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  • #91
    A Multimodal Counseling-Based Adolescent Physical Activity Intervention

    http://www.jahonline.org/article/S10...091-4/abstract

    Abstract
    Purpose
    National guidelines recommend adolescents achieve 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)/day, yet few adolescents meet these guidelines.

    Methods
    We piloted a novel quasi-randomized physical activity intervention to promote adolescent's use of their surrounding built environment among 30 intervention and 30 control overweight/obese adolescents aged 10–16 years living in greater Boston from 2013 to 2015. Location-specific MPVA was measured by accelerometry and global positioning system for three one-week periods (Time 1 [T1], Time 2 [T2], and Time 3 [T3]). One month after T1, intervention participants received individualized counseling on how to use their surrounding built environment to increase MVPA, and control participants received standard-of-care lifestyle modification counseling; both groups received their T1 physical activity data. T2 assessment occurred the week after the counseling visit and T3 assessment 3–4 months later. The main outcome was change in average daily minutes of MVPA; the secondary outcome was meeting national MVPA guidelines. Multivariable modeling accounted for covariates (baseline MVPA, body mass index, age, sex, race/ethnicity) and clustering by study group and town.

    Results
    Among the 60 adolescents recruited, 55 (92%) completed data collection. Short-term (T2) intervention effects included increased average MVPA of +13.9 minutes intervention versus −.6 minutes control (p < .0001). Differential increase in mean daily MVPA was sustained at T3 (9.3 minutes more in intervention group; p = .0006). The proportion of adolescents in the intervention group who achieved 60 minutes/day of MVPA increased from 11% (T1) to 21% (T2), whereas declining (7%–0%) among controls.

    Conclusions
    Individualized counseling about the built environment can help increase MVPA among overweight and obese adolescents.
    Keywords:
    Physical activity, Built environment, Adolescents, Overweight, Obesity, Intervention, Counseling
    Jo Bowyer
    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

    Comment


    • #92
      Effect of Interpersonal Interaction on Festinating Gait Rehabilitation in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

      http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0155540

      Abstract

      Although human walking gait rhythms are generated by native individual gait dynamics, these gait dynamics change during interactions between humans. A typical phenomenon is synchronization of gait rhythms during cooperative walking. Our previous research revealed that fluctuation characteristics in stride interval of subjects with Parkinson’s disease changed from random to 1/f fluctuation as fractal characteristics during cooperative walking with the gait assist system Walk-Mate, which emulates a human interaction using interactive rhythmic cues. Moreover, gait dynamics were relearned through Walk-Mate gait training. However, the system’s clinical efficacy was unclear because the previous studies did not focus on specific gait rhythm disorder symptoms. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of Walk-Mate on festinating gait among subjects with Parkinson’s disease. Three within-subject experimental conditions were used: (1) preinteraction condition, (2) interaction condition, and (3) postinteraction condition. The only difference between conditions was the interactive rhythmic cues generated by Walk-Mate. Because subjects with festinating gait gradually and involuntarily decreased their stride interval, the regression slope of stride interval as an index of severity of preinteraction festinating gait was elevated. The regression slope in the interaction condition was more gradual than during the preinteraction condition, indicating that the interactive rhythmic cues contributed to relieving festinating gait and stabilizing gait dynamics. Moreover, the gradual regression slope was carried over to the postinteraction condition, indicating that subjects with festinating gait have the potential to relearn stable gait dynamics. These results suggest that disordered gait dynamics are clinically restored through interactive rhythmic cues and that Walk-Mate may have the potential to assist therapists in more effective rehabilitation.
      Jo Bowyer
      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

      Comment


      • #93
        Chemotherapy and exercise: The right dose of workout helps side effects

        https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0604051004.htm

        Researchers at the University of Rochester Wilmot Cancer Institute discovered something simple and inexpensive to reduce neuropathy in hands and feet due to chemotherapy--exercise.

        The study, involving more than 300 cancer patients, is to be presented this weekend and honored as a "Best of ASCO" among 5,800 abstracts at the world's largest gathering of oncologists, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) annual meeting 2016. More than a dozen other Wilmot scientists also were invited to present data at the meeting.

        Investigators in the exercise study directly compared the neuropathic symptoms in non-exercisers to the pain among patients who took part in a specialized six-week walking routine with gentle, resistance-band training at home.

