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  • Ref CVS

    Forebrain neurocircuitry associated with human reflex cardiovascular control
    http://journal.frontiersin.org/artic...015.00240/full

    Physiological homeostasis depends upon adequate integration and responsiveness of sensory information with the autonomic nervous system to affect rapid and effective adjustments in end organ control. Dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system leads to cardiovascular disability with consequences as severe as sudden death. The neural pathways involved in reflexive autonomic control are dependent upon brainstem nuclei but these receive modulatory inputs from higher centers in the midbrain and cortex. Neuroimaging technologies have allowed closer study of the cortical circuitry related to autonomic cardiovascular adjustments to many stressors in awake humans and have exposed many forebrain sites that associate strongly with cardiovascular arousal during stress including the medial prefrontal cortex, insula cortex, anterior cingulate, amygdala and hippocampus. Using a comparative approach, this review will consider the cortical autonomic circuitry in rodents and primates with a major emphasis on more recent neuroimaging studies in awake humans. A challenge with neuroimaging studies is their interpretation in view of multiple sensory, perceptual, emotive and/or reflexive components of autonomic responses. This review will focus on those responses related to non-volitional baroreflex control of blood pressure and also on the coordinated responses to non-fatiguing, non-painful volitional exercise with particular emphasis on the medial prefrontal cortex and the insula cortex.
    Jo Bowyer
    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

  • #2
    Interactions between visceral afferent signaling and stimulus processing

    http://journal.frontiersin.org/artic...015.00286/full

    Visceral afferent signals to the brain influence thoughts, feelings and behavior. Here we highlight the findings of a set of empirical investigations in humans concerning body-mind interaction that focus on how feedback from states of autonomic arousal shapes cognition and emotion. There is a longstanding debate regarding the contribution of the body to mental processes. Recent theoretical models broadly acknowledge the role of (autonomically-mediated) physiological arousal to emotional, social and motivational behaviors, yet the underlying mechanisms are only partially characterized. Neuroimaging is overcoming this shortfall; first, by demonstrating correlations between autonomic change and discrete patterns of evoked, and task-independent, neural activity; second, by mapping the central consequences of clinical perturbations in autonomic response and; third, by probing how dynamic fluctuations in peripheral autonomic state are integrated with perceptual, cognitive and emotional processes. Building on the notion that an important source of the brain's representation of physiological arousal is derived from afferent information from arterial baroreceptors, we have exploited the phasic nature of these signals to show their differential contribution to the processing of emotionally-salient stimuli. This recent work highlights the facilitation at neural and behavioral levels of fear and threat processing that contrasts with the more established observations of the inhibition of central pain processing during baroreceptors activation. The implications of this body-brain-mind axis are discussed.
    Jo Bowyer
    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

    Comment


    • #3
      Positive Affect and Health Behaviors Across 5 Years in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease: The Heart and Soul Study.

      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26428445

      Abstract
      OBJECTIVES:
      Positive psychological states are linked to superior health and longevity, possibly due to behavioral factors. We evaluated cross-sectional and 5-year associations between positive affect and health behaviors in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD).
      METHODS:
      Outpatients with CHD reported positive affect, physical activity, sleep quality, medication adherence, cigarette smoking, and alcohol use at baseline (n = 1022) and 5 years later (n = 662). Covariates in regression analyses included demographics, cardiac disease severity, and depressive symptoms.
      RESULTS:
      At baseline, higher positive affect (per 1 standard deviation) was associated with better health behaviors: physical activity (odds ratio [OR] = 1.52, 95% 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.30-1.77, p < .001), sleep quality (OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.04-1.48, p = .015), medication adherence (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.12-1.90, p = .005), and nonsmoking (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.06-1.57, p = .012), but was unrelated to alcohol use. Baseline positive affect did not predict health behaviors at follow-up, accounting for baseline behaviors. However, increases in positive affect across 5 years co-occurred with improvements in physical activity (B = 0.023, standard error [SE] = 0.008, p = .002), sleep quality (B = 0.011, SE = 0.005, p = .039), and medication adherence (B = 0.014, SE = 0.004, p < .001), but not smoking status (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.73-1.55, p = .74).
      CONCLUSIONS:
      Positive affect was associated with health behaviors among patients with CHD. Efforts to sustain or enhance positive affect may be promising for promoting better health behaviors.
      Jo Bowyer
      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

