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  • CT Occupational Health

    Prevalence and its risk factors for low back pain among operation and maintenance personnel in wind farms

    http://bmcmusculoskeletdisord.biomed...891-016-1180-y

    Abstract

    Background
    With the increasingly severe energy shortage and climate change problems, developing wind power has become a key energy development strategy and an inevitable choice to protect the ecological environment worldwide. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) and analyze its risk factors among operation and maintenance personnel in wind farms (OMPWF).

    Methods
    A cross-sectional survey of 151 OMPWF was performed, and a comprehensive questionnaire, which was modified and combined from Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaires (NMQ), Washington State Ergonomics Tool (WSET) and Syndrome Checklist-90(SCL-90) was used to assess the prevalence and risk factors of LBP among OMPWF.

    Results
    The prevalence of LBP was 88.74 % (134/151) among OMPWF. The multivariable model highlighted four related factors: backrest, somatization, squatting and lifting objects weighing more than 10 lb more than twice per minute.

    Conclusions
    The prevalence of LBP among OMPWF appears to be high and highlights a major occupational health concern.
    Keywords

    Wind farms Low back pain Risk factors Ergonomic




    Hand-arm vibration and the risk of vascular and neurological diseases—A systematic review and meta-analysis

    http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0180795

    Abstract

    Background

    Increased occurrence of Raynaud’s phenomenon, neurosensory injury and carpal tunnel syndrome has been reported for more than 100 years in association with work with vibrating machines. The current risk prediction modelling (ISO-5349) for “Raynaud’s phenomenon” is based on a few studies published 70 to 40 years ago. There are no corresponding risk prediction models for neurosensory injury or carpal tunnel syndrome, nor any systematic reviews comprising a statistical synthesis (meta-analysis) of the evidence.

    Objectives

    Our aim was to provide a systematic review of the literature on the association between Raynaud’s phenomenon, neurosensory injuries and carpal tunnel syndrome and hand-arm vibration (HAV) exposure. Moreover the aim was to estimate the magnitude of such an association using meta-analysis.

    Methods

    This systematic review covers the scientific literature up to January 2016. The databases used for the literature search were PubMed and Science Direct. We found a total of 4,335 abstracts, which were read and whose validity was assessed according to pre-established criteria. 294 articles were examined in their entirety to determine whether each article met the inclusion criteria. The possible risk of bias was assessed for each article. 52 articles finally met the pre-established criteria for inclusion in the systematic review.

    Results

    The results show that workers who are exposed to HAV have an increased risk of vascular and neurological diseases compared to non-vibration exposed groups. The crude estimate of the risk increase is approximately 4–5 fold. The estimated effect size (odds ratio) is 6.9 for the studies of Raynaud’s phenomenon when including only the studies judged to have a low risk of bias. The corresponding risk of neurosensory injury is 7.4 and the equivalent of carpal tunnel syndrome is 2.9.

    Conclusion

    At equal exposures, neurosensory injury occurs with a 3-time factor shorter latency than Raynaud’s phenomenon. Which is why preventive measures should address this vibration health hazard with greater attention.
    Update 14/07/2017
    Last edited by Jo Bowyer; 14-07-2017, 11:31 AM.
    Jo Bowyer
    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

  • #2
    Influence of Immunology Knowledge on Healthcare and Healthy Lifestyle

    http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0159767

    Abstract

    Completing a course in Immunology is expected to improve health care knowledge (HCK), which in turn is anticipated to influence a healthy lifestyle (HLS), controlled use of health care services (HCS) and an awareness of emerging health care concerns (HCC). This cross-sectional study was designed to determine whether these interrelationships are empirically supported. Participants involved in this study were government servants from two ministries in Malaysia (n = 356) and university students from a local university (n = 147). Participants were selected using the non-random purposive sampling method. Data were collected using a self-developed questionnaire, which had been validated in a pilot study involving similar subjects. The questionnaire items were analyzed using Rasch analysis, SPSS version 21 and AMOS version 22. Results have shown that participants who followed a course in Immunology (CoI) had a higher primary HCK (Mean = 0.69 logit, SD = 1.29 logits) compared with those who had not (Mean = -0.27logit, SD = 1.26 logits). Overall, there were significant correlations among the HLS, the awareness of emerging HCC, and the controlled use of HCS (p <0.001). However, no significant correlations were observed between primary HCK and the other variables. However, significant positive correlation was observed between primary HCK and controlled use of HCS for the group without CoI. Path analysis showed that the awareness of emerging HCC exerted a positive influence on controlled use of HCS (β = 0.156, p < .001) and on HLS (β = 0.224, p < .001). These findings suggest that having CoI helps increase primary HCK which influences controlled use of HCS but does not necessarily influence HLS. Hence, introducing Immunology at various levels of education and increasing the public awareness of emerging HCC might help to improve population health en masse. In addition, further investigations on the factors affecting HLS is required to provide a better understanding on the relationship between primary HCK and HLS.
    Take a look around any hospital and it is very obvious that many of the HCPs don't practice what they preach. I certainly didn't when I was younger, I stopped smoking when it looked as though I might have some success as a fencer, but did nothing about my BMI despite working in several sports where weight is an issue, It has been the onset of early old age and the thought that I might not be fit to continue to work through my eighth decade that has triggered the onset of a healthier lifestyle.:embarasse
    Jo Bowyer
    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