        The exercisers reported significantly fewer symptoms of neuropathy--which includes shooting or burning pain, tingling, numbness, and sensitivity to cold--and the effects of exercise seemed to be most beneficial for older patients, said lead author Ian Kleckner, Ph.D., a biophysicist and research assistant professor in Wilmot's Cancer Control and Survivorship program. Kleckner also won an ASCO Merit Award in the pain and symptom management category, and was invited to give a talk about his work.

        Not all chemotherapy drugs cause neuropathy, but 60 percent of people with breast cancer and other solid tumors who receive taxanes, vinca alkaloids, and platinum-based chemotherapies will likely suffer this type of side effect, Kleckner said. Neuropathy is more commonly associated with diabetes or nerve damage. No FDA-approved drugs are available to prevent or treat chemotherapy-induced neuropathy, he added.

        Wilmot's specialized exercise program, called EXCAP (Exercise for Cancer Patients), was developed several years ago at the UR by Karen Mustian, Ph.D., M.P.H., an associate professor in the Cancer Control program. In recent years she has copyrighted and evaluated EXCAP in several clinical trials. Last year at ASCO, Mustian presented data from a randomized, controlled study of 619 patients showing that EXCAP reduced chronic inflammation and cognitive impairment among people receiving chemotherapy. Kleckner's study involved a subset of patients from Mustian's trial, which is the largest phase 3 confirmatory exercise study ever conducted among cancer patients during chemotherapy. Their work is funded by the National Cancer Institute and Mustian's PEAK lab.

        Exercise--as a cancer prevention tool and potential treatment--is a hot topic among the nation's oncologists and their patients.

        Kleckner, a longtime drug-free body builder and former college rugby player, said he's committed to understanding more deeply the benefits of exercise for cancer patients. "Exercise is like a sledgehammer because it affects so many biological and psycho-social pathways at the same time--brain circuitry, inflammation, our social interactions--whereas drugs usually have a specific target," he said. "Our next study is being designed to find out how exercise works, how the body reacts to exercise during cancer treatment, and how exercise affects the brain."
        Jo Bowyer
        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

        Comment


        • #94
          Head and Tibial Acceleration as a Function of Stride Frequency and Visual Feedback during Running

          http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0157297

          Abstract

          Individuals regulate the transmission of shock to the head during running at different stride frequencies although the consequences of this on head-gaze stability remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine if providing individuals with visual feedback of their head-gaze orientation impacts tibial and head accelerations, shock attenuation and head-gaze motion during preferred speed running at different stride frequencies. Fifteen strides from twelve recreational runners running on a treadmill at their preferred speed were collected during five stride frequencies (preferred, ±10% and ±20% of preferred) in two visual task conditions (with and without real-time visual feedback of head-gaze orientation). The main outcome measures were tibial and head peak accelerations assessed in the time and frequency domains, shock attenuation from tibia to head, and the magnitude and velocity of head-gaze motion. Decreasing stride frequency resulted in greater vertical accelerations of the tibia (p<0.01) during early stance and at the head (p<0.01) during early and late stance; however, for the impact portion the increase in head acceleration was only observed for the slowest stride frequency condition. Visual feedback resulted in reduced head acceleration magnitude (p<0.01) and integrated power spectral density in the frequency domain (p<0.01) in late stance, as well as overall of head-gaze motion (p<0.01). When running at preferred speed individuals were able to stabilize head acceleration within a wide range of stride frequencies; only at a stride frequency 20% below preferred did head acceleration increase. Furthermore, impact accelerations of the head and tibia appear to be solely a function of stride frequency as no differences were observed between feedback conditions. Increased visual task demands through head gaze feedback resulted in reductions in head accelerations in the active portion of stance and increased head-gaze stability.
          It's good to see a movement paper where the vestibular component is taken into consideration.
          Jo Bowyer
          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

          Comment


          • #95
            Why physical therapy treatments for low back pain may not be living up to their potential

            http://www.bodyinmind.org/physical-t...ody+in+Mind%29




            Influences of lumbar disc herniation on the kinematics in multi-segmental spine, pelvis, and lower extremities during five activities of daily living

            https://bmcmusculoskeletdisord.biome...891-017-1572-7

            Abstract

            Background
            Low back pain (LBP) is a common problem that can contribute to motor dysfunction. Previous studies reporting the changes in kinematic characteristics caused by LBP present conflicting results. This study aimed to apply the multisegmental spinal model to investigate the kinematic changes in patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH) during five activities of daily living (ADLs).