      Comment


      • #4
        Brain Function and Upper Limb Outcome in Stroke: A Cross-Sectional fMRI Study

        http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0139746

        Abstract

        Objective

        The nature of changes in brain activation related to good recovery of arm function after stroke is still unclear. While the notion that this is a reflection of neuronal plasticity has gained much support, confounding by compensatory strategies cannot be ruled out. We address this issue by comparing brain activity in recovered patients 6 months after stroke with healthy controls.

        Methods

        We included 20 patients with upper limb paresis due to ischemic stroke and 15 controls. We measured brain activation during a finger flexion-extension task with functional MRI, and the relationship between brain activation and hand function. Patients exhibited various levels of recovery, but all were able to perform the task.

        Results

        Comparison between patients and controls with voxel-wise whole-brain analysis failed to reveal significant differences in brain activation. Equally, a region of interest analysis constrained to the motor network to optimize statistical power, failed to yield any differences. Finally, no significant relationship between brain activation and hand function was found in patients. Patients and controls performed scanner task equally well.

        Conclusion

        Brain activation and behavioral performance during finger flexion-extensions in (moderately) well recovered patients seems normal. The absence of significant differences in brain activity even in patients with a residual impairment may suggest that infarcts do not necessarily induce reorganization of motor function. While brain activity could be abnormal with higher task demands, this may also introduce performance confounds. It is thus still uncertain to what extent capacity for true neuronal repair after stroke exists.
        Jo Bowyer
        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

        Comment


        • #5
          Severity of Depression, Anxious Distress and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in a Swedish Population-Based Cohort

          http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0140742

          Abstract

          Background

          Depression is known to be associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This population-based cohort study aimed to determine the association between depression of varying severity and risk for CVD and to study the effect of concomitant anxious distress on this association.

          Methods

          We utilized data from a longitudinal cohort study of mental health, work and relations among adults (20–64 years), with a total of 10,443 individuals. Depression and anxious distress were assessed using psychiatric rating scales and defined according to DSM-5. Outcomes were register-based and self-reported cardiovascular diseases.

          Findings

          Overall increased odds ratios of 1.5 to 2.6 were seen for the different severity levels of depression, with the highest adjusted OR for moderate depression (OR 2.1 (95% CI 1.3, 3.5). Similar odds ratios were seen for sub-groups of CVD: ischemic/hypertensive heart disease and stroke, 2.4 (95% CI 1.4, 3.9) and OR 2.1 (95%CI 1.2, 3.8) respectively. Depression with anxious distress as a specifier of severity showed OR of 2.1 (95% CI 1.5, 2.9) for CVD.

          Conclusion

          This study found that severity level of depression seems to be of significance for increased risk of CVD among depressed persons, although not in a dose-response manner which might be obscured due to treatment of depression. Further, we found a higher risk of CVD among depressed individuals with symptoms of anxious distress.
          concomitant anxious distress is not just a marker for an increased risk of a worse prognosis of depression but also a marker for a future risk of CVD, which stresses the need to always include anxious distress in assessments of depressed patients.
          I remember the City of London pre 'Big Bang'. Nowadays, it is not unusual for traders to work 80 hour weeks and support staff are also working longer hours at higher intensity. 'City medicine (and surgery)' is becoming a speciality in London to the extent that we now have multidisciplinary meetings with the word 'city' in the title. Most who work there prefer to access care within the square mile, but I get several for second opinion if their loved ones are worried about apparent lack of progress. I am all for this newish category of anxious distress. In my early days as a medical physio, my CVS patients were usually middle aged smokers. Nowadays, they are in their 30s and often fathers of young children, some of them look healthy but appearances can be deceiving. A CVS family history prompts me to flag up lifestyle issues and to examine necks sl-ow-ly. Necks are designed to move, but high velocity thrust, whiplash type force and head banging dance styles should be undertaken consensually, one of the chiropractic patients I saw on Sunday was totally OK with my stance on this, although I have no doubt that when he goes back to the USA, he will continue to see chiropractors who use HVLAT.
          Jo Bowyer
          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