    Comment


    • #3
      Risk factors for back pain in marines; a prospective cohort study

      http://bmcmusculoskeletdisord.biomed...891-016-1172-y

      Abstract

      Background
      It is recognised that back pain (BP) is a debilitating medical problem in the soldier community, which limits operational readiness as well as work ability. As such, identification of risk factors is a necessity for effective preventive actions, but also regarded as important from a safety perspective. The aim of this prospective cohort study was therefore to identify risk factors for back pain and BP limiting work ability in active duty marines within a 6 and 12-month period.

      Methods
      Demographic characteristics, health-related factors and occupational exposure information, as gathered from questionnaires, as well as clinical test of movement control among 137 Swedish marines were regressed with multivariable logistic regressions, and strength of associations was presented as odds ratio (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI). BP within 6 and 12 months were used as primary outcomes, whereas BP limiting work ability within 6 and 12 months served as secondary outcomes.

      Results
      Previous BP and tall body height (≥1.86 m) emerged as risk factors for back pain within 6 months (OR 2.99, 95 % CI 1.22–7.30; OR 2.81, 95 % CI 1.16– 6.84, respectively), and 12 months (OR 6.75, 95 % CI 2.30–19.80; 2.75, 95 % CI 1.21–6.29, respectively). Previous BP was also identified as risk factor for BP limiting work ability within 12 months (OR 6.64, 95 % CI 1.78–24.78), and tall body height emerged as a risk within both six (OR 4.30, 95 % CI 1.31–14.13) and 12 months (OR 4.55, 95 % CI 1.53–13.57) from baseline.

      Conclusions
      Marines with a history of BP are at risk of further BP episodes, which, thus, emphasise the importance of early BP preventive actions. Tall body height also emerged as an important risk which may reflect that personal equipment and work tasks are not adapted for the tallest marines. While this should be considered when introducing new work equipment, further studies are warranted to clarify the underlying mechanism of this association.
      Keywords

      Longitudinal Military Movement control Musculoskeletal disorders Musculoskeletal injury Occupational exposure Prevention Work ability Work exposure
      Jo Bowyer
      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

      Comment


      • #4
        The Association of Work Stress and Glycemic Status Is Partially Mediated by Autonomic Nervous System Function: Cross-Sectional Results from the Mannheim Industrial Cohort Study (MICS)

        http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0160743

        Abstract

        Background

        Work stress is associated with an increased risk of pre-diabetes, Type 2 diabetes, and inflammation, as well as decreased autonomic nervous system function as measured, for example, via heart rate variability. We investigated the extent to which the association between work stress and glycemic status is mediated by vagally-mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) and/or inflammation.

        Methods

        Cross-sectional data from the Mannheim Industrial Cohort Study (MICS) with 9,937 participants were analyzed. The root mean squared successive differences (RMSSD) from long-term heart rate monitoring during work and night time periods was used to index vmHRV. Fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin were assessed to determine glycemic status. High sensitive C-reactive protein levels were observed as a measure of systemic inflammation and the Effort-Reward-Imbalance scale was used to evaluate work stress. Mediation models were adjusted for age, sex, and occupational status, and estimations were bootstrapped (5,000 replications).

        Results

        Effort-Reward-Imbalance was significantly negatively associated with RMSSD and both glycosylated hemoglobin and fasting plasma glucose during both work and night time periods. Effort-Reward-Imbalance was observed to have a significant direct effect on glycosylated hemoglobin and significant indirect effects, through RMSSD, on both glycemic measures during both time periods. Introducing C-reactive protein as a further mediator to the model did not alter the indirect effects observed. C-reactive protein, as an exclusive mediator, was observed to have smaller direct and indirect effects on the glycemic measures as compared to when Effort-Reward-Imbalance was included in the model.

        Conclusions

        Our results suggest that the association between work stress and glycemic status is partially mediated through vmHRV independent of systemic inflammation as measured by C-reactive protein. We conclude that work stress may be an additional factor that promotes development of hyperglycemic-metabolic states. If supported by prospective evidence, these results may lead to new approaches for primary prevention of hyperglycemia in the workplace.