            Methods
            Twenty-six healthy subjects and 7 LDH patients participated in this study and performed level walking, stair climbing, trunk flexion, and ipsilateral and contralateral pickups. The angular displacement of the thorax, upper lumbar (ULx), lower lumbar (LLx), pelvis, hip, and knee was calculated using a modified full-gait-model in the AnyBody modeling system.

            Results
            In the patient group, the ULx almost showed no sagittal angular displacement while the LLx remained part of the sagittal angular displacement during trunk flexion and the two pickups. In the two pickups, pelvic tilt and lower extremities’ flexion increased to compensate for the deficiency in lumbar motion. LDH patients exhibited significantly less pelvic rotation during stair climbing and greater pelvic rotation in other ADLs, except in contralateral pickup. In addition, LDH patients demonstrated more antiphase movement in the transverse plane between ULx and LLx, during level walking and stair climbing, between thorax and pelvis in the two pickups.

            Conclusions
            LDH patients mainly restrict the motion of LLx and ULx in the spinal region during the five ADLs. Pelvic rotation is an important method to compensate for the limited lumbar motion. Furthermore, pelvic tilt and lower extremities’ flexion increased when ADLs were quite difficult for LDH patients.
            Keywords

            Kinematics Multi-segmental spine Lumbar disc herniation Computing model

            Update 26/05/2017
            Last edited by Jo Bowyer; 26-05-2017, 01:05 PM.
            Jo Bowyer
            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

            Comment


            • #96
              Impaired Decision Making May Contribute to Motor Symptoms in Parkinson’s

              http://neurosciencenews.com/decision...rkinsons-4501/

              Publishing in the June 16 issue of the journal Current Biology, the UCLA-led team found that, compared to healthy individuals, people with early-stage Parkinson’s have difficulty with perceptual decision-making only when the sensory information before them is weak enough that they must draw on prior experiences. When the sensory information is strong, individuals with Parkinson’s are able to make decisions as well as people who are healthy.

              The finding may help explain a well-known phenomenon associated with Parkinson’s, called paradoxical movement, in which people with the disease – often even while medicated with dopamine therapy – have difficulty initiating walking. Typically, these people have a shuffling gait, along with stooped posture. But when the same people are assisted by strong sensory information, such as horizontal lines drawn on the floor for them to step over, their walking and gait are significantly improved.
              Jo Bowyer
              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

              Comment


              • #97
                Knee Kinematics Estimation Using Multi-Body Optimisation Embedding a Knee Joint Stiffness Matrix: A Feasibility Study

                http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0157010

                Abstract

                The use of multi-body optimisation (MBO) to estimate joint kinematics from stereophotogrammetric data while compensating for soft tissue artefact is still open to debate. Presently used joint models embedded in MBO, such as mechanical linkages, constitute a considerable simplification of joint function, preventing a detailed understanding of it. The present study proposes a knee joint model where femur and tibia are represented as rigid bodies connected through an elastic element the behaviour of which is described by a single stiffness matrix. The deformation energy, computed from the stiffness matrix and joint angles and displacements, is minimised within the MBO. Implemented as a “soft” constraint using a penalty-based method, this elastic joint description challenges the strictness of “hard” constraints. In this study, estimates of knee kinematics obtained using MBO embedding four different knee joint models (i.e., no constraints, spherical joint, parallel mechanism, and elastic joint) were compared against reference kinematics measured using bi-planar fluoroscopy on two healthy subjects ascending stairs. Bland-Altman analysis and sensitivity analysis investigating the influence of variations in the stiffness matrix terms on the estimated kinematics substantiate the conclusions. The difference between the reference knee joint angles and displacements and the corresponding estimates obtained using MBO embedding the stiffness matrix showed an average bias and standard deviation for kinematics of 0.9±3.2° and 1.6±2.3 mm. These values were lower than when no joint constraints (1.1±3.8°, 2.4±4.1 mm) or a parallel mechanism (7.7±3.6°, 1.6±1.7 mm) were used and were comparable to the values obtained with a spherical joint (1.0±3.2°, 1.3±1.9 mm). The study demonstrated the feasibility of substituting an elastic joint for more classic joint constraints in MBO.
                Jo Bowyer
                Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                Comment


