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  • #31
    Short-Term Effects of Kefir-Fermented Milk Consumption on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Metabolism in a Randomized Clinical Trial of Osteoporotic Patients

    http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0144231

    Originating from the North Caucasus, kefir-fermented milk has been confirmed in multiple studies to include probiotics formed by bacteria and yeast. The health functions of kefir have been mostly verified, including improved intestinal flora and lactose intolerance; enhanced immune function, inhibitory activity, antitumor activity and antioxidant effects; and reduced cholesterol. Studies have found that milk fermented with Lactobacillus helveticus can increase calcium metabolism or slow calcium loss in postmenopausal women [23]. Another study confirmed that fermented milk can reduce bone resorption at night in postmenopausal women [24]. Elucidating the effects of osteoporosis and nutrition supplements with kefir-fermented milk on bone mineral density (BMD) is important in clinical practice. Therefore, clarify the correlations between BMD and bone turnover markers and treatment with kefir-fermented milk to prevent or delay osteoporosis need to be validate in clinical trial.
    I find the taste disgusting.:zip:

    I have persevered and can now eat it.

    Update 04/06/2017
    Last edited by Jo Bowyer; 04-06-2017, 10:56 PM.
    Jo Bowyer
    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

    Comment


    • #32
      Poor diet quality may prolong recovery following injury

      http://www.bodyinmind.org/influence-...ody+in+Mind%29

      Taken together, we believe that our results suggest that poor diet and the physiological changes that arise because of it could be an underlying mechanism that contributes to chronic pain in humans. While we agree that increased weight causes significant stress in weight-bearing joints (knees, back), obese humans develop pain in other areas that are not weight-bearing (neck, fingers, shoulders) suggesting other factors may also contribute7. Currently we are examining the impact of poor diet on immune system activity and whether an anti-inflammatory diet can reverse the negative effects of a poor diet. It is our hope that, in the near future, diets can serve as a healthy alternative to pharmaceuticals when treating chronic pain.
      Jo Bowyer
      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

      Comment


      • #33
        Temperature and Time of Steeping Affect the Antioxidant Properties of White, Green, and Black Tea Infusions

        http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/1...13149/abstract

        Keywords:
        antioxidants;Camellia sinensis;free radical scavenging activity;reactive oxygen species;tea

        Abstract
        Tea (Camellia sinensis) is the most highly consumed beverage in the world next to water. The common way of preparation is steeping in hot water which is varying for different type of tea. We investigated the antioxidant properties of 6 type of tea leaves under different time and temperatures of extraction method used. In general, all samples tested in this study demonstrated high levels of antioxidant capacity and antioxidant activity. The results indicate that the antioxidants activity is significantly affected by time and temperature of steeping and the highest was depending on the variety. White state values, green and black teas showed different levels of antioxidants under different extraction conditions. Overall, the highest activity for white tea was in prolonged hot and in some assays prolonged hot and cold extracts, whereas for green tea the highest activity observed in prolonged cold steeping while, for black tea was in short hot water infusion. The results of this study showed the antioxidant capacity of white and green tea was greater than black tea.
        Practical Application
        Considering tea as a healthy drink, a source of pharmacologically active molecules, an important member of the antioxidant food group, it is essential to develop a standard and integrated method for preparing different types of tea infusions to maximize its potential health benefits.
        Jo Bowyer
        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

        Comment


        • #34
          Nonoperative treatment of appendicitis may have unknown long-term risks and costs

          http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases...1217143344.htm

          Prompt appendectomy has been the standard treatment of appendicitis for more than 120 years. It is the most frequently performed urgent abdominal operation in the U.S.,1where an estimated 300,000 cases of appendicitis are diagnosed each year.2

          However, in the past 20 years, some research studies from Europe, including one this year,3 have concluded that some patients with acute uncomplicated appendicitis -- meaning the appendix has not ruptured -- can cure their appendicitis by taking antibiotics alone. That study found that the one in four patients who later needed removal of their appendix did not have a higher rate of postoperative complications or a greater risk of a ruptured appendix.3

          "Despite the generally low rate of complications after appendectomy, some U.S. physicians and the public are questioning whether we should change to nonoperative treatment of appendicitis, as many surgeons in Europe already have done," said the study's lead investigator, Anne P. Ehlers, MD, a research fellow in the Department of Surgery at the University of Washington, Seattle.