        On the health paradox of occupational and leisure-time physical activity using objective measurements: Effects on autonomic imbalance

        http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0177042

        Abstract

        Objective

        Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) has considerable benefits for cardiovascular health and longevity, while occupational physical activity (OPA) is associated with an elevated cardiovascular risk. This “health paradox” may be explained by different effects on the autonomic nervous system from OPA and LTPA. Thus, we aimed to investigate whether objectively measured OPA and LTPA are differentially associated with autonomic regulation among workers.

        Methods

        The study comprised 514 blue-collar workers from the Danish cohort DPHACTO. Physical activity (i.e. walking, climbing stairs, running and cycling) was assessed objectively using accelerometers worn on the thigh, hip and trunk over multiple working days. During this period, a heart rate monitor was used to sample heart period intervals from the ECG signal. Heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) indices were analyzed during nocturnal sleep as markers of autonomic regulation. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the main effects of OPA and LTPA and their interaction on heart rate and HRV, adjusting for multiple confounders.

        Results

        Statistically significant interaction was found between OPA and LTPA on heart rate (adjusted p<0.0001) and HRV indices in time (rMSSD, adjusted p = 0.004) and frequency-domains (HF, adjusted p = 0.022; LF, adjusted p = 0.033). The beneficial effect of LTPA on nocturnal heart rate and HRV clearly diminished with higher levels of OPA, and high levels of both OPA and LTPA had a detrimental effect.

        Conclusion

        We found contrasting associations for objectively measured OPA and LTPA with heart rate and HRV during sleep. Differential effects of OPA and LTPA on autonomic regulation may contribute to the physical activity health paradox.
        Introduction

        Physical activity has evident effects on cardiovascular health [1–3]. However, emerging research demonstrates that this effect differs depending on the domain of physical activity [4]. Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) reduces the risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and mortality [5, 6], while high occupational physical activity (OPA) is associated with risk elevation [7–11].

        Because the mechanism behind the contrasting effects of OPA and LTPA on CVD and mortality risk is unknown, it is termed “the physical activity health paradox” [12]. A plausible hypothesis is that the different characteristics of OPA and LTPA impose dissimilar effects on the autonomic nervous system, which is closely involved in cardiovascular regulation, adaptation and health. LTPA is characterized by discretionary activities with sufficient time for rest and recovery, well known to improve autonomic regulation [13–15]. On the contrary, OPA is characterized by constrained activities related to the work tasks and productivity, with little opportunity for the worker to rest at convenience. Such physical activity with insufficient recovery may impose an elevated allostatic load [16] causing imbalanced autonomic regulation between the sympathetic and parasympathetic drives [17]. Imbalanced autonomic regulation is well documented to be associated with an elevated CVD risk [18]; presumably via different mediators, such as reduced baroreceptor activity, endothelial dysfunction [19], elevated blood pressure [20], and excess pro-inflammatory cytokines [21, 22].
        Update 05/05/2017



        Physical therapists and importance of work participation in patients with musculoskeletal disorders: a focus group study

        https://bmcmusculoskeletdisord.biome...891-017-1546-9

        Abstract

        Background
        Musculoskeletal disorders are a major health problem resulting in negative effects on wellbeing and substantial costs to society. Work participation is associated with positive benefits for both mental and physical health. Potentially, generalist physical therapists (GPTs) can play an important role in reducing absenteeism, presenteeism and associated costs in patients with musculoskeletal disorders. However, work participation is often insufficiently addressed within generalist physical therapy practice (GPTP). Therefore, this study evaluates whether GPTs take work participation into account as a determining factor in patients with musculoskeletal disorders, and how this might be improved.

        Methods
        This qualitative study consisted of seven focus groups involving 30 participants: 21 GPTs and 9 occupational physical therapists (OPTs). Based on an interview guide, participants were asked how they integrate work participation within their practice, how they collaborate with other professionals, and how GPTs can improve integration of the patient’s work within their practice.

        Results
        Although participants recognized the importance of work participation, they mentioned that the integration of this item in their GPTP could be improved. Generally, GPTs place insufficient priority on work participation. Moreover, there is a lack of cooperation between the generalist physical therapist and (other) occupational healthcare providers (including OPTs), and the borderlines/differences between generalist physcial therapy and occupational health physcial therapy were sometimes unclear. GPTs showed a lack of knowledge and a need for additional information about several important work-related factors (e.g. work content, physical and psychosocial working conditions, terms of employment).