          Comment


          • #6
            Endothelial dysfunction: a comprehensive appraisal

            http://www.cardiab.com/content/5/1/4

            Abstract
            The endothelium is a thin monocelular layer that covers all the inner surface of the blood vessels, separating the circulating blood from the tissues. It is not an inactive organ, quite the opposite. It works as a receptor-efector organ and responds to each physical or chemical stimulus with the release of the correct substance with which it may maintain vasomotor balance and vascular-tissue homeostasis. It has the property of producing, independently, both agonistic and antagonistic substances that help to keep homeostasis and its function is not only autocrine, but also paracrine and endocrine. In this way it modulates the vascular smooth muscle cells producing relaxation or contraction, and therefore vasodilatation or vasoconstriction. The endothelium regulating homeostasis by controlling the production of prothrombotic and antithrombotic components, and fibrynolitics and antifibrynolitics. Also intervenes in cell proliferation and migration, in leukocyte adhesion and activation and in immunological and inflammatory processes. Cardiovascular risk factors cause oxidative stress that alters the endothelial cells capacity and leads to the so called endothelial "dysfunction" reducing its capacity to maintain homeostasis and leads to the development of pathological inflammatory processes and vascular disease.

            There are different techniques to evaluate the endothelium functional capacity, that depend on the amount of NO produced and the vasodilatation effect. The percentage of vasodilatation with respect to the basal value represents the endothelial functional capacity. Taking into account that shear stress is one of the most important stimulants for the synthesis and release of NO, the non-invasive technique most often used is the transient flow-modulate "endothelium-dependent" post-ischemic vasodilatation, performed on conductance arteries such as the brachial, radial or femoral arteries. This vasodilatation is compared with the vasodilatation produced by drugs that are NO donors, such as nitroglycerine, called "endothelium independent". The vasodilatation is quantified by measuring the arterial diameter with high resolution ultrasonography. Laser-Doppler techniques are now starting to be used that also consider tissue perfusion.

            There is so much proof about endothelial dysfunction that it is reasonable to believe that there is diagnostic and prognostic value in its evaluation for the late outcome. There is no doubt that endothelial dysfunction contributes to the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic disease and could be considered an independent vascular risk factor. Although prolonged randomized clinical trials are needed for unequivocal evidence, the data already obtained allows the methods of evaluation of endothelial dysfunction to be considered useful in clinical practice and have overcome the experimental step, being non-invasive increases its value making it use full for follow-up of the progression of the disease and the effects of different treatments.
            Review
            Ever since the endothelium was discovered by microscopical examination, it has always been considered to be a lining that acted as a barrier stopping intravascular coagulation. Nevertheless, in the last decades, the recognition of its multiple functions has shown it to be a true regulator of blood flow and tissue homeostasis. Although it is a monolayer that covers the inner surface of the entire vascular system, its total weight is more than a liver and has a mass equal to several hearts or, if it is extended, covers a various tennis courts surface area. For these reason, it has been postulated as the biggest and most important gland of the body [1].
            Oh Wow! I don't expect many to get excited over this apart from lurkers who happen to be classical osteopaths, but it is one of my missing jigsaw pieces.

            Hugely significant for physios with an interest in medical conditions and holding that thought ,how many of our difficult MSK patients have significant CVS family history?




            Electroacupuncture prevents endothelial dysfunction induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury via a cyclooxygenase-2-dependent mechanism: A randomized controlled crossover trial

            http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0178838

            Abstract

            Objective

            Exploring clinically effective methods to reduce ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in humans is critical. Several drugs have shown protective effects, but studies using other interventions have been rare. Electroacupuncture (EA) has induced similar protection in several animal studies but no study has investigated how the effects could be translated and reproduced in humans. This study aimed to explore the potential effect and mechanisms of EA in IR-induced endothelial dysfunction in humans.