          "What we found in our review," Dr. Ehlers said, "is that antibiotics-first treatment of appendicitis is probably safe for adults and successful in 3 out of 4 patients. However, there are many unanswered questions about outcomes of antibiotics-first treatment that patients have told us are important to them. These include their quality of life, long term residual symptoms, time to return to work and school and other financial considerations."

          Important differences exist between the U.S. and European health care systems and surgical approaches, and the European studies potentially had limitations that might prevent their findings from being applied in general surgical practice, the authors wrote in their article. Therefore, they conducted a systematic review to summarize the best available research studies published on this topic, identify the studies' limitations and the current gaps in knowledge about the new treatment approach, and guide physicians who may want to adopt an antibiotics-first strategy.
          19th century osteopaths and naturopaths used to treat appendicitis with rest, fasting, wet wraps and nursing care. They reckoned that one in 3 would survive, much depended on the contribution made by the greater omentum which wraps around inflamed intra abdominal structures and is an important part of the GIT immune system.




          Get to know the omentum: The apron of fat that protects your abdomen

          https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0601124006.htm

          The quirkiest organ in the human body may be a large sheet of fat that stretches over the intestines, liver, and stomach like an elastic apron. Sometimes called the "policeman of the abdomen," the omentum is known to secrete hormones related to obesity, and we're still learning new information about its functions. In a review published June 1 in Trends in Immunology, researchers discuss how the omentum is also an important immune organ that serves as a first line of defense against toxins and infection -- hardly what you'd expect from a layer of fat.

          The omentum's immune functions come from groups of small, white filters located among the fat cells. Anatomists first discovered these cell clusters in rabbits around 1874, giving them the name milky spots. Recent research has shown that they aid the omentum by collecting information about the health of the abdominal cavity. While the size and shape of the omentum varies, milky spots speckle the entire tissue and serve as a filter for surrounding fluid.

          "The fluid around the abdominal organs doesn't just sit there, it circulates through the milky spots," says Troy D. Randall, a clinical immunologist at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, who co-wrote the review with postdoctoral fellow Selene Meza-Perez. "Milky spots collect cells, antigens, and bacteria before deciding what's going to happen immunologically."

          The milky spots' analyses cause the omentum to respond immunologically by releasing inflammatory molecules, tolerating the presence of an antigen, or beginning the process of fibrosis. Humans develop milky spots in their omentum during early development, before bacteria even appears, indicating its role as a primary immune organ.

          Unfortunately, even protective organs make mistakes. "In concerns to tumor cells, the omentum makes the wrong decision," Randall says. "It decides to provide tolerance instead of immunity." While tumors of the omentum are uncommon, the circulating fluids bring back cancer cells into the milky spots, where they get trapped like grass in a pool filter, promoting metastasis. It is a breeding ground for aggressive tumors such as in ovarian and gastrointestinal cancer.

          Scientists hope to target these sites of tumor growth with therapies that can control abdominal tumors and assist anti-tumor immunity. "If we can figure this out, then we can start really making inroads on cancer treatments because, in most cases, you don't even catch ovarian cancer until it metastasizes," Randall says. "Understanding how cancer changes the immune system will lead us directly to ways to intervene and, hopefully, start to turn things around."
          Update 04/06/2017
          Last edited by Jo Bowyer; 04-06-2017, 10:43 PM.
          Jo Bowyer
          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

          Comment


          • #35
            Drugging the microbiome may treat heart disease

            http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases...1217130328.htm

            A first-of-a-kind drug that interferes with the metabolic activity of gut microbes could one day treat heart disease in humans, according to a mouse study. Dietary supplementation with a compound that is naturally abundant in red wine and olive oil prevented gut microbes from turning unhealthy foods into metabolic byproducts that clog arteries.
            Jo Bowyer
            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

            Comment


            • #36
              Reduced Responses of Submucous Neurons from Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients to a Cocktail Containing Histamine, Serotonin, TNFα, and Tryptase (IBS-Cocktail)

              http://journal.frontiersin.org/artic...015.00465/full

              Background and Aims: Malfunctions of enteric neurons are believed to play an important role in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Our aim was to investigate whether neuronal activity in biopsies from IBS patients is altered in comparison to healthy controls (HC).