        Conclusions
        Although a patient’s work is important, GPTs take insufficient account of work participation as a determining factor in the treatment of patients with musculoskeletal disorders. GPTs often lack specific knowledge about work-related factors, and there is insufficient cooperation between OPTs and other occupational healthcare providers. The integration of work participation within GPTP, and the cooperation between GPTs and other occupational healthcare providers, show room for improvement.
        Keywords

        Musculoskeletal disorders Physical therapy Occupational health Work participation
        Last edited by Jo Bowyer; 17-05-2017, 05:00 PM.
        Jo Bowyer
        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

        Comment


        • #5
          Health Problems during Compulsory Military Service Predict Disability Retirement: A Register-Based Study on Secular Trends during 40 Years of Follow-Up

          http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0159786

          Abstract

          Disability retirement causes a significant burden on the society and affects the well-being of individuals. Early health problems as determinants of disability retirement have received little attention. The objective was to study, whether interrupting compulsory military service is an early indicator of disability retirement among Finnish men and whether seeking medical advice during military service increases the risk of all-cause disability retirement and disability retirement due to mental disorders and musculoskeletal diseases. We also looked at secular trends in these associations. We examined a nationally representative sample of 2069 men, who had entered military service during 1967–1996. We linked military service health records with cause-specific register data on disability retirement from 1968 to 2008. Secular trends were explored in three service time strata. We used the Cox regression model to estimate proportional hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. During the follow-up time altogether 140 (6.8%) men retired due to disability, mental disorders being the most common cause. The men who interrupted service had a remarkably higher cumulative incidence of disability retirement (18.9%). The associations between seeking medical advice during military service and all-cause disability retirement were similar across the three service time cohorts (overall hazard ratio 1.40 per one standard deviation of the number of visits; 95% confidence interval 1.26–1.56). Visits due to mental problems predicted disability retirement due to mental disorders in the men who served between 1987 and 1996 and a tendency for a similar cause-specific association was seen for musculoskeletal diseases in the men who served in 1967–1976. In conclusion, health problems—in particular mental problems—during late adolescence are strong determinants of disability retirement. Call-up examinations and military service provide access to the entire age cohort of men, where persons at risk for work disability can be identified and early preventive measures initiated.
          Jo Bowyer
          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

          Comment


          • #6
            From Cory B:


            Linton, Steven J., et al. "Early workplace communication and problem solving to prevent back disability: results of a randomized controlled trial among high-risk workers and their supervisors." Journal of occupational rehabilitation 26.2 (2016): 150-159.
            "The views expressed here are my own and do not reflect the views of my employer."

            Comment


            • #7
              Pilot Investigation of PTSD, Autonomic Reactivity, and Cardiovascular Health in Physically Healthy Combat Veterans

              http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0162547

              Abstract

              Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and combat-related PTSD in particular, has been associated with increased rates of cardiovascular disease, and cardiovascular-related death. However, less research has examined possible factors that may link PTSD to poorer cardiovascular health in combat veteran populations. The current pilot study investigated whether psychological symptomology and autonomic reactivity to emotional scripts would relate to poorer cardiovascular health in combat veterans without a current diagnosis of cardiovascular disease. Male veterans (N = 24), who served in combat since Operation Iraqi Freedom, completed a semi-structured interview and self-report measures to assess psychological symptomology. Autonomic reactivity, measured using heart rate variability (HRV; low to high frequency ratio), was obtained during script-driven imagery of emotional memories. Cardiovascular health was assessed using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. Correlational analyses and discriminant analysis were used to assess the relationship between psychological symptoms (PTSD, depression, anger, as measured via self-report), autonomic reactivity to emotional scripts (HRV), and FMD. Overall, veterans in the current study showed poor cardiovascular health despite their relatively young age and lack of behavioral risk factors, with 15/24 exhibiting impaired FMD (FMD < 5%). Psychological symptomology was not associated with FMD; whereas autonomic reactivity to emotional (compared to neutral) scripts was found to relate to FMD. Autonomic reactivity to negative scripts correctly classified 76.5% of veterans as having impaired versus normative FMD. Results from this pilot study highlight the importance of cardiovascular screening with combat veterans despite psychological diagnosis. Results also support the need for longitudinal research assessing the use of autonomic reactivity to emotionally valenced stimuli as a potential risk factor for poorer cardiovascular health.


              Jo Bowyer
              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

              Comment


              • #8
                The Influence of a Sudden Increase in Playing Time on Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Complaints in High-Level Amateur Musicians in a Longitudinal Cohort Study

                http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0163472

                Abstract

                Background

                Several studies in the domain of professional musicians describe the relation between playing time and the occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints in professional musicians. To date, no longitudinal cohort study into this relationship has been performed and no amateur musicians were studied. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the causal relationship between a sudden increase in playing time among amateur musicians on the occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints in a prospective cohort study.

                Methods

                All members of two national Dutch Students Orchestras were asked to participate in the study. These project-based orchestras, consisting of high-level amateurs, followed a nine-hour rehearsing schedule for ten consecutive days. On the first day (t0) and after one week (t1) the subjects were asked to complete a paper-based questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics, music-related questions, questions regarding playing-related musculoskeletal complaints and the music module of the disabilities of arm, shoulder and hand questionnaire.