            Methods

            This is a prospective, randomized, crossover, sham-controlled trial consisting of two protocols. Protocol 1 was a crossover study to investigate the effect of EA on IR-induced endothelial dysfunction. Twenty healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to EA or sham EA (sham). Flow mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery (BA), nitroglycerin-mediated endothelial independent dilation, blood pressure before and after IR were measured. In protocol 2, seven volunteers were administered COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib (200 mg orally twice daily) for five days. After consumption, volunteers underwent FMD before and after IR identical to protocol 1.

            Results

            In protocol 1, baseline BA diameter, Pre-IR BA diameter and FMD were similar between the two groups (p = NS). After IR, sham group showed significantly blunted FMD (Pre-IR: 11.41 ± 3.10%, Post-IR: 4.49 ± 2.04%, p < 0.001). However, EA protected this blunted FMD (Pre-IR: 10.96 ± 5.30%, Post-IR: 9.47 ± 5.23%, p = NS, p < 0.05 compared with sham EA after IR). In protocol 2, this protective effect was completely abolished by pre-treatment with celecoxib (Pre-IR: 11.05 ± 3.27%; Post-IR: 4.20 ± 1.68%, p = 0.001).

            Conclusion

            EA may prevent IR-induced endothelial dysfunction via a COX-2 dependent mechanism.
            Update 14/06/2017
            Last edited by Jo Bowyer; 14-06-2017, 11:08 AM. Reason: context
            Jo Bowyer
            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

            Comment


            • #7
              A perisinusoidal niche for extramedullary haematopoiesis in the spleen

              http://www.nature.com/nature/journal...ture15530.html

              Abstract
              Abstract• Accession codes• References• Author information• Extended data figures and tables• Supplementary information
              Haematopoietic stresses mobilize haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from the bone marrow to the spleen and induce extramedullary haematopoiesis (EMH). However, the cellular nature of the EMH niche is unknown. Here we assessed the sources of the key niche factors, SCF (also known as KITL) and CXCL12, in the mouse spleen after EMH induction by myeloablation, blood loss, or pregnancy. In each case, Scf was expressed by endothelial cells and Tcf21+ stromal cells, primarily around sinusoids in the red pulp, while Cxcl12 was expressed by a subset of Tcf21+ stromal cells. EMH induction markedly expanded the Scf-expressing endothelial cells and stromal cells by inducing proliferation. Most splenic HSCs were adjacent to Tcf21+ stromal cells in red pulp. Conditional deletion of Scf from spleen endothelial cells, or of Scf or Cxcl12 from Tcf21+ stromal cells, severely reduced spleen EMH and reduced blood cell counts without affecting bone marrow haematopoiesis. Endothelial cells and Tcf21+ stromal cells thus create a perisinusoidal EMH niche in the spleen, which is necessary for the physiological response to diverse haematopoietic stresses.
              Effect of lymphatic and splenic pump techniques on the antibody response to hepatitis B vaccine: a pilot study.

              Abstract
              Osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) facilitates the movement of lymphatic fluid and may enhance the immunologic response to infection or injected antigen. In this investigation, two groups of volunteers were vaccinated with recombinant hepatitis B vaccine, given at 0, 5, and 25 weeks. The experimental group (n = 20) received OMT (lymphatic and splenic pump) three times per week for 2 weeks after each vaccination. Control subjects (n = 19) received vaccine but no OMT. Resultant serum antibody levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Fifty percent of subjects in the treatment group achieved protective antibody titers (> or = 10 mIU/mL) on the 13th week with an average titer of 374 mIU/mL. Only 16% of the control subjects had positive antibody responses, with average titers of 96 mIU/mL. At all time points from week 6 on, the average anti-hepatitis B titer was higher in the treatment group than in the control group. These data suggest an enhanced immunologic response in subjects who received OMT.
              So chances are we can get a few more RBCs out there as well. I always thought my medical inpatients had a few more roses in their cheeks after a couple of sessions of splenic pump, whether or not they were up and about.
              Jo Bowyer
              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

              Comment


              • #8
                The Economic Crisis and Acute Myocardial Infarction: New Evidence Using Hospital-Level Data

                http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0142810

                Abstract

                Objective

                This research sought to assess whether and to what extent the ongoing economic crisis in Italy impacted hospitalizations, in-hospital mortality and expenditures associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).

