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Premotor Symptoms as Predictors of Outcome in Parkinsons Disease: A Case-Control Study

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  • #46
    Appendix Removal May Lower Parkinson’s Risk

    https://neurosciencenews.com/appendix-parkinsons-10128/

    “Our results point to the appendix as a site of origin for Parkinson’s and provide a path forward for devising new treatment strategies that leverage the gastrointestinal tract’s role in the development of the disease,” said Viviane Labrie, Ph.D., an assistant professor at Van Andel Research Institute (VARI) and senior author of the study. “Despite having a reputation as largely unnecessary, the appendix actually plays a major part in our immune systems, in regulating the makeup of our gut bacteria and now, as shown by our work, in Parkinson’s disease.”

    The reduced risk for Parkinson’s was only apparent when the appendix and the alpha-synuclein contained within it were removed early in life, years before the onset of Parkinson’s, suggesting that the appendix may be involved in disease initiation. Removal of the appendix after the disease process starts, however, had no effect on disease progression.
    Jo Bowyer
    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

    Comment


    • #47
      Motor planning error in Parkinson's disease and its clinical correlates

      https://journals.plos.org/plosone/ar...l.pone.0202228

      Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) present with motor disorders, such as resting tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural instability [1], and other typical motor symptoms showing abnormal gait freezing gait, and motor coordination deficits [1, 2]. Some cognitive dysfunctions may be observed in addition to these motor symptoms. A representative cognitive dysfunction is decline in executive function, which is a part of frontal brain function and refers to the cognitive control of behavior: selecting and successfully monitoring behaviors that facilitate the attainment of chosen goals. Lezak has stated that executive function includes goal setting, motor planning, and effective motor execution [3]. Some previous studies reported that individuals with PD have decreased brain ability in the frontal lobe and striatum [4, 5], thus influencing their cognitive dysfunction [68].
      Jo Bowyer
      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

      Comment


      • #48
        Cognition among individuals along a spectrum of increased risk for Parkinson’s disease

        https://journals.plos.org/plosone/ar...l.pone.0201964

        In Parkinson’s disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, motor symptoms constitute the core diagnostic criteria[1]. However, the pathophysiological changes of PD begin years to decades before clear-cut motor symptoms manifest[2]. These manifestations include a cluster of at-risk characteristics or prodromal manifestations. Therefore, the definition of PD has been extended to include individuals considered at-risk for PD. These fall along a broad spectrum of risk: asymptomatic carriers of mutations associated with PD, as well as individuals with prodromal non-motor clinical signs/symptoms, biomarker findings, or genetic polymorphisms that alone or in combination predict increased risk for PD to varying degrees[3].

        In many cases among individuals at-risk for PD, the course/progression to the motor manifestations of PD aligns well, both anatomically and temporally, with the neuropathological staging system proposed by Braak[4,5], as follows: (1) In Braak stage I, involvement of the olfactory tubercle and medulla manifests clinically with hyposmia (i.e., impaired olfaction), reduced heart rate variability, and other manifestations of autonomic dysfunction; (2) In Braak stage II, there is involvement of more rostral brainstem structures, including the serotonergic dorsal raphe nuclei, which clinically may manifest with anxiety and depression, and the glutamatergic peri-locus coeruleus, which has been hypothesized to lead to REM sleep behavior disorder [RBD]. Involvement of norepinephrine-producing neurons in the locus coeruleus at this stage may also mediate subtle abnormalities in cognition [e.g., attention and working memory] reported in the prodromal PD state[6].
        Jo Bowyer
        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

        Comment


        • #49
          Road to cell death more clearly identified for Parkinson's disease

          https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...1102094823.htm
          Jo Bowyer
          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

          Comment


          • #50
            Singing may reduce stress, improve motor function for people with Parkinson's disease

            https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...1107111853.htm

            The research builds upon the team's previous findings that singing is an effective treatment to improve respiratory control and the muscles used for swallowing in people with Parkinson's disease. The prevalence of Parkinson's disease is expected to double over the next 20 years. ISU researchers say therapeutic singing has the potential to provide an accessible and affordable treatment option to improve motor symptoms, stress and quality of life for people with Parkinson's disease.

            In this video from 2017, Stegemöller leads a singing group for people with Parkinson's disease: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HNmm3uvYo_c
            Jo Bowyer
            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

            Comment


            • #51
              Design and development of a gait training system for Parkinson’s disease

              https://journals.plos.org/plosone/ar...l.pone.0207136
              Jo Bowyer
              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

              Comment


              • #52
                Metabolomic investigations in cerebrospinal fluid of Parkinson's disease

                https://journals.plos.org/plosone/ar...l.pone.0208752

                Parkinson´s disease (PD) is a severe neurodegenerative disease with a prevalence of 0.6% in 65 to 69 years old population that increases up to 3.5% in the population between 85 and 89 years old [1]. The clinical diagnosis relies on the typical cardinal symptoms: resting tremor, bradykinesia, and rigidity. Hallmark of pathophysiological events is the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons, but symptoms appear when at least 60–80% of dopaminergic neurons are lost [2]. Up to date, early diagnostic biomarkers are lacking [3], therefore emerging interest is moving towards metabolic changes due to disease. Consequently, recent research is focusing on metabolomics to uncover early metabolic events in PD by the use of different analytical technologies.
                Jo Bowyer
                Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                Comment