                Results

                The NSO consisted of 85 and the NESKO of 41 members during the study period. 59 subjects completed the questionnaire at both timepoints (response rate 47%). 9 subjects were excluded for being a music academy student, leaving 50 subjects (mean age 22.1, 72% female) suitable for analysis. During the rehearsal week, the prevalence of at least one playing-related musculoskeletal complaint increased from 28% to 80%. The most frequently affected areas were the neck, upper and lower back, hand/and or wrists and shoulders. The DASH music module score increased from 14 at t0 to 23 at t1.

                Conclusion

                A point prevalence of 28% at the start of the study that increased remarkably to 80% within a one-week period. Future research should evaluate other risk factors for musculoskeletal complaints in amateur musicians. These risk factors should be the base for the development of preventive measures.
                Jo Bowyer
                Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                Comment


                • #9
                  Biomarkers of systemic inflammation in farmers with musculoskeletal disorders; a plasma proteomic study

                  https://www.somasimple.com/forums/sh...&postcount=492
                  Jo Bowyer
                  Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                  "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    Inspecting the Dangers of Feeling like a Fake: An Empirical Investigation of the Impostor Phenomenon in the World of Work

                    http://journal.frontiersin.org/artic...016.01445/full

                    Introduction
                    The impostor phenomenon (IP) is especially interesting in the world of work as it concerns high-achieving individuals who instead of being proud of their success, experience intense feelings of intellectual and/or professional fraudulence (Clance and Imes, 1978). Despite objective evidence to the contrary, such as professional advancements, positive reviews, or honors and awards, they are unable to internalize their successful experiences (e.g., Bernard et al., 2002; Want and Kleitman, 2006). Sufferers of the IP experience discrepancies between other's perceptions of them as being successful and their own perceptions as being deficient (Clance and Imes, 1978). They perceive perpetual overestimation of their abilities by supervisors and colleagues and fear being exposed as “impostors” (Clance et al., 1995). Whereas other employees experience growth in self-esteem after achieving success at work, IP sufferers experience an increase in their sense of fraudulence (see also “the impostor cycle”; Clance, 1985), negative feelings, and dissatisfaction (Cowman and Ferrari, 2002). The IP is fueled by low self-esteem and the fear of failure as well as of success, and it acts as an inner barrier to career development (Jöstl et al., 2012; Neureiter and Traut-Mattausch, 2016). However, attention to the IP explicitly in the world of work is just beginning to emerge and remains sparse. Researchers have pointed out the need to investigate the consequences of the IP for both employees and organizations (Whitman and Shanine, 2012). By answering this call, we hope to complement existing studies with student samples and health-related outcomes with our investigation of working professionals and work-relevant outcomes.
                    I never felt at ease until I got grey hair, wrinkles, and a pair of glasses I could peer over.



                    Contradictory individualized self-blaming: a cross-sectional study of associations between expectations to managers, coworkers, one-self and risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders among construction workers
                    https://bmcmusculoskeletdisord.biome...891-016-1368-1

                    Abstract

                    Background
                    Within work sociology, several studies have addressed construction workers’ practices of masculinity, class, economy, safety risks and production. However, few studies have investigated room for agency in relation to bodily pain or musculoskeletal disorders and even fewer have made a quantitative approach. Accordingly, by means of a questionnaire, we examined the association between construction workers’ room for agency and physical exertion, bodily and mental fatigue, and lower back pain.

                    Methods
                    A total of 481 Danish construction workers who responded to a multifaceted questionnaire were included. Drawing on previous studies and a Foucauldian inspired concept of agency, agency was quantified through specially crafted questions and examined in relation to established measures on physical exertion, physical and mental fatigue and pain in the lower back. Associations were tested using analyses of variance (general linear models) and controlled for age, gender, job group, lifestyle and depression.

                    Results
                    When asked about options for agency reducing the burden of work, few workers believed themselves to be prime agents of such practices. When asking about their view on performing alternative agency implying caring for the body, 39–49% expected negative reactions from management, and 20–33% expected negative reactions from colleagues. In contrast, only 13–18% of the participants stated that they would give a negative reception to such alternative practices.

                    Using the expected reception outcomes (positive, neutral, negative) to alternative practices as predictors, the statistical regression analyses showed that negative expectations to management were associated with higher levels of physical exertion 0.62 (95% CI = 0.14–1.09) (scale 0-11), bodily fatigue 0.63 (95% CI = 0.22–1.04), mental fatigue 0.60 (95% CI = 0.07–1.12), and low back pain 0.79 (95% CI = 0.13–1.46) (scales 0-10).

                    Conclusion
                    In our study, construction workers answered questions about work and MSD. The answers indicated a contradiction between perceived responsibility and room for agency.