              Methods: Activity of human submucous neurons in response to electrical nerve stimulation and local application of nicotine or a mixture of histamine, serotonin, tryptase, and TNF-α (IBS-cocktail) was recorded in biopsies from 17 HC and 35 IBS patients with the calcium-sensitive-dye Fluo-4 AM. The concentrations of the mediators resembeled those found in biopsy supernatants or blood. Neuronal activity in guinea-pig submucous neurons was studied with the voltage-sensitive-dye di-8-ANEPPS.

              Results: Activity in submucous ganglia in response to nicotine or electrical nerve stimulation was not different between HC and IBS patients (P = 0.097 or P = 0.448). However, the neuronal response after application of the IBS-cocktail was significantly decreased (P = 0.039) independent of whether diarrhea (n = 12), constipation (n = 5) or bloating (n = 5) was the predominant symptom. In agreement with this we found that responses of submucous ganglia conditioned by overnight incubation with IBS mucosal biopsy supernatant to spritz application of this supernatant was significantly reduced (P = 0.019) when compared to incubation with HC supernatant.

              Conclusion: We demonstrated for the first time reduced neuronal responses in mucosal IBS biopsies to an IBS mediator cocktail. While excitability to classical stimuli of enteric neurons was comparable to HC, the activation by the IBS-cocktail was decreased. This was very likely due to desensitization to mediators constantly released by mucosal and immune cells in the gut wall of IBS patients.



              Protein-rich diet may help soothe inflamed gut

              https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0803141045.htm

              Immune cells patrol the gut to ensure that harmful microbes hidden in the food we eat don't sneak into the body. Cells that are capable of triggering inflammation are balanced by cells that promote tolerance, protecting the body without damaging sensitive tissues. When the balance tilts too far toward inflammation, inflammatory bowel disease can result.

              Now, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have found that a kind of tolerance-promoting immune cell appears in mice that carry a specific bacterium in their guts. Further, the bacterium needs tryptophan -- one of the building blocks of proteins -- to trigger the cells' appearance.

              "We established a link between one bacterial species -- Lactobacillus reuteri -- that is a normal part of the gut microbiome, and the development of a population of cells that promote tolerance," said Marco Colonna, MD, the Robert Rock Belliveau MD Professor of Pathology and the study's senior author. "The more tryptophan the mice had in their diet, the more of these immune cells they had."

              If such findings hold true for people, it would suggest that the combination of L. reuteri and a tryptophan-rich diet may foster a more tolerant, less inflammatory gut environment, which could mean relief for the million or more Americans living with the abdominal pain and diarrhea of inflammatory bowel disease.
              Tryptophan -- commonly associated with turkey -- is a normal part of the mouse and the human diet. Protein-rich foods contain appreciable amounts: nuts, eggs, seeds, beans, poultry, yogurt, cheese, even chocolate.
              It is possible to make kefir with soya milk.
              Last edited by Jo Bowyer; 04-08-2017, 03:33 PM.
              Jo Bowyer
              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

              Comment


              • #37
                Diet quality improves for parents and children when almonds are incorporated into their daily diet: a randomized, crossover study

                http://www.nrjournal.com/article/S02...282-1/abstract

                Abstract
                The health benefits of nuts may, in part, be due to the fiber that provides substrate for the maintenance of a healthy and diverse microbiota. We hypothesized that consuming almonds would benefit immune status through improving diet quality and modulation of microbiota composition in parents and their children, while improving gastrointestinal function. In a crossover trial, 29 parents (35 ± 0.6 years) and their children (n = 29; 4 ± 0.2 years; pairs) consumed 1.5 and 0.5 oz, respectively, of almonds and/or almond butter or control (no almonds) for 3 weeks followed by 4-week washouts. Parents completed daily questionnaires of stool frequency and compliance with nut intake. The Gastrointestinal Symptom Response Scale was administered weekly. Participants provided stools for microbiota analysis and saliva for secretory immunoglobulin A. Serum antioxidant/proinflammatory balance was determined in parents. From weekly dietary recalls (Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall), nutrient and energy intake were assessed and Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores were calculated. Consuming almonds increased total Healthy Eating Index score from 53.7 ± 1.8 to 61.4 ± 1.4 (parents) and 53.7 ± 2.6 to 61.4 ± 2.2 (children; P < .001). Minimal changes in gastrointestinal symptoms and no change in stool frequency were noted with the almond intervention. Microbiota was stable at the phylum and family level, but genus-level changes occurred with nut intake, especially in children. No differences were observed for immune markers. Although higher intakes of almonds or longer interventions may be needed to demonstrate effects on immune status, a moderate intake of almonds improves diet quality in adults and their young children and modulates microbiota composition.
                Jo Bowyer
                Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                Comment


