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  • #46
    Neck/shoulder discomfort due to visually demanding experimental near work is influenced by previous neck pain, task duration, astigmatism, internal eye discomfort and accommodation


    http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0182439


    Abstract


    Visually demanding near work can cause eye discomfort, and eye and neck/shoulder discomfort during, e.g., computer work are associated. To investigate direct effects of experimental near work on eye and neck/shoulder discomfort, 33 individuals with chronic neck pain and 33 healthy control subjects performed a visual task four times using four different trial lenses (referred to as four different viewing conditions), and they rated eye and neck/shoulder discomfort at baseline and after each task. Since symptoms of eye discomfort may differ depending on the underlying cause, two categories were used; internal eye discomfort, such as ache and strain, that may be caused by accommodative or vergence stress; and external eye discomfort, such as burning and smarting, that may be caused by dry-eye disorders. The cumulative performance time (reflected in the temporal order of the tasks), astigmatism, accommodation response and concurrent symptoms of internal eye discomfort all aggravated neck/shoulder discomfort, but there was no significant effect of external eye discomfort. There was also an interaction effect between the temporal order and internal eye discomfort: participants with a greater mean increase in internal eye discomfort also developed more neck/shoulder discomfort with time. Since moderate musculoskeletal symptoms are a risk factor for more severe symptoms, it is important to ensure a good visual environment in occupations involving visually demanding near work.
    Jo Bowyer
    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

    Comment


    • #47
      Occupational Strain as a Risk for Hip Osteoarthritis


      https://www.aerzteblatt.de/int/archi...icle?id=193165


      A systematic review of risk assessment



      Background: Multiple epidemiological studies have revealed an association between occupational physical strain and the risk of developing hip osteoarthritis.

      Methods: To determine the association between the lifting and carrying of heavy loads or other physically demanding work and the risk of hip osteoarthritis (HOA) or total hip replacement (THR), we systematically searched the literature for primary studies on the effects of exposure to physical strain and meta-analytically reviewed the results that were amenable to comparisons across studies. We separately assessed studies that had hip pain as an endpoint.

      Results: 5 cohort studies and 18 case–control studies were found suitable for inclusion. The lifting of heavy loads increases the risk of HOA or THR: exposure doubles the risk in men (relative risk [RR] 2.09, 95% confidence interval [1.4; 3.1]) and increases it by roughly 40% in women (RR 1.41 [1.0; 1.9]). Physically demanding work consisting of a combination of activities of various kinds (dealing with heavy loads, heavy manual work, or prolonged walking and standing) increases the risk by roughly 150% in men (RR 2.46 [1.3; 4.8]) and 40% in women (RR 1.38 [0.9; 2.2]). Hip pain was also reported more commonly in the exposed groups.

      Conclusion: The studies are moderately to highly heterogeneous. An association exists between years of lifting heavy loads or other kinds of physical strain on the job and the risk of developing osteoarthritis of the hip. The greater the exposure, the greater the risk. The evidence base for risk assessment in women is currently inadequate.
      Jo Bowyer
      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

      Comment


      • #48
        Ladders and lifting: How gender affects safety behaviors in the fire service

        http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/...0.2017.1358642 Abstract

        This research explores the degree to which gender affects safety behaviors and outcomes in the fire service. Semistructured focus groups and interviews were conducted based on findings from the literature on women and gender in the fire service. Four focus groups (N = 22) and eight interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded using NVivo 10 software. This methodology explored if female gender improves safety behaviors through (1) weighing the risks and benefits of dangerous situations, (2) focusing on biomechanics and technique, (3) asking for help, (4) being motivated to report injuries, (5) being heard by colleagues, and (6) illuminating a hostile work environment’s contribution to safety. Participants report that women have less of a “tough guy” attitude than their male colleagues and felt that deviating from the modernist American hyper-masculine norm may have a positive impact on their work practices and injury outcomes. If women in the fire service perceive risk differently than their male colleagues, perhaps strengthening efforts to recruit women and creating a culture that values their perspective will improve the occupation’s overall safety outcomes. Further research is necessary to quantify these gender differences and their relationship to safety outcomes.
        KEYWORDS: Fire service, gender, safety, women firefighters
        Jo Bowyer
        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