                    Based on the study, a number of target areas could fruitfully be addressed in aiming to reduce MSD among construction workers. To change workers’ expectances to the reception of lowering work pace if needed to take care of the body, their expectances to the reception of sickness absence as a result of pain, of discussing physical exertion in work and of demanding appropriate technical assistive devices are such examples. Our results emphasize that management plays an important role in this.
                    Keywords

                    Agency Construction work Management MSD (musculoskeletal disorders) Occupational health and safety management (OHS) Pain Physical exertion Quantitative method

                    Update 09/04/2017



                    Musculoskeletal morbidity among construction workers: A cross-sectional community-based study

                    http://www.ijoem.com/article.asp?iss...9;aulast=Reddy

                    Abstract

                    Background: Construction industry is one of the stable growing industries in India. People working in construction industries are at a risk of various occupational diseases. Musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) is the single largest cause of work-related illness, accounting for over 33% of all newly reported occupational illnesses in the general population and approximately 77% in construction workers. In spite of the high prevalence and wide range of adverse consequences, the studies highlighting the burden and impact of musculoskeletal morbidities are very scarce in India. The current study is aimed at filling this vital gap in the current knowledge. Objective: To assess the musculoskeletal morbidities among construction workers using the modified Nordisk Scale. Materials and

                    Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted by 30 × 10 multistage cluster random sampling method in Chennai Metropolitan city.

                    Results: Out of the 308 participants included in the final analysis, majority were 21–40 years. Working hours ranged from 8 to 12 hours. Duration of work ranged from 2 months to 20 years. Out of 308 participants, 104 workers (33.8%) had musculoskeletal problems. Three most common disorders discovered were low backache seen in 64 (20.8%), shoulder pain seen in 36 (11.7%), and wrist pain seen in 36 (11.7%) participants. The proportion of hospitalized participants in the last 1 year was 7.8%. Total duration in the construction field, duration of work hours, and higher age had statistically significant impact on musculoskeletal morbidity.

                    Conclusion: The prevalence of musculoskeletal morbidity was very high in construction workers, with resulting adverse impact on the workers. Immense attention, in the form of appropriate prevention measures, is needed to effectively address this public health problem.
                    Keywords: Construction workers, modified Nordisk scale, morbidity, musculoskeletal

                    Update 17/04/2017



                    Risk assessment of manual handling operations at work with the key indicator method (KIM-MHO) — determination of criterion validity regarding the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and clinical conditions within a cross-sectional study

                    https://bmcmusculoskeletdisord.biome...891-017-1542-0

                    Abstract

                    Background
                    Manual handling operations (MHO) are known to be risk factors for work-related upper limb disorders (WRULDs), e.g. symptoms and conditions such as carpal tunnel syndrome. To estimate the risk of WRULDs, a Key Indicator Method (KIM) for the risk assessment of MHO was developed. The method was validated in regard to different criteria, including face validity, criterion validity, reliability and further aspects concerning utility. This paper describes the KIM-MHO and criterion validity of this method with reference to prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs).

                    Methods
                    A cross-sectional sample of 643 employees exposed to MHO was compared to a reference group of 804 unexposed subjects predominantly working at visual display terminals. The Nordic Questionnaire and a standardized clinical examination were used to obtain the 7-day and 12-months prevalence of symptoms and clinical conditions of the musculoskeletal system. Job specific exposure levels to MHO were assessed by ergonomists using the KIM-MHO. The resulting risk scores were categorized into risk categories 1 - low risk (reference group), 2 - increased risk, 3 - highly increased risk, and 4 - high risk. Log-linear Poisson regression models were applied to obtain adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) with 95%-confidence intervals.

                    Results
                    The 7-day prevalence of symptoms for subjects in risk category 3 compared to risk category 1 was significant for the regions shoulder [women (w): PR 1.8 (1.2–2.7), men (m): PR 2.3 (1.2–4.4)], elbow [w: PR 3.3 (1.5–7.2), m: PR 2.4 (0.8–7.3)], and hand/wrist [w: PR 3.0 (1.7–5.3), m: PR 5.5 (2.7–11.3)]. The 7-day prevalence of symptoms for risk category 4 was also significant for the regions shoulder [w: PR 1.9 (1.3–2.8), m: PR 1.9 (1.3–2.7)], elbow [w: PR 4.5 (2.3–8.7), m: PR 3.3 (2.1–5.4)], and hand/wrist [w: PR 4.2 (2.6–6.9), m: PR 5.5 (3.5–8.5)]. The 12-months prevalence in these joint regions show comparable increases in the risk categories 3 and 4.