                • #38
                  Vitamin D associates with improved quality of life in participants with irritable bowel syndrome: outcomes from a pilot trial

                  http://bmjopengastro.bmj.com/doi/10....st-2015-000052

                  Introduction
                  Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic disorder which profoundly affects quality of life with a prevalence of 10–15% in the industrialised world.1 IBS is a relapsing condition that has a large social impact and is associated with significant direct and indirect healthcare costs.1 It is a heterogeneous disorder that can be subtyped depending on the bowel habits of patients; IBS with constipation (IBS-C), IBS with diarrhoea (IBS-D) or IBS with mixed bowel habits (IBS-M).2

                  IBS pathogenesis is poorly understood and it is generally regarded as a multifactorial disorder involving host and environmental factors, including diet. Most hypotheses involve altered intraluminal milieu, immune activation, enteric neuromuscular dysfunction and brain–gut axis dysregulation. It is thought that the intestinal microbiota might play an important role as bacterial infection, antibiotic use and chronic low-grade inflammation are associated with IBS onset.3 Several studies have implicated changes in the colon microbiota may be associated with IBS symptoms, including perturbation in bile acid metabolism and electrolyte absorption.4 This theory is further supported by generally beneficial effects of bacteriotherapeutic interventions (vide infra).

                  Therapy for IBS is primarily targeted at treating the symptoms experienced, and include loperamide for diarrhoea, methylcellulose for constipation and smooth-muscle relaxants for abdominal pain.2 Nonetheless, symptom treatment meets with limited success and may not be effective for long-term management of IBS.

                  Mounting data suggest that probiotics may be beneficial in the management of IBS. A recent systematic review of 35 trials investigating probiotic use in IBS showed that 25 of these studies reported a beneficial effect on the primary outcomes including global symptom severity.5 6 The effect on secondary outcomes varied between studies with improvements seen in flatulence and abdominal bloating following treatment with VSL#3.7 8 Other studies demonstrated a decrease in abdominal pain after 4 weeks of treatment with Lactobacillus plantarum 299V when compared to control.9 Our previous work has demonstrated an improvement in global symptom severity in people with IBS following 8 weeks of supplementation with LAB4 probiotic.10

                  We recently reported a case study of an IBS patient taking high dose (3000 IU daily) vitamin D. The participant reported remission of IBS symptoms following supplementation, with a recurrence of the symptoms on supplementation cessation. Additionally, analysis of social media (blogs/forums) reports from 37 IBS patients found that 70% described improvements in their symptoms with supplementation and the majority of these individuals reported being vitamin D deficient before supplementation.11 A role for vitamin D supplementation in gastrointestinal health is also supported by studies showing associations between vitamin D deficiency and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).12 A recent systematic review suggested there may be benefits of vitamin D supplementation in IBD.13

                  On the basis of our previous case report,11 we hypothesised that patients with IBS who are vitamin D insufficient, would report improvement in symptoms following vitamin D supplementation. We further sought to test whether vitamin D supplementation in combination with a probiotic preparation would act synergistically.

                  There are no published randomised controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation in IBS and therefore no data on which to base a power calculation. A formal aim of this trial is to provide data to allow such calculations to be undertaken, enabling properly scaled clinical trials to be designed.
                  Jo Bowyer
                  Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                  "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                  Comment


                  • #39
                    Short- and Long- Term Efficacy of Psychological Therapies for Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

                    http://www.cghjournal.org/article/S1...706-1/abstract

                    Abstract
                    Background & Aims
                    Several meta-analyses have demonstrated the efficacy of psychological therapies for reducing gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, no meta-analysis has investigated the duration of these effects. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the immediate, short-term, and long-term efficacy of psychotherapy for reducing GI symptoms in adults with IBS.