                Methods

                The data were obtained from the hospital discharge database of the Italian Health Ministry and aggregated at the hospital level. Each hospital (n = 549) was observed for 4 years and was geographically located within a “Sistema Locale del Lavoro” (SLL, i.e., clusters of neighboring towns with a common economic structure). For each SLL, the intensity of the crisis was determined, defined as the 2012–2008 increase in the area-specific unemployment rate. A difference-in-differences (DiD) approach was employed to compare the increases in AMI-related outcomes across different quintiles of crisis intensity.

                Results

                Hospitals located in areas with the highest intensity of crisis (in the fifth quintile) had an increase of approximately 30 AMI cases annually (approximately 13%) compared with hospitals in area with lower crisis intensities (p<0.001). A significant increase in total hospital days was observed (13%, p<0.001) in addition to in-hospital mortality (17%, p<0.001). As a consequence, an increase of around €350.000 was incurred in annual hospital expenditures for AMI (approximately 36%, p<0.001).

                Conclusions

                More attention should be given to the increase in health needs associated with the financial crisis. Policies aimed to contrast unemployment in the community by keeping and reintegrating workers in jobs could also have positive impacts on adverse health outcomes, especially in areas of high crisis intensity.
                Jo Bowyer
                Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                Comment


                • #9
                  Central Post Stroke Pain

                  http://noijam.com/2015/11/25/missing-strokes/

                  A nudge from NOI

                  Such a difficult group to manage as there is so much going on with them.
                  Jo Bowyer
                  Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                  "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    Impaired Hyperemic Response to Exercise Post Stroke

                    http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0144023

                    Abstract

                    Individuals with chronic stroke have reduced perfusion of the paretic lower limb at rest; however, the hyperemic response to graded muscle contractions in this patient population has not been examined. This study quantified blood flow to the paretic and non-paretic lower limbs of subjects with chronic stroke after submaximal contractions of the knee extensor muscles and correlated those measures with limb function and activity. Ten subjects with chronic stroke and ten controls had blood flow through the superficial femoral artery quantified with ultrasonography before and immediately after 10 second contractions of the knee extensor muscles at 20, 40, 60, and 80% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the test limb. Blood flow to the paretic and non-paretic limb of stroke subjects was significantly reduced at all load levels compared to control subjects even after normalization to lean muscle mass. Of variables measured, increased blood flow after an 80% MVC was the single best predictor of paretic limb strength, the symmetry of strength between the paretic and non-paretic limbs, coordination of the paretic limb, and physical activity. The impaired hemodynamic response to high intensity contractions was a better predictor of lower limb function than resting perfusion measures. Stroke-dependent weakness and atrophy of the paretic limb do not explain the reduced hyperemic response to muscle contraction alone as the response is similarly reduced in the non-paretic limb when compared to controls. These data may suggest a role for perfusion therapies to optimize rehabilitation post stroke.
                    Jo Bowyer
                    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      Vasculoprotective Effects of Dietary Cocoa Flavanols in Patients on Hemodialysis: A Double–Blind, Randomized, Placebo–Controlled Trial

                      http://cjasn.asnjournals.org/content...7/CJN.05560515

                      Abstract

                      Background and objectives Hemodialysis (HD) per se entails vascular dysfunction in patients with ESRD. Endothelial dysfunction is a key step in atherosclerosis and is characterized by impaired flow–mediated dilation (FMD). Interventional studies have shown that cocoa flavanol (CF)–rich supplements improve vascular function. Aim of this study was to investigate the effect of flavanol–rich bioactive food ingredients on acute and chronic HD–induced vascular dysfunction in ESRD.

