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  • #91
    Martin Seligman (also see this link), a psychologist and author of Learned Optimism, describes a phenomenon known as learned helplessness. In his early studies with dogs, he noticed that after having been shocked several times, with no mode of escape, the dogs eventually laid down and stopped attempting to avoid the shock.

    After the dogs had reached this state, they were put into a different cage that had a mode of escape. When exposed to the shock, they still did not try to escape. He hypothesized that they learned that nothing they did made a difference, so they quit trying.

    Soon the same phenomenon was shown to occur in humans (although they didn't use cages and shocks).

    An interesting finding in both groups was that 1/3 of the group in both the dogs and in humans did not develop learned helplessness. It was as it they were immune. 1/10 were helpless from the start.

    It was next shown that it was the explanations made for the situation which dictated ease with which helplessness occurred, which was expanded upon to show that the style or habits of explanation were most predictive.

    Those who were most likely to become helpless were those who used explanatory styles to explain negatives that were 1) permanent (I always fail) 2) pervasive (I fail at everything) 3) Personal (It's my fault that I fail)

    On the other hand, those that were not likely to become helpless had explanatory styles for negatives that were the opposite 1) temporary (I failed this time, but I usually don't) 2) Specific (I failed on this task, but don't on others) and 3) External (It wasn't my fault).

    Interestingly, those who are more likely to become helpless displayed the opposite style to describe positives. They were temporary, specific, and external. "It probably won't happen again, but on this one task, I got lucky.

    Those less likely to become helpless use permanent, pervasive, and personal explanatory styles for positives. "I always do good, at everything, because I'm good."

    Seligman says this on page 6:

    personal control means the ability to change things by one's voluntary actions; it is the opposite of helplessness.
    Now, go down to Jon Newman's last post, and read the abstract of the article he posted.

    Our explanations are contextual, and are indeed very important.

    Next week, I'll start on the last section: Outside-in neuromodulation.
    Last edited by BB; 06-10-2006, 06:33 AM.
    Cory Blickenstaff, PT, OCS

    Pain Science and Sensibility Podcast
    Leaps and Bounds Blog
    My youtube channel

    Comment


    • #92
      Check out the podcast title "How not to be unconscious"

      Hat tip: Philosopher's zone
      Last edited by Jon Newman; 06-01-2010, 05:22 AM.
      "I did a small amount of web-based research, and what I found is disturbing"--Bob Morris

      Comment


      • #93
        what type of schedule is available for physical therapists?

        what type of training is invloved?

        i would really appreciate it if someone can answer these two questions for me.

        Comment


        • #94
          Hi Susie, I have written you privately about this - check your message box.
          Diane
          www.dermoneuromodulation.com
          SensibleSolutionsPhysiotherapy
          HumanAntiGravitySuit blog
          Neurotonics PT Teamblog
          Canadian Physiotherapy Pain Science Division (Archived newsletters, paincasts)
          Canadian Physiotherapy Association Pain Science Division Facebook page
          @PainPhysiosCan
          WCPT PhysiotherapyPainNetwork on Facebook
          @WCPTPTPN
          Neuroscience and Pain Science for Manual PTs Facebook page

          @dfjpt
          SomaSimple on Facebook
          @somasimple

          "Rene Descartes was very very smart, but as it turned out, he was wrong." ~Lorimer Moseley

          “Comment is free, but the facts are sacred.” ~Charles Prestwich Scott, nephew of founder and editor (1872-1929) of The Guardian , in a 1921 Centenary editorial

          “If you make people think they're thinking, they'll love you, but if you really make them think, they'll hate you." ~Don Marquis

          "In times of change, learners inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists" ~Roland Barth

          "Doubt is not a pleasant mental state, but certainty is a ridiculous one."~Voltaire

          Comment


          • #95
            Thank you so much.