        Comment


        • #49
          Physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout: A systematic review of prospective studies


          http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0185781


          Abstract


          Burnout is a syndrome that results from chronic stress at work, with several consequences to workers’ well-being and health. This systematic review aimed to summarize the evidence of the physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout in prospective studies. The PubMed, Science Direct, PsycInfo, SciELO, LILACS and Web of Science databases were searched without language or date restrictions. The Transparent Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed. Prospective studies that analyzed burnout as the exposure condition were included. Among the 993 articles initially identified, 61 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and 36 were analyzed because they met three criteria that must be followed in prospective studies. Burnout was a significant predictor of the following physical consequences: hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, hospitalization due to cardiovascular disorder, musculoskeletal pain, changes in pain experiences, prolonged fatigue, headaches, gastrointestinal issues, respiratory problems, severe injuries and mortality below the age of 45 years. The psychological effects were insomnia, depressive symptoms, use of psychotropic and antidepressant medications, hospitalization for mental disorders and psychological ill-health symptoms. Job dissatisfaction, absenteeism, new disability pension, job demands, job resources and presenteeism were identified as professional outcomes. Conflicting findings were observed. In conclusion, several prospective and high-quality studies showed physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout. The individual and social impacts of burnout highlight the need for preventive interventions and early identification of this health condition in the work environment.
          Jo Bowyer
          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

          Comment


          • #50
            Association of objectively measured arm inclination with shoulder pain: A 6-month follow-up prospective study of construction and health care workers


            http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0188372

            Abstract

            Objectives


            The aim was to determine the association of occupational arm inclination with shoulder pain in construction and health care workers.

            Methods


            Arm inclination relative to the vertical was measured with an accelerometer placed on the dominant upper arm for up to four full days at baseline in 62 construction workers and 63 health care workers. The pain intensity in the shoulder and mechanical and psychosocial work factors were measured by self-reports at baseline and prospectively after 6 months. The associations between exposures and shoulder pain were analyzed with multilevel mixed-effects linear regressions.

            Results


            For the total study population working with the dominant arm at inclinations > 30° and >120° was associated with lower levels of shoulder pain both cross-sectionally and after 6 months. Associations were attenuated when adjusting for individual and social factors, psychological state, and exposure during leisure time, especially for the high inclination levels. Analyses, only including subjects with no pain at baseline revealed no significant associations. While stratified analysis showed negative associations in the construction worker group, there were no significant association in health care workers. Compared to the number of hypotheses tested, the number of significant findings was low. Adjustment by Bonferroni-correction made almost all findings insignificant.

            Conclusions


            All analyses reflected a negative association between arm inclination and shoulder pain, but few analyses showed these associations to be statistically significant. If there is a relationship between arm inclination and shoulder pain, these findings could indicate that pain-avoidance may modify how workers perform their tasks.
            Jo Bowyer
            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

            Comment


            • #51
              AI insights could help reduce injuries in construction industry

              https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...1219091050.htm

              Studies using motion sensors and AI software have revealed expert bricklayers use previously unidentified techniques to limit the loads on their joints, knowledge that can now be passed on to apprentices in training programs.

              "The people in skilled trades learn or acquire a kind of physical wisdom that they can't even articulate," said Carl Haas, a professor of civil and environmental engineering at Waterloo. "It's pretty amazing and pretty important."

              Surprisingly, the research shows master masons don't follow the standard ergonomic rules taught to novices. Instead, they develop their own ways of working quickly and safely.

              Examples include more swinging than lifting of blocks and less bending of their backs.

              "They're basically doing the work twice as fast with half the effort -- and they're doing it with higher quality," said Haas, who leads the research with Eihab Abdel-Rahman, a systems design engineering professor at Waterloo. "It's really intriguing."

              In their first study, the researchers analyzed data from bricklayers of various experience levels who wore sensor suits while building a wall with concrete blocks. The data showed experts put less stress on their bodies, but were able to do much more work.