                      Design, setting, participants, & measurements We conducted a randomized, double–blind, placebo–controlled trial from 2012 to 2013. Fifty-seven participants were enrolled, ingested CF-rich beverages (900 mg CF per study day), and were compared with those ingesting CF-free placebo. This included (1) a baseline cross–over acute study to determine safety and efficacy of CF and (2) a subsequent chronic parallel group study with a 30-day follow-up period to study effects of CF on HD–mediated vascular dysfunction entailing (3) an acute substudy during HD in flavanol-naive patients and (4) an acute on chronic study during HD. Primary and secondary outcome measures included changes in FMD and hemodynamics.

                      Results CF ingestion was well tolerated. Acute ingestion improved FMD by 53% (3.2±0.6% to 4.8±0.9% versus placebo, 3.2±0.7% to 3.3±0.8%; P<0.001), with no effects on BP or heart rate. A 30-day ingestion of CF led to an increase in baseline FMD by 18% (3.4±0.9% to 3.9±0.8% versus placebo, 3.5±0.7% to 3.5±0.7%; P<0.001), with reduced diastolic BP (73±12 to 69±11 mmHg versus placebo, 70±11 to 73±13 mmHg; P=0.03) and increased heart rate (70±12 to 74±13 bpm versus placebo, 75±15 to 74±13 bpm; P=0.01). No effects were observed for placebo. Acute ingestion of CF during HD alleviated HD–induced vascular dysfunction (3.4±0.9% to 2.7±0.6% versus placebo, 3.5±0.7% to 2.0±0.6%; P<0.001). This effect was sustained throughout the study (acute on chronic, 3.9±0.9% to 3.0±0.7% versus placebo, 3.5±0.7% to 2.2±0.6; P=0.01).

                      Conclusions Dietary CF ingestion mitigates acute HD–induced and chronic endothelial dysfunction in patients with ESRD and thus, improves vascular function in this high-risk population. Larger clinical trials are warranted to test whether this translates into an improved cardiovascular prognosis in patients with ESRD.
                      Jo Bowyer
                      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        Patient Characteristics and Comorbidities Influence Walking Distances in Symptomatic Peripheral Arterial Disease: A Large One-Year Physiotherapy Cohort Study

                        http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0146828

                        Abstract

                        Objectives

                        The aim of this study is to investigate the association between age, gender, body-mass index, smoking behavior, orthopedic comorbidity, neurologic comorbidity, cardiac comorbidity, vascular comorbidity, pulmonic comorbidity, internal comorbidity and Initial Claudication Distance during and after Supervised Exercise Therapy at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months in a large sample of patients with Intermittent Claudication.

                        Methods

                        Data was prospectively collected in standard physiotherapy care. Patients received Supervised Exercise Therapy according to the guideline Intermittent Claudication of the Royal Dutch Society for Physiotherapy. Three-level mixed linear regression analysis was carried out to analyze the association between patient characteristics, comorbidities and Initial Claudication Distance at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months.

                        Results

                        Data from 2995 patients was analyzed. Results showed that being female, advanced age and a high body-mass index were associated with lower Initial Claudication Distance at all-time points (p = 0.000). Besides, a negative association between cardiac comorbidity and Initial Claudication Distance was revealed (p = 0.011). The interaction time by age, time by body-mass index and time by vascular comorbidity were significantly associated with Initial Claudication Distance (p≤ 0.05). Per year increase in age (range: 33–93 years), the reduction in Initial Claudication Distance was 8m after 12 months of Supervised Exercise Therapy. One unit increase in body-mass index (range: 16–44 kg/m2) led to 10m less improvement in Initial Claudication Distance after 12 months and for vascular comorbidity the reduction in improvement was 85m after 12 months.

                        Conclusions

                        This study reveals that females, patients at advanced age, patients with a high body-mass index and cardiac comorbidity are more likely to show less improvement in Initial Claudication Distances (ICD) after 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of Supervised Exercise Therapy. Further research should elucidate treatment adaptations that optimize treatment outcomes for these subgroups.
                        Jo Bowyer
                        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          Harms of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm: is there more to life than a 0·46% disease-specific mortality reduction?