                    Methods
                    We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Science Direct, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses through August 15th 2015 for randomized controlled trials that compared psychological therapy to an active or non-active comparison condition (controls) for treatment of GI symptoms in adults with IBS.

                    Results
                    Forty-one trials were included in our meta-analysis, comprising data from 2290 individuals (1183 assigned to psychotherapy and 1107 assigned to a control condition). Compared to a mixed group of control conditions, psychological therapies had a medium effect on GI symptom severity (Math Eq= =0.69) immediately after treatment. On average, individuals who received psychotherapy had a greater reduction in GI symptoms following treatment than 75% of individuals assigned to a control condition. After short-term follow-up periods (1–6 months after treatment) and long-term follow-up periods (6–12 months after treatment), this effect remained significant and medium in magnitude (Math Eq=0.76 and Math Eq=0.73, respectively).

                    Conclusions
                    Psychological therapies reduce GI symptoms in adults with IBS. These effects remained significant and medium in magnitude after short- and long-term follow-up periods.
                    Jo Bowyer
                    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                    Comment


                    • #40
                      Early life exercise may promote lasting brain and metabolic health through gut bacterial metabolites

                      Abstract
                      The 100 trillion microorganisms residing within our intestines contribute roughly 5 million additional genes to our genetic gestalt, thus posing the potential to influence many aspects of our physiology. Microbial colonization of the gut shortly after birth is vital for the proper development of immune, neural and metabolic systems, while sustaining a balanced, diverse gut flora populated with beneficial bacteria is necessary for maintaining optimal function of these systems. Although symbiotic host-microbial interactions are important throughout the lifespan, these interactions can have greater and longer lasting impacts during certain critical developmental periods. A better understanding of these sensitive periods is necessary to improve the impact and effectiveness of health promoting interventions that target the microbial ecosystem. We have recently reported that exercise initiated in early life increases gut bacterial species involved in promoting psychological and metabolic health. In this review, we emphasize the ability of exercise during this developmentally receptive time to promote optimal brain and metabolic function across the lifespan through microbial signals.
                      my italics
                      Jo Bowyer
                      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                      Comment


                      • #41
                        Colorectal cancer more likely to affect minorities at younger age

                        http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases...0112125510.htm

                        Colorectal cancer is the third most common form of cancer and the second most common cause of cancer deaths in the United States. The chance of developing colorectal cancer increases with age. Now, a study by University of Missouri School of Medicine researchers shows that minority and ethnic groups are being diagnosed with colorectal cancer at younger ages and more advanced stages than non-Hispanic whites.

                        "While we know the risk of developing colorectal cancer increases with age, little is known about its prevalence within various minority and ethnic groups," said Jamal Ibdah, M.D., Ph.D., a professor of medicine and Raymond E. and Vaona H. Peck Chair in Cancer Research at the MU School of Medicine and lead author of the study. "Hispanic, Asian, Pacific Islander, American Indian, Alaska Native and African-American populations are the fastest-growing racial and ethnic minority groups in the United States. Having the most accurate statistical data is critical to providing cancer prevention and control programs for these groups."

                        Ibdah's research team used the databases Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) to analyze the prevalence, stage and survival rates for colorectal cancer diagnoses in the U.S. based on race and ethnicity from 1973 to 2009.

                        "We found that minorities under the age of 50 were twice as likely to be diagnosed with colorectal cancer compared to non-Hispanic whites," said Ibdah, who also serves as director of the Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology at the MU School of Medicine. "On average, minorities were diagnosed between the ages of 64 and 68, while non-Hispanic whites were typically diagnosed at age 72. When diagnosed, minority groups also had more advanced stages of cancer."

                        Ibdah said that several issues could influence the development of colorectal cancer at a younger age, such as hereditary and environmental factors, diet and lifestyle. Possible reasons for advanced stage diagnosis among minorities may include lower screening rates, lower income levels, and reduced access to education and health care.

                        "Regular screening for colorectal cancer is essential for prevention and early diagnosis," Ibdah said. "Our findings suggest a need for further studies to examine current guidelines for all minority groups in the U.S. and the development of possible new interventional strategies."
                        It tends to metastasise to the liver, patients may complain of epigastric pain, but are unlikely to mention pale, poorly formed, difficult to flush stools unless asked. It is possible that the primary be passed with the stool and that the patient has been scoped and nothing found. LFTs will flag up the fact that something is amiss, which usually leads to referral for liver ultrasound.