              This would have been passed on during the original seven year apprenticeships. Nowadays young people spend far more time in the classroom than they do working with masters.
              Jo Bowyer
              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

              Comment


              • #52
                Factors associated with the prevalence of back pain and work absence in shipyard workers


                https://bmcmusculoskeletdisord.biome...891-018-1931-z

                Background


                Workers involved in manufacturing often labor in physically harsh environments. Low back pain arising from ergonomic exposures at work is an important cause of disability [1]. Of all 291 conditions studied in the Global Burden of Disease 2010 Study, low back pain ranked highest in terms of causing disability [2]. Musculoskeletal disorders due to continuous load bearing cause work absences that decrease the productivity not only of workers but also of companies [3, 4]. It was previously reported that musculoskeletal disorders caused high absence rates in company employees [5]. Thus, it is important to identify risk factors for these disorders in the areas of lifestyle and the work environment, and to educate workers about these factors to reduce their vulnerability.

                Workers experience various musculoskeletal difficulties related to occupational and psychosocial factors [6, 7]. Andersen et al. reported that musculoskeletal pain, especially hand or wrist pain and low back pain, was a risk factor for long-term work absence. They also pointed out that neck and shoulder pain was common in white collar workers [8, 9]. In particular, the prevalence of low back pain was found to be relatively high among shipyard workers [10], and was influenced by psychological and psychosocial factors [11, 12]. Low back pain causes both absence from work [13] and low productivity. Therefore, an appropriate approach to musculoskeletal disorders such as low back pain is critically important [14, 15, 16].

                Several disorders have been reported among shipyard workers [17, 18, 19]. In particular, the prevalence rate of musculoskeletal disorders in shipyard workers is estimated to be high because they must often adopt awkward postures and lift heavy loads. However, very few studies have investigated this population’s experience with musculoskeletal disorders, namely injuries or pain in the bones and joints, and related medical consultations [20, 21].

                The purpose of this study was first to conduct a questionnaire survey of shipyard workers, and based on the results, to evaluate the factors associated with the prevalence of back pain and work absence due to back pain in shipyard workers.

                This study obtained data on (1) each subject’s lifestyle and exercise habits, work environment, medical history, history of absence from work, and sites of musculoskeletal disorders and resulting difficulties; and (2) the relationship between back pain and subjects’ lifestyle and exercise habits.
                Jo Bowyer
                Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                Comment


                • #53
                  Risk factors for neck pain among forklift truck operators: a retrospective cohort study

                  https://bmcmusculoskeletdisord.biome...891-018-1956-3

                  No previous research has been performed into neck pain among forklift operators. This is a common complaint among these workers, who number around 150,000 in Sweden and six million in Europe. The aim of the study was to examine long-term exposure to unnatural neck positions among forklift operators as a risk factor for neck pain.
                  Jo Bowyer
                  Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                  "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                  Comment


                  • #54
                    The high prevalence of playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs) and its associated factors in amateur musicians playing in student orchestras: A cross-sectional study

                    http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0191772
                    Jo Bowyer
                    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                    Comment


                    • #55
                      Promoting wellbeing in professional jockeys

                      https://www.ljmu.ac.uk/research/impa...sional-jockeys



                      Professional jockeys are unique in athletic communities in that they have a daily requirement to make weight. Historically, methods of weight making have been detrimental to jockeys both physically and mentally. Unhealthy techniques include chronic dehydration, starvation, forced vomiting, and laxatives and diuretics (although recently the latter two have been banned), all of which, contribute to extremely poor bone health as well as abnormal markers of mental health in jockeys.

                      Under the leadership of Dr George Wilson, RISES carried out a dietary intervention study with participating jockeys for a period of eight weeks. The study resulted in a tailored diet that provides adequate energy availability for the daily demands of a professional flat jockey. Following the intervention, all of the jockeys in the study had reduced their body fat, maintained their lean mass, increased their resting metabolic rate and improved their physical fitness. In addition, the jockeys demonstrated improved markers of mental health.
                      Jo Bowyer
                      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                      Comment


                      • #56
                        Effect of physical exercise on musculoskeletal pain in multiple body regions among healthcare workers: Secondary analysis of a cluster randomized controlled trial

                        http://www.mskscienceandpractice.com/article/S2468-7812(18)30026-2/fulltext?{$trackingTag}&elsca2=email&elsca3=2468-7812_201804_34__&elsca4=Health%20Professions%7CRehabilitation

                        Abstract

                        Background


                        While physical exercise is beneficial for back and neck-shoulder pain, only few intervention studies have evaluated effects on pain in multiple body regions. Furthermore, direct measurement of pain threshold can provide additional information to self-reported pain intensity.