            Comment


            • #96
              In August of ’01 I started a thread on Rehab Edge now archived here titled "The Alien View-Consilience in physical therapy" that generated a few comments and an angry tirade from Jan Dummerholt, the “trigger point guy” who took great umbrage at my writing for reasons that remain unclear to me. I notice he didn’t last long on the web. Anyway, the thread recounted comments from E.O. Wilson regarding a distinct change in our vision of biologic systems from “outside in to inside out.”

              From the thread: Wilson defines Consilience in this way: “Consilience is the key to unification. I prefer this word over “coherence” because its rarity has preserved its precision, whereas coherence has several possible meanings, only one of which is consilience. William Whewell, in his 1840 synthesis The Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences, was the first to speak of consilience, literally a “jumping together” of knowledge by the linking of facts and fact-based theory across disciplines to create a common groundwork of explanation. He said, “The Consilience of Inductions takes place when an Induction, obtained from one class of facts, coincides with an Induction, obtained from another different class. This Consilience is a test of the truth of the Theory in which it occurs.”

              “The strongest appeal of consilience is in the prospect of intellectual adventure and, given even modest success, the value of understanding the human condition with a higher degree of certainty.” (Note from Barrett: I really like Wilson’s concession to uncertainty here. He reminds us in this way that science is about making the best possible sense out of a given series of observations. It is not about “knowing” anything for sure every time you propose something.)”

              I finished the first post with this: “A question: If an intelligent, alien life form were to carefully observe the human animal as Wilson suggests, much in the same way we have studied ants, would they be surprised to see patients in pain given strengthening exercises and little else for their problems?”

              This thread reminds me of Wilson’s work and, as it happens, he’s on the front cover of the current issue of Seed – Science is Culture magazine. In the article regarding his attempt to unify our knowledge of seemingly disparate disciplines he points out that the “many truths” popular in postmodern thought misrepresents the discovery of the Enlightenment – that all knowledge follows a logical process driven by a few natural laws. This is something the entire “alternative” medical community seems not to understand.

              Wilson says: “There is a truth that is expressed at the level of biochemistry, which is different than the truth expressed by Mendelian heredity, or elementary genetics. But the two truths are understandable with reference to each other through cause and effect explanation.” For instance, the understanding of molecules has its roots in the laws of physics and chemistry, and the molecular properties underlying biochemical pathways are the same ones that form the principles of genetics and heredity.

              Finding unifying principles, structures and processes to successful clinical work is a tall order but, I think, perfectly possible if therapists are willing to relinquish the techniques and tools they hold dear simply because of their familiarity and the notion that “doing something” is a big part of their job and the patient’s expectation.

              My hope is that therapists eventually come to understand that knowing more will translate to doing less – that attention to the ectoderm will result in our mutual discovery in the gift of corrective movement it will offer and express when we finally understand its presence.
              Last edited by Barrett Dorko; 11-10-2006, 04:33 PM.
              Barrett L. Dorko

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              • #97
                Barrett,
                Thanks to your writing, and that of others here as well, I now am able to do much less. If someone were reading that sentence without knowing the context, they wouldn't know it was a compliment. More evidence for the importance of context!

                I've been dragging my feet for a couple of days because I've been thinking of adding another topic to the last section. I'm going to push ahead, start another thread about this topic, and possibly insert it later.

                Moving on....
                Cory Blickenstaff, PT, OCS

                Pain Science and Sensibility Podcast
                Leaps and Bounds Blog
                My youtube channel

                Comment


                • #98
                  Outside-in neuromodulation

                  I've been struggling to find the best way to start this section. I'm going to start with some of the findings of Eric Kandel. Kandel was awarded a Nobel prize for his work with the nervous system of the sea slug Apysia in application to memory.

                  His book In Search of Memory not only provides insight into his thoughts on his discoveries, it is also a great history of neuroscience. He began by wanting to demonstrate the neural substrate for implicit learning. Especially that of Habituation, sensitization, and classical conditioning.

                  First they found that synaptic connections can be strengthened and weakened based different patterns of activity. The analogs of classical conditioning and sensitization strengthened a synaptic connection, while habituation weakened it.