                        Connecting the dots between insulin resistance, unhealthy blood vessels and cancer

                        This research highlights biological mechanisms driven by insulin resistance that impair blood vessel health and may be shared by both cancer and cardiovascular disease.
                        Over the decades, scientists have repeatedly shown that patients with increased levels of the hormone insulin in their blood can experience increased risks of cancer. Surprisingly, however, Joslin Diabetes Center researchers now have discovered that impaired effects of insulin also can boost these risks.

                        The Joslin team found that intestinal tumors grow just as quickly in a mouse cancer model whose "epithelial" cells lining the inside of the intestine have been genetically modified so that insulin can't activate the cells. A second surprise came when the investigators discovered that such tumors grow more quickly in mice when cells in blood vessels surrounding the intestine were genetically modified in the same way.

                        The research highlights biological mechanisms driven by insulin resistance that impair blood vessel health and may be shared by both cancer and cardiovascular disease, says Christian Rask-Madsen, M.D., Ph.D., a Joslin assistant investigator, an assistant professor at Harvard Medical School and corresponding author on a paper describing the work in the journal Oncogene.
                        In earlier work as a postdoctoral researcher in the lab of George King, M.D., Joslin's chief scientific officer, Rask-Madsen studied the links between insulin resistance and arterial disease. This research helped to show that insulin resistance in vascular endothelial cells can create a pro-inflammatory state marked by the heightened presence of certain cell adhesion proteins that make immune cells stick to endothelial cells, the first step in enabling the immune cells to travel from the blood stream to tissues.

                        Now applying the concept to tumor formation, Rask-Madsen and his colleagues discovered similar signs of a pro-inflammatory state in the mice with insulin receptors knocked-out in vascular endothelial cells. These mice displayed higher levels of both cell-adhesion proteins and of immune cells called neutrophils. This would be expected to promote tumor progression and could therefore explain the increase in tumors in these mice.
                        Although scientists have examined insulin action in tumors for years, the ability to knock out the insulin receptor in specific types of tumor cells adds a level of sophistication to these investigations, Rask-Madsen emphasizes. "It's also important to look not only at different tumor cell transformations but at all the cells in the tumor microenvironment, including these endothelial cells," he says.

                        "We have a real opportunity to propose mechanisms for the risk factors that overlap for cardiovascular disease and cancer formation," he adds. "We're very interested to see if modifying these risk factors could improve vascular function and reduce risk of both cancer and cardiovascular disease."
                        Update 02/05/2017
                        Last edited by Jo Bowyer; 02-05-2017, 12:25 PM.
                        Jo Bowyer
                        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                        Comment


                        • #42
                          Diet-induced extinctions in the gut microbiota compound over generations

                          http://www.nature.com/nature/journal...ture16504.html

                          The gut is home to trillions of microorganisms that have fundamental roles in many aspects of human biology, including immune function and metabolism1, 2. The reduced diversity of the gut microbiota in Western populations compared to that in populations living traditional lifestyles presents the question of which factors have driven microbiota change during modernization. Microbiota-accessible carbohydrates (MACs) found in dietary fibre have a crucial involvement in shaping this microbial ecosystem, and are notably reduced in the Western diet (high in fat and simple carbohydrates, low in fibre) compared with a more traditional diet3. Here we show that changes in the microbiota of mice consuming a low-MAC diet and harbouring a human microbiota are largely reversible within a single generation. However, over several generations, a low-MAC diet results in a progressive loss of diversity, which is not recoverable after the reintroduction of dietary MACs. To restore the microbiota to its original state requires the administration of missing taxa in combination with dietary MAC consumption. Our data illustrate that taxa driven to low abundance when dietary MACs are scarce are inefficiently transferred to the next generation, and are at increased risk of becoming extinct within an isolated population. As more diseases are linked to the Western microbiota and the microbiota is targeted therapeutically, microbiota reprogramming may need to involve strategies that incorporate dietary MACs as well as taxa not currently present in the Western gut.
                          To restore the microbiota to its original state requires the administration of missing taxa
                          via a poo transplant
                          Jo Bowyer
                          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                          Comment