                        Objectives


                        To evaluate the effect of workplace versus home-based physical exercise on pressure pain threshold (PPT) and musculoskeletal pain intensity in multiple body regions.

                        Study design


                        Secondary analysis of an examiner-blinded, cluster randomized controlled trial with allocation concealment.

                        Method


                        Two-hundred female healthcare workers from 18 departments at three hospitals were cluster-randomized to 10 weeks of: 1) home-based physical exercise (HOME) performed alone during leisure time for 5 × 10 min per week or 2) workplace physical exercise (WORK) performed in groups during working hours for 5 × 10 min per week and up to 5 motivational coaching sessions. PPT (neck, lower back, lower leg) and perceived pain intensity in multiple body regions (feet, knee, hips, lower and upper back, elbow, hand, shoulder, neck, and head) were measured at baseline and 10-week follow-up.

                        Results


                        In some of the body regions, PPT and pain intensity improved more following WORK than HOME. Between-group differences at follow-up (WORK vs. HOME) were 41 kPA [95% CI 13–70, effect size (ES): 0.22] for PPT in the lower back, and −0.7 [95% CI -1.0–0.3, ES: 0.26] and −0.6 points [95% CI -0.9–-0.2, ES: 0.23] for pain intensity in the lower back and feet, respectively. HOME did not improve more than WORK for any of the measurements.

                        Conclusion


                        Physical exercise recommendations for healthcare workers should consider the setting, i.e. performing supervised group-based exercise at work and motivational coaching sessions is more effective than exercising alone at home.
                        Jo Bowyer
                        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                        Comment


                        • #57
                          Meet the matchstick women — the hidden victims of the industrial revolution

                          https://theconversation.com/meet-the...l%20revolution
                          Jo Bowyer
                          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                          Comment


                          • #58
                            Integration of neural and epigenetic contributions to posttraumatic stress symptoms: The role of hippocampal volume and glucocorticoid receptor gene methylation


                            http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0192222

                            Abstract


                            Many Veterans exposed to physical and psychological trauma experience symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). As the etiology of PTSD symptoms is complex, a better understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms may improve preventative care and treatment for PTSD. Recent findings from the fields of neuroimaging and epigenetics offer important insights into the potential brain structures and biochemical pathways of modified gene expression associated with PTSD. We combined neuroimaging and epigenetic measures to assess current PTSD symptoms by measuring overall hippocampal volume and methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene (promoter region). Multiple regression analyses indicated that the hippocampal volume/GR methylation interaction was a predictor of PTSD symptoms. Our findings suggest that neuroimaging and epigenetic measures contribute interactively to PTSD symptoms. Incorporation of these metrics may aid in the identification and treatment of PTSD patients.
                            Jo Bowyer
                            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                            Comment


                            • #59
                              Relationships between anhedonia, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in a large sample of physicians

                              http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0193619
                              Background


                              The relationships between anhedonia and suicidal ideation or suicide attempts were explored in a large sample of physicians using the interpersonal psychological theory of suicide. We tested two hypotheses: firstly, that there is a significant relationship between anhedonia and suicidality and, secondly, that anhedonia could mediate the relationships between suicidal ideation or suicide attempts and thwarted belongingness or perceived burdensomeness.

                              Methods


                              In a cross-sectional study, 557 physicians filled out several questionnaires measuring suicide risk, depression, using the abridged version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-13), and demographic and job-related information. Ratings of anhedonia, perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness were then extracted from the BDI-13 and the other questionnaires.

                              Results


                              Significant relationships were found between anhedonia and suicidal ideation or suicide attempts, even when significant variables or covariates were taken into account and, in particular, depressive symptoms. Mediation analyses showed significant partial or complete mediations, where anhedonia mediated the relationships between suicidal ideation (lifetime or recent) and perceived burdensomeness or thwarted belongingness. For suicide attempts, complete mediation was found only between anhedonia and thwarted belongingness. When the different components of anhedonia were taken into account, dissatisfaction—not the loss of interest or work inhibition—had significant relationships with suicidal ideation, whereas work inhibition had significant relationships with suicide attempts.