                    Conclusions
                    The KIM-MHO is valid in regard to criterion validity. The hypothesis could be confirmed, that high risk scores were associated with an increased prevalence of symptoms and clinical conditions especially in the shoulder, elbow and hand/wrist regions among employees exposed to MHO.
                    Keywords

                    Risk assessment Manual handling operations Cross-sectional study Musculoskeletal symptoms Criterion validity WRULDs


                    Update 11/05/2017
                    Last edited by Jo Bowyer; 11-05-2017, 03:57 PM.
                    Jo Bowyer
                    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      To Strike a Pose: No Stereotype Backlash for Power Posing Women

                      http://journal.frontiersin.org/artic...016.01463/full

                      Introduction
                      Social power, defined as asymmetric control over valued resources in social relationships (Keltner et al., 2003; Magee and Galinsky, 2008), is accompanied by many positive cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and physiological consequences for the power holder (for a review, see Galinsky et al., 2015). An abundant body of research has focused on the relationship between social power and its non-verbal display. Openness and expansiveness of body posture were repeatedly identified as proximal non-verbal correlates of possessing power in both humans and animals, whereas, the lack of power is non-verbally reflected in constricted body postures (de Waal, 1998; Carney et al., 2005; Hall et al., 2005; Huang et al., 2011). This association seems to be hard-wired because the same phenomenon occurs in higher animals as well as in humans, and even congenitally blind athletes adopt power poses after a successful competition (Tracy and Matsumoto, 2008).

                      Recently, research has suggested that this mind-body link is bi-directional (for a review on the embodiment-hypothesis, see Barsalou, 2008). Not only does the experience of power influence our posture, but our posture can influence our experience of power. Specifically, power posing, that is, deliberately adopting an open and expansive high-power posture, induces effects in the poser that mirror the abovementioned consequences of actual social power (for a recent review, see Carney et al., 2015). For example, expansive postures were shown to parallel desirable effects of actual power in terms of enhanced abstract thinking (Huang et al., 2011), increased thought confidence (Briñol et al., 2009), better mood and self-esteem (Nair et al., 2015), more risk taking (Carney et al., 2010; Cesario and McDonald, 2013), greater action orientation (Huang et al., 2011; Park et al., 2013), improved performance in subsequent social evaluation situations (Cuddy et al., 2012, 2015), increased pain tolerance (Bohns and Wiltermuth, 2012), and more functionally adequate hormonal reactions (Carney et al., 2010; but see Ranehill et al., 2015), while reliably increasing the subjective sense of power (Carney et al., 2010; Huang et al., 2011; Park et al., 2013; Cuddy et al., 2015).

                      Taken together, these findings indicate power posing to be an effective tool to elicit the positive consequences that otherwise arise from actual power. Power posing used as such a tool is also quite efficient because adopting powerful postures for only a few minutes produces these effects (Carney et al., 2015). Because power poses can be adopted independent of the poser’s social role or hierarchical position, power posing seems especially suitable for persons who chronically lack power. The fact that TED talk Cuddy’s (2012, June 28) in which she highlighted power posing’s potential of improving life and career was viewed more than 25 million times suggests that a large audience deems power enhancement through body posture relevant
                      .
                      Jo Bowyer
                      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        Overweight and obesity linked to high workers' compensation costs

                        https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0928141724.htm

                        Obese and overweight workers are more likely to incur high costs related to workers' compensation claims for major injuries, reports a study in the September Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, official publication of the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (ACOEM).
                        Jo Bowyer
                        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          Manual Loading Distribution During Carrying Behaviors: Implications for the Evolution of the Hominin Hand

                          http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0163801

                          Abstract

                          The human hand is unparalleled amongst primates in its ability to manipulate objects forcefully and dexterously. Previous research has predominantly sought to explain the evolution of these capabilities through an adaptive relationship between more modern human-like anatomical features in the upper limb and increased stone tool production and use proficiency. To date, however, we know little about the influence that other manipulatively demanding behaviors may have had upon the evolution of the human hand. The present study addresses one aspect of this deficiency by examining the recruitment of the distal phalanges during a range of manual transportation (i.e., carrying) events related to hominin behavioral repertoires during the Plio-Pleistocene. Specifically, forces on the volar pad of each digit are recorded during the transportation of stones and wooden branches that vary in weight and size. Results indicate that in most instances, the index and middle fingers are recruited to a significantly greater extent than the other three digits during carrying events. Relative force differences between digits were, however, dependent upon the size and weight of the object transported. Carrying behaviors therefore appear unlikely to have contributed to the evolution of the robust thumb anatomy observed in the human hand. Rather, results suggest that the manual transportation of objects may plausibly have influenced the evolution of the human gripping capabilities and the 3rd metacarpal styloid process.
                          Jo Bowyer
                          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                          Comment


                          • #14
                            Associations between musculoskeletal pain and work-related factors among public service sector computer workers in Kaunas County, Lithuania

                            http://bmcmusculoskeletdisord.biomed...891-016-1281-7

                            Abstract

                            Background
                            Information technologies in occupational activities have been developing very rapid. Epidemiological studies have shown that musculoskeletal disorders are widely prevalent among employees working with a computer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in various anatomical areas and its associations with individual, ergonomic, and psychosocial factors among computer workers of the public sector in Kaunas County, Lithuania.