                          • #43
                            The Host Shapes the Gut Microbiota via Fecal MicroRNA

                            http://www.cell.com/cell-host-microb...128(15)00497-7

                            DISCUSSION
                            The gut harbors approximately 10–100 trillion microorganisms, which include 100–200 different bacterial species and approximately 2–4 million genes (Faith et al., 2013). How the microbes are selected and whether the host specifically regulates microbial gene expression is not clear. Here, we identified fecal miRNAs and found that they directly regulate specific bacterial gene expression and affect gut microbial growth. Fecal miRNAs have not been characterized in normal human and animal feces. We found that miRNAs are a normal component in feces in both mice and humans and identified gut epithelial cells and +4 niche-derived Hopx-expressing cells as two main sources of the fecal miRNAs. We found that fecal miRNAs are present in extracellular vesicles. However, since miRNAs are stable compared to other RNAs (Jung et al., 2010), whether fecal miRNAs could exist in EV-free forms, such as associating with high-density lipoproteins or argonaute protein (Creemers et al., 2012), or in a completely free form, needs further investigation.

                            Using miRBase (Kozomara and Griffiths-Jones, 2014), we identified that fecal miRNAs could base pair with specific bacterial genes (Table S6). By using E. coli and Fn, a species that has been reported to promote colorectal cancer (Rubinstein et al.,2013), as models, we observed that miRNAs were able to enter bacteria and co-localize with bacterial nucleic acids. This provides a temporal and spatial basis for miRNA-bacteria gene interaction. We observed that different miRNAs had different capacities to enter bacteria. This may in part explain their different regulatory effects. However, the mechanisms controlling the entry
                            of miRNAs into bacteria, as well as the mechanisms by which miRNAs are processed after they enter bacteria, require future investigation.
                            Jo Bowyer
                            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                            Comment


                            • #44
                              Social behavior shapes the chimpanzee pan-microbiome

                              http://advances.sciencemag.org/conte.../e1500997.full

                              Humans and other primates acquire their resident microorganisms from conspecifics through cohabitation and social interaction (1–3). Therefore, primate sociality may be essential to the long-term preservation of the diverse residents of the gut microbiome, many of which benefit hosts by training the immune system, metabolizing otherwise indigestible molecules, protecting against opportunistic infections, and synthesizing nutrients (4, 5). To evaluate the role of host social behavior in shaping gut microbial communities and in transmitting microbial diversity both within and between host generations, we coupled more than eight years (November 2000 to December 2008) of behavioral observation of Kasekela chimpanzees in Gombe, Tanzania, with deep sequencing of their gut microbiomes.
                              Our obsession with hygiene may have limitations.
                              Jo Bowyer
                              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                              Comment


                              • #45
                                Alternating or continuous exposure to cafeteria diet leads to similar shifts in gut microbiota compared to chow diet

                                http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/1...00815/abstract

                                Abstract

                                Keywords:
                                Binge eating;Metabolic disease;Microbiota;Obesity;Western cafeteria diet

                                Scope
                                Overconsumption of energy-rich food is a major contributor to the obesity epidemic. The eating habits of many people are characterised by the cycling between overconsumption of energy-rich foods and dieting, the effects of which on the microbiota are currently unknown.

                                Methods and Results
                                We compared the faecal microbiota of rats either continuously fed chow or palatable cafeteria diet to a ‘cycled’ group switched between the two diets (chow for 4, cafeteria for 3 days/week, n = 12/group) over 16 weeks. Enriched bacterial metabolic pathways were predicted, and a range of metabolic parameters were correlated to microbial taxa and pathways. Cycled rats showed large excursions in food intake on each diet switch. When switched from chow to cafeteria, they over-consumed, and when switched back to chow they under-consumed relative to those maintained on the two diets. Metabolic parameters of cycled rats were intermediate between those of the other diet groups (P<0.05). The microbiota of cycled rats was nearly indistinguishable from rats under constant cafeteria diet, and both groups were significantly different to the chow group. Correlation analyses identified microbial metabolic pathways associated with an obese phenotype.

                                Conclusion
                                These data suggest that continuous or intermittent exposure to palatable foods have similar effects on the gut microbiota.
                                This is thought to have implications for humans who eat a reducing diet during the week and takeaways at the weekend.
                                Jo Bowyer
                                Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                                "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

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