPhysiotherapy
                          HumanAntiGravitySuit blog
                          Neurotonics PT Teamblog
                          Canadian Physiotherapy Pain Science Division (Archived newsletters, paincasts)
                          Canadian Physiotherapy Association Pain Science Division Facebook page
                          @PainPhysiosCan
                          WCPT PhysiotherapyPainNetwork on Facebook
                          @WCPTPTPN
                          Neuroscience and Pain Science for Manual PTs Facebook page

                          @dfjpt
                          SomaSimple on Facebook
                          @somasimple

                          "Rene Descartes was very very smart, but as it turned out, he was wrong." ~Lorimer Moseley

                          “Comment is free, but the facts are sacred.” ~Charles Prestwich Scott, nephew of founder and editor (1872-1929) of The Guardian , in a 1921 Centenary editorial

                          “If you make people think they're thinking, they'll love you, but if you really make them think, they'll hate you." ~Don Marquis

                          "In times of change, learners inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists" ~Roland Barth

                          "Doubt is not a pleasant mental state, but certainty is a ridiculous one."~Voltaire

                          Comment


                          • #43
                            Now a Segway would be nice.

                            The closest thing to these type of robots that most PTs have experience with is the CPM.
                            "I did a small amount of web-based research, and what I found is disturbing"--Bob Morris

                            Comment


                            • #44
                              I vaguely remember CPM.. something about continuous passive movement after knee replacements?
                              Diane
                              www.dermoneuromodulation.com
                              SensibleSolutionsPhysiotherapy
                              HumanAntiGravitySuit blog
                              Neurotonics PT Teamblog
                              Canadian Physiotherapy Pain Science Division (Archived newsletters, paincasts)
                              Canadian Physiotherapy Association Pain Science Division Facebook page
                              @PainPhysiosCan
                              WCPT PhysiotherapyPainNetwork on Facebook
                              @WCPTPTPN
                              Neuroscience and Pain Science for Manual PTs Facebook page

                              @dfjpt
                              SomaSimple on Facebook
                              @somasimple

                              "Rene Descartes was very very smart, but as it turned out, he was wrong." ~Lorimer Moseley

                              “Comment is free, but the facts are sacred.” ~Charles Prestwich Scott, nephew of founder and editor (1872-1929) of The Guardian , in a 1921 Centenary editorial

                              “If you make people think they're thinking, they'll love you, but if you really make them think, they'll hate you." ~Don Marquis

                              "In times of change, learners inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists" ~Roland Barth

                              "Doubt is not a pleasant mental state, but certainty is a ridiculous one."~Voltaire

                              Comment


                              • #45
                                Hi Diane, you've got that right about CPMs. Now for another abrupt segue.

                                I found this piece at the Edge.org

                                Falling in Love
                                "I did a small amount of web-based research, and what I found is disturbing"--Bob Morris

                                Comment

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