                              Conclusions


                              [Anhedonia and its component of dissatisfaction could be a risk factor for suicidal ideation and could mediate the relationship between suicidal ideation and perceived burdensomeness or thwarted belongingness in physicians. Dissatisfaction, in particular in the workplace, may be explored as a strong predictor of suicidal ideation in physicians.
                              The practice of medicine has changed drastically in the past decades with, as a result, a decrease of physicians’ job satisfaction. For example, physicians are now being asked to work in larger groups and be subjected to evaluation relating to the choice of treatments. The development of “evidence based medicine” has led to a decrease of their sense of autonomy. Moreover, economic issues, especially related to liability insurance costs can affect a physician’s perceived job satisfaction. Patients are now also much more informed and tend to defend their right to healthcare. The development of the judicialization of care is a new problem that greatly modifies the general conditions of medical practice [3].

                              High levels of depression, burn-out or type D personality have been reported in physicians and medical students [4, 5] and these greater levels of personality or mental disorders could be explained, partly, by factors related to the work or university course situation. For example, high levels of dissatisfaction could lead to depression in physicians or medical students [6].

                              Among the most prominent risks factor of suicide are prior suicide attempts and the presence of a mental disorder, notably mood disorders [7]. High prevalence of suicidal ideations has also been reported in physicians or medical students [8]. Thus, the explorations of factors (e.g. dissatisfaction at work…) that lead to suicide attempts, suicidal ideations or depression are important especially for prevention of suicide.
                              Jo Bowyer
                              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                              Comment


                              • #60
                                Self-reported musculoskeletal complaints and injuries and exposure of physical workload in Swedish soldiers serving in Afghanistan

                                http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0195548

                                Musculoskeletal injuries are common in military populations [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. During military basic training, 28–61% of Nordic soldiers report musculoskeletal disorders or injuries [6, 7, 8]. Some injuries are caused by acute traumas, but overuse is the most common reason [3, 5, 7]. According to Hauret et al, [5], overtraining, repetitive movements, forceful actions, vibrations and time spent in static positions are among other activities related to overuse injuries. Furthermore, in a study of US soldiers serving in Afghanistan, the most common causes of musculoskeletal injuries were overuse, exacerbations of previous injuries, weight lifting, sports and foot patrolling in uneven terrain [9]. Other factors that could be associated with musculoskeletal injuries are older age, female gender, number of months deployed, prolonged standing, and load carrying or lifting [10].

                                The external load of the equipment soldiers carry may exceed the tissues’ physiological tolerance level and thereby lead to load-related musculoskeletal complaints and injuries. On-going complaints and injuries have also been shown to affect the work ability of soldiers and may lead to a chronic condition, i.e. chronic pain, in the long term [11]. In a Swedish report, it is documented that Swedish rifle soldiers are exposed to 39 kg of combat gear, machine gun soldiers carry 49.6 kg, and radio operators 60.5 kg. The combat gear includes uniform, boots, gloves, ballistic eyewear, helmet, night vision goggles, body armour system, weapons, ammunition, tactical load vest, first aid kit, but no rucksack. Goff et al. reported similar combat gear in US soldiers, with a weight of 46.3 kg. The aforementioned authors stated that carried loads approximating the weight of the body, for prolonged periods and at repeated deployments, result in overuse injuries and chronic pain [11]. Glad et al. found that 70% of the Swedish Armed Forces (SwAF) personnel serving in Afghanistan reported musculoskeletal disorders, of which 58% occurred during deployment. The majority of the disorders were of mild character, with low pain/low disability which did not influence daily duties. [12] However, it is important to revisit these issues, since studies have found that both the working load and work rate has increased among soldiers in recent years, which may lead to increased likelihood of deteriorating health [13, 14]. In addition to the negative effects of physical workloads on soldiers’ health, psychological demands are also heightened during international deployment due to prolonged periods of staying mentally prepared for events such as suddenly launched missions, and a great variety of tasks, which may lead to uncertainty and stress.
                                I see soldiers in training who do not want their units to know that they may be injured........... another stress.
                                Jo Bowyer
                                Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                                "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                                Comment

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