                            Methods
                            The investigation consisting of two parts – questionnaire study (Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire and Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire) and direct observation (evaluation of work ergonomics using the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment [RULA]) – was carried out in three randomly selected public sector companies of Kaunas County. The representative study sample comprised 513 public service office workers. The prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in five anatomical areas of the body (shoulders, elbows, wrists/hands, as well as upper and low back) was evaluated.

                            Results
                            The prevalence rates of shoulder, elbow, wrist/hand, upper and low back pain were 50.5 %, 20.3 %, 26.3 %, 44.8 %, and 56.1 %, respectively. Individual factors such as gender, age, computer work experience, and body mass index were found as significant for musculoskeletal pain in various musculoskeletal regions. The respondents reporting pain in shoulder, wrist/hand, upper back, and low back areas had a statistically significantly higher mean RULA score. The duration of working with a computer was found as a significant factor for shoulder pain. High quantitative demands were related to musculoskeletal pain in all investigated anatomical areas expect for the low back; weak social support was a significant predictor for complaints in upper and low back areas.

                            Conclusion
                            This study confirmed associations between musculoskeletal pain and work ergonomics; therefore, preventive measures at the workplace should be directed to the improvement in ergonomic work environment, education, and workload optimization.
                            Keywords

                            Musculoskeletal pain Computer work Ergonomics RULA





                            When push comes to injury: What pushing a wheelchair does to your back


                            https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0731114551.htm



                            There's no specific ergonomic standard when it comes to pushing wheelchairs, explained William Marras, director of the institute and Honda Chair Professor of Integrated Systems Engineering at Ohio State. Caregivers can judge only whether they can push a patient based on how their back feels. And, with rising obesity, patients are getting heavier and harder to push.

                            "Today, patient handling is one of the most dangerous jobs for your back. It's more dangerous than working in construction, more dangerous than mining or any of the other jobs we typically think of as difficult," said Marras, citing data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

                            "We've studied the risks of lifting patients, but until now, nobody's done a solid biomechanical assessment of what happens when you push patients in wheelchairs."

                            Along with obesity rates in the United States, the average patient size has grown over decades. Wheelchairs are now offered in larger sizes to accommodate larger patients, but the basic design of the chair has stayed the same.

                            Based on the results of this study, there are simple design changes that could help make wheelchairs easier to push, the researchers said. If the handle height were adjustable, for instance, or the handles rotated 90 degrees to be more like a shopping cart, that would be a good start.

                            "We would also suggest building motor-assisted wheelchairs that could aid the person pushing when the pushing forces get too high," said doctoral student Eric Weston, who performed the study for his master's thesis.

                            For the study, 62 volunteers -- 31 men and 31 women, with an average age of around 25 years -- pushed against a rig attached to an overhead braking system with adjustable resistance. The rig simulated the average height and placement of wheelchair handles. While the resistance started low, it increased until the volunteers felt like they couldn't move the rig any farther. All the while, researchers measured the forces on the discs of their spine. The heaviest loads, though few participants reached them, corresponded to pushing patients weighing up to 485 pounds (220 kilograms).

                            The people in the study tended to keep pushing an average of 17 to 18 percent past the point where they should have stopped, based on the forces on their spine.

                            Pushing against a heavy object compresses the spine, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health sets a compression limit at a little over 760 pounds of force (3,400 newtons) to prevent injury.

                            While pushing against the simulated wheelchair, male volunteers pushed past this limit about 34 percent of the time.

                            Weston said that "pushing heavy weights is risky for both men and women, but for different reasons." Men can push loads that are heavy enough to hurt them, while women more quickly reach a point where they just can't push any more.

                            Also among the findings: Turning a wheelchair is harder on the back than pushing in a straight line.

                            Turning the simulated wheelchair increased spinal forces by roughly 40 percent, because the volunteers had to stabilize their back using their core muscles while they pushed with one hand and pulled with the other.

                            This is the first time researchers have measured either biomechanical loads across a wide range of wheelchair pushing forces or biomechanical loads during wheelchair turning. The only somewhat comparable study was done in the Netherlands in 1995, when volunteers were asked to push a chair of fixed weight up an incline.

                            "When you look at the part of the back that we're concerned about -- the disc -- it doesn't have a lot of nerve endings, so you couldn't possibly know whether you're doing damage or not. That's why we wanted to do something quantitative," Marras said.

                            This study shows that people won't feel uncomfortable after they've exceeded the actual limits for avoiding injury by around 20 percent, he added.
                            Update 01/08/2017
                            Last edited by Jo Bowyer; 01-08-2017, 02:34 PM.
                            Jo Bowyer
                            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                            Comment


                            • #15
                              What causes shoulder pain in desk workers and why are shoulder injuries so hard to rehab in general? How severe does a shoulder injury have to get before it's unrehabbable?
                              Last edited by WildBear; 17-10-2016, 11:25 PM. Reason: Question marks

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