                  From p. 171:
                  This suggested that synaptic plasticity is built into the very nature of the chemical synapse, its molecular architecture.
                  After they had catalogued the behavior reportoire of Aplysia they were then able to show this same effect on its behavior. These response were short term however. A correlate for short term memory constructed into the smallest unit of the nervous system, the neuron, had been demonstrated.

                  This is important for us clinically. The mere presence of a signal going through a synapse strengthens its connection.

                  Next, they wanted to know more about long-term memory at the level of the neuron....
                  Cory Blickenstaff, PT, OCS

                  Pain Science and Sensibility Podcast
                  Leaps and Bounds Blog
                  My youtube channel

                  Comment


                  • #99
                    One question that had been posed was whether or not long-term memory used different synapses than short term memory or the same ones. The answer turned out to be both.

                    From p. 215 of In Search of Memory:

                    Consistent with the one-process theory, the same site can give rise to both short-term and long-term memory in habituation and siensitization. Moreover, in each case a change in synaptic strength occurs. But consistent with the two-process theory, the mechansims of short and long-term change are funcamentally different. Short-term memory produces a change in the function of the synapse, strengthening or eakening preexisting connections; long-term memory requires anatomical changes. Repeated sensitization training (practice) causes neurons to grow new terminals, giving rise to long-term memory, whereas habituation causes neurons to retract existing terminals. Thus, by producing profound structural changes, learning can make inactive synapses active or active synapses inactive.
                    These profound findings showed how experience physically changes us, right down to the fundamental unit of the nervous system. Just think, when you are working with your patients and causing long-term memories, you are physically altering their nervous system.

                    From p. 218:
                    Even identical twins with identical genes have different brains because of their different life experiences. Thus, a principle of cell biology that first emerged from the study of a simple snail turned out to be a profound contributor to the biological basis of human individuality.
                    They next were interested in finding out why memory consolidation required the synthesis of new proteins needed to grow new axon terminals...
                    Cory Blickenstaff, PT, OCS

                    Pain Science and Sensibility Podcast
                    Leaps and Bounds Blog
                    My youtube channel

                    Comment


                    • As Kandel's group delved into cellular biology, they began to discover the chemical substrates of memory. They discovered that cyclic AMP was the molecule responsible for short term synaptic strengthening- sensitization and was mediated by seratonin releasing interneurons.

                      While one instance of stimulation would cause short term sensitivity of the synapses, it would not cause the anatomical changes needed for long-term sensitivity. 5 shocks of stimulation however would.

                      To make a long (but very interesting) story short, they were able to trace the chemical reactions back to the nucleus of the cell. There they were able to show that long term memory changes were the result of stimulating the expression of a gene in the DNA of the cell.

                      Imagine that. When you cause long-term memory change in your patients, you are causing change on the genetic level! Remember, we are talking memory in terms of sensitivity of a single neuron. When you perform manual therapy you are not just manipulating skin, muscle, and bone. You are manipulating genes!
                      Cory Blickenstaff, PT, OCS

                      Pain Science and Sensibility Podcast
                      Leaps and Bounds Blog
                      My youtube channel

                      Comment


                      • An interest to Kandel, with his focus on memory, were some discoveries involving the hippocampus. Long-term potentiation and place cells.

                        Long-term potentiation was interesting to him because it involved a mechanism for learning that was located deep within the brain in an area involved in explicit memory. It turned out to involve gene regulated protein synthesis in a similar way that he had discovered implicitly encoded in neurons.

                        We talked about place cells earlier when we discussed the hippocampus (see inside-out modulation).

                        From p. 282 In Search of Memory:

                        the pattern of action potentials in these neurons is so distinctively related to a particular area of space that O'Keefe referred to them as "place cells." Soon after O'Keefe's discovery, experiments with rodents showed that damage to the hippocampus severely compromises the animals' ability to learn a task that relies on spatial information. This finding indicated that the spatial map plays a central role in spatial cognition, our awareness of the environment around us.
                        Through studies in genetically altered mice, Kandel's group was able to demonstrate that long-term potentiation was the process responsible for maintaining the representational maps of spatial awareness.