                • #53
                  Antagonist muscle activity during reactive balance responses is elevated in Parkinson’s disease and in balance impairment

                  https://journals.plos.org/plosone/ar...l.pone.0211137

                  Abnormal antagonist leg muscle activity could indicate increased muscle co-contraction and clarify mechanisms of balance impairments in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Prior studies in carefully selected patients showed PD patients demonstrate earlier, longer, and larger antagonist muscle activation during reactive balance responses to perturbations.
                  Jo Bowyer
                  Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                  "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                  Comment


                  • #54
                    The Emerging Evidence of the Parkinson Pandemic

                    https://content.iospress.com/article...ease/jpd181474



                    For most of history, Parkinson disease was a rare disorder. In 1855, forty years after Dr. James Parkinson first described the condition, approximately 22 people of 15 million in England and Wales died of the condition [2]. In 2014, roughly 5,000 to 10,000 individuals of 65 million in the United Kingdom suffered the same fate [3]. In less than two centuries, a rare disorder became common.

                    According to the Global Burden of Disease study, neurological disorders are currently the leading source of disability around the world, and the fastest growing of these disorders (in age-standardized rates of prevalence, disability, and deaths) is Parkinson disease [4].
                    Though non-infectious, the Parkinson pandemic exhibits many of the characteristics of a pandemic [13]. Pandemics extend over large geographic areas, and Parkinson disease is increasing in every major region of the world [9]. Pandemics also tend to migrate, and the burden of Parkinson disease, while increasing everywhere, appears to be shifting in response to changes in aging and industrialization. Indeed, one study concluded that the burden, driven by demographic changes, would shift from the West to the East, especially China [14]. Like other pandemics, the Parkinson pandemic is experiencing exponential growth, and no one is immune to the condition.

                    More generally, the Parkinson pandemic is similar to the pandemic of non-communicable diseases as articulated by Allen [15]. He argues that many chronic conditions (e.g., diabetes) that are now leading sources of death and disability in the world “are actually communicable conditions, and although the vectors of disease are nontraditional, the pandemic label is apt” [15]. Social, political, and economic trends are fueling the rise of many non-communicable conditions, and the “various ‘vectors of disease’ include ultraprocessed food and drink, alcohol, tobacco products, and wider social and environmental changes that limit physical activity” [15].


                    The pandemic’s causes


                    The Parkinson pandemic is fueled by aging populations, increasing longevity, declining smoking rates, and the by-products of industrialization. The incidence of Parkinson disease increases with age and rises sharply at around age 65 [16]. The world’s population is aging, as the number and proportion of individuals over 65 is rapidly increasing (Fig. 1). The combined result of these two factors is an unprecedented rise in the number of people with Parkinson disease.
                    Jo Bowyer
                    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                    Comment


                    • #55
                      The search for environmental causes of Parkinson's disease moves forward

                      https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0131125957.htm
                      Jo Bowyer
                      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                      Comment


                      • #56
                        Phase-Dependent Suppression of Beta Oscillations in Parkinson's Disease Patients

                        http://www.jneurosci.org/content/39/6/1119.full

                        Synchronized oscillations within and between brain areas facilitate normal processing, but are often amplified in disease. A prominent example is the abnormally sustained beta-frequency (∼20 Hz) oscillations recorded from the cortex and subthalamic nucleus of Parkinson's disease patients.
                        Obviously early days, but an interesting approach.
                        Jo Bowyer
                        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                        Comment


                        • #57
                          The involvement of the gut in Parkinson's disease: hype or hope?

                          https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0207115006.htm
                          Jo Bowyer
                          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                          Comment


                          • #58
                            Can We Repair the Brain? Using Stem Cells to Treat Parkinson’s

                            https://neurosciencenews.com/parkins...m-cells-10750/

                            The most common PD treatment today is based on enhancing the activity of the nigro-striatal pathway in the brain with dopamine-modulating therapies, thereby increasing striatal dopamine levels and improving motor impairment associated with the disease. However, this treatment has significant long-term limitations and side effects. Stem cell technologies show promise for treating PD and may play an increasing role in alleviating at least the motor symptoms, if not others, in the decades to come.
                            Jo Bowyer
                            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                            Comment


                            • #59
                              Altered brain activity patterns of Parkinson's captured in mice

                              https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0219132911.htm

                              Parkinson's disrupts the basal ganglia, a set of nuclei that relays information from the wrinkled cortex to brain areas important for movement control. A nucleus known as the striatum acts as the primary input hub for the entire structure. Marked by a steep decline in the chemical messenger dopamine and cells that make it, Parkinson's robs the basal ganglia of the tools it needs to function properly and pushes the striatum into pathological hyperactivity.

                              "When you take dopamine away, the cells reorganize, and that reorganization leads to most of the symptoms of Parkinson's," said Prof. Gordon Arbuthnott, senior author of the study and principal investigator of the OIST Brain Mechanism for Behaviour Unit. The research, published online on January 30, 2019 by the European Journal of Neuroscience, suggests that the striatal neurons' normal pattern of activity warps when the cells are starved of dopamine. The pattern becomes dominated by one particular subset of cells, often firing in sync.
                              Jo Bowyer
                              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                              Comment

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