                          http://www.thelancet.com/journals/la...rgery%7CLancet

                          from Simon Gandevia's twitter
                          Jo Bowyer
                          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                          Comment


                          • #14
                            Effect of Early Intervention with Positive Airway Pressure Therapy for Sleep Disordered Breathing on Six-Month Readmission Rates in Hospitalized Patients with Heart Failure

                            http://www.ajconline.org/article/S00...077-1/abstract

                            Abstract
                            Re-hospitalization for congestive heart failure (CHF) is high within six months of discharge. Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is common and under-diagnosed condition in CHF patients. We hypothesized that early recognition and treatment of SDB in hospitalized CHF patients will reduce hospital readmissions and emergency room (ER) visits. Patients admitted for CHF underwent overnight polysomnography within four weeks of discharge. Patients diagnosed with SDB were provided therapy with positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy. Patients were identified as having good compliance if device use was for a minimum of 4 hours 70% of the time for a minimum of 4 weeks during the first 3 months of therapy. Hospital admissions for six months before therapy were compared with readmission within six months post therapy in patients with good and poor compliance. A total of 70 patients were diagnosed with sleep disordered breathing post discharge. Of the 70 patients, 37 (53%) were compliant with PAP therapy. Compliant patients were more likely to be older (64±12 vs 58±11 years) and female (54% vs. 33%) and less likely to be diabetic (40 % vs. 67%) versus non-compliant patients. Although both groups experienced a decrease in total readmissions, compliant patients had a significant reduction(mean ± SE: - 1.5± 0.2 clinical events Vs - 0.2 ± 0.3) (p< 0.0001). In this single center analysis, identification and treatment of SDB in admitted CHF patients with SDB is associated with reduced readmissions over 6 months after discharge. Adherence to the treatment was associated with a greater reduction in clinical events.
                            I would like to see more work done on addressing the predisposing factors to sleep disordered breathing. Some of which, in some cases, are lifestyle choices.
                            Last edited by Jo Bowyer; 27-01-2016, 11:31 AM.
                            Jo Bowyer
                            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                            Comment


                            • #15
                              Are hypertensive women at additional risk of ischaemic heart disease from physically demanding work?

                              http://cpr.sagepub.com/content/early...47487316631681

                              Abstract

                              Background The combination of hypertension and high physical activity at work may increase blood pressure considerably and increase the risk of atherosclerosis and thereby ischaemic heart disease (IHD), but only a few studies in men, and none among women, have examined this topic.

                              Design This was a prospective cohort study.

                              Methods In 1993, 12,093 female nurses from the Danish Nurse Cohort Study, aged 45–64 years answered a baseline questionnaire on physical activity at work, history of hypertension, a selection of known risk factors for IHD and occupational factors. Information on incident IHD from baseline to 2008 was retrieved by individual linkage to the National Register of Hospital Discharges.

                              Results In a fully adjusted Cox model, hypertensive nurses with high physical activity at work had nearly three times higher risk of IHD (hazard ratio (HR) 2.87 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.12–3.87)) compared to normotensive nurses with moderate physical activity at work. Significant additive interaction between physical activity at work and hypertension was found measured by the relative excess risk due to additive interaction (RERI) (1.20 (95% CI 0.26–2.14), and in an additive hazards model. Hypertensive nurses with high physical activity at work had 60 additional cases of IHD per 10,000 person years compared to normotensive nurses with moderate physical activity at work (60.0 (95% CI 38.1–81.9; p < 0.001)), of which more than half was explained by additive interaction (40.7 (95% CI 11.7–69.7; p = 0.006)). No multiplicative interaction (p = 0.249) was found.

                              Conclusions This study among Danish nurses indicated that hypertensive women may be at particular high risk of IHD from physically demanding work.
                              No specific mention of obesity or smoking here.
                              Jo Bowyer
                              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                              Comment

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