                        I wanted to include this because it demonstrates consistency through the mechanical units that make up both implicit and explicit memory.
                        Cory Blickenstaff, PT, OCS

                        Pain Science and Sensibility Podcast
                        Leaps and Bounds Blog
                        My youtube channel

                        Comment


                        • One other finding from Kandel's lab that I wanted to mention. They found a prion-like molecule called CPEB, responsible for local protein synthesis involved in sensitivity, in the synapses that can be converted to an active state by seratonin.

                          from p. 273:
                          the second way the prions differ from other proteins is that the dominant form is self-perpetuating
                          p. 274:
                          Self-perpetuation of a protein that is critical for local protein synthesis allows information to be stored selectively and in perpetuity at one synapse, and not, Kausik soon discovered, at the many others that a neuron makes with its target cells.
                          What I thought about when I read this was, this prion-like protein, while I'm sure it is very useful in memory, may be responsible for the persistance of pain in many of the tough patients. I thought of the folks Nari sees day to day.
                          Cory Blickenstaff, PT, OCS

                          Pain Science and Sensibility Podcast
                          Leaps and Bounds Blog
                          My youtube channel

                          Comment


                          • Cory,

                            The prion apparently is more important than usually thought, and there is a long section in a magazine about the effects of prions and altered sensitivity.
                            All I need to do is find that reference....

                            Christof Koch is working along the same lines as Kandal; Koch proposes that short term memory and consciousness are intricately linked and one cannot exist without the other. However, moderately severe ST memory loss does not mean that a person cannot learn...so I've yet to link all this stuff together.
                            Koch's theory suggests that animals have consciousness as well...

                            Re complex pain patients - it would be good to find out more on prions, even thought it may not change our approaches.

                            Nari

                            Comment


                            • I found this article, and thought it might find a home here: Left and Right Hands Rely on Different Senses. It immediately struck me that if this is true, part of the job of being a manual therapist is to synchronize one's own brain to be able to feel the same way and do the same thing and compare the feedback coming in through both hands, symmetricalize them for the patient's benefit. I'm a single-handed (visual) typist, but a reasonably bi-manual (kinesthetic) therapist. I'm not sure what to make of any of this, or if any of it is the slightest bit important in the long run.
                              Diane
                              www.dermoneuromodulation.com
                              SensibleSolutionsPhysiotherapy
                              HumanAntiGravitySuit blog
                              Neurotonics PT Teamblog
                              Canadian Physiotherapy Pain Science Division (Archived newsletters, paincasts)
                              Canadian Physiotherapy Association Pain Science Division Facebook page
                              @PainPhysiosCan
                              WCPT PhysiotherapyPainNetwork on Facebook
                              @WCPTPTPN
                              Neuroscience and Pain Science for Manual PTs Facebook page

                              @dfjpt
                              SomaSimple on Facebook
                              @somasimple

                              "Rene Descartes was very very smart, but as it turned out, he was wrong." ~Lorimer Moseley

                              “Comment is free, but the facts are sacred.” ~Charles Prestwich Scott, nephew of founder and editor (1872-1929) of The Guardian , in a 1921 Centenary editorial

                              “If you make people think they're thinking, they'll love you, but if you really make them think, they'll hate you." ~Don Marquis

                              "In times of change, learners inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists" ~Roland Barth

                              "Doubt is not a pleasant mental state, but certainty is a ridiculous one."~Voltaire

                              Comment


                              • Diane,

                                This is proof positive that therapists should become jugglers - not to "juggle their pain away," as they continue to suggest on the NOI site, but in order to enhance their manual sensitivities (and consequent skills) to a higher degree.

                                You may recal that in Nanaimo I performed Mills Mess without a drop, which impressed even me. I'm waiting for just the right venue and class to do that again, but I find such a thing very rare.
                                Barrett L. Dorko

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