                • #98
                  Cortical Motor Circuits after Piano Training in Adulthood: Neurophysiologic Evidence

                  http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0157526

                  Abstract

                  The neuronal mechanisms involved in brain plasticity after skilled motor learning are not completely understood. We aimed to study the short-term effects of keyboard training in music-naive subjects on the motor/premotor cortex activity and interhemispheric interactions, using electroencephalography and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Twelve subjects (experimental group) underwent, before and after a two week-piano training: (1) hand-motor function tests: Jamar, grip and nine-hole peg tests; (2) electroencephalography, evaluating the mu rhythm task-related desynchronization (TRD) during keyboard performance; and (3) TMS, targeting bilateral abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM), to obtain duration and area of ipsilateral silent period (ISP) during simultaneous tonic contraction of APB and ADM. Data were compared with 13 controls who underwent twice these measurements, in a two-week interval, without undergoing piano training. Every subject in the experimental group improved keyboard performance and left-hand nine-hole peg test scores. Pre-training, ISP durations were asymmetrical, left being longer than right. Post-training, right ISPAPB increased, leading to symmetrical ISPAPB. Mu TRD during motor performance became more focal and had a lesser amplitude than in pre-training, due to decreased activity over ventral premotor cortices. No such changes were evidenced in controls. We demonstrated that a 10-day piano-training was associated with balanced interhemispheric interactions both at rest and during motor activation. Piano training, in a short timeframe, may reshape local and inter-hemispheric motor cortical circuits.
                  Jo Bowyer
                  Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                  "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                  Comment


                  • #99
                    Motor Cortical Plasticity to Training Started in Childhood: The Example of Piano Players

                    http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0157952

                    Abstract

                    Converging evidence suggest that motor training is associated with early and late changes of the cortical motor system. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) offers the possibility to study plastic rearrangements of the motor system in physiological and pathological conditions. We used TMS to characterize long-term changes in upper limb motor cortical representation and interhemispheric inhibition associated with bimanual skill training in pianists who started playing in an early age. Ipsilateral silent period (iSP) and cortical TMS mapping of hand muscles were obtained from 30 strictly right-handed subjects (16 pianists, 14 naïve controls), together with electromyographic recording of mirror movements (MMs) to voluntary hand movements. In controls, motor cortical representation of hand muscles was larger on the dominant (DH) than on the non-dominant hemisphere (NDH). On the contrary, pianists showed symmetric cortical output maps, being their DH less represented than in controls. In naïve subjects, the iSP was smaller on the right vs left abductor pollicis brevis (APB) indicating a weaker inhibition from the NDH to the DH. In pianists, interhemispheric inhibition was more symmetric as their DH was better inhibited than in controls. Electromyographic MMs were observed only in naïve subjects (7/14) and only to voluntary movement of the non-dominant hand. Subjects with MM had a lower iSP area on the right APB compared with all the others. Our findings suggest a more symmetrical motor cortex organization in pianists, both in terms of muscle cortical representation and interhemispheric inhibition. Although we cannot disentangle training-related from preexisting conditions, it is possible that long-term bimanual practice may reshape motor cortical representation and rebalance interhemispheric interactions, which in naïve right-handed subjects would both tend to favour the dominant hemisphere.
                    Jo Bowyer
                    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                    Comment


                    • Motor-Evoked Potentials in the Lower Back Are Modulated by Visual Perception of Lifted Weight

                      http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0157811

                      Introduction

                      In social interactions, humans demonstrate a remarkable ability to effortlessly understand and interpret the behavior and intention of others. With regard to this topic, it has been found that within this process the visual perception of human movements activates a complex cortical network that involves visual processing regions [1–3] as well as motor intention [4, 5] or motor and somatosensory representations in the brain [6–13] which belong to the so-called mirror neuron system [14]. Direct electrophysiological recordings in monkeys [15–18] and humans [19] have shown a discharge in such mirror neurons during execution and perception of actions.

                      The mere observation of actions is known to modulate motor excitability, which can be assessed by TMS [20–22]. TMS is a valuable, noninvasive tool to stimulate small brain regions and thereby to measure motor activation during the observation of other’s action. It was shown that parts of M1 that control particular muscles become increasingly facilitated during the mere observation of actions [20, 21]. It can be used to monitor changes in corticospinal excitability that specifically accompany motor performance [23] by measuring the amplitude of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the electromyogram recorded from the target muscle.

                      Such changes in the corticospinal excitability are specific for the muscles involved in the observed movement [24–28] and have revealed a shared temporal representation between the execution and observation of the same action [29–31]. In one paradigm the subjects observed reach-grasp-lift actions with MEPs elicited in three forearm/hand muscles [32] or abduction/adduction movements of the right index finger [33]. These studies found that the modulation of the MEPs directly corresponded with the grip force needed for holding and lifting the objects of various weights or differed in terms of force requirements of the finger abduction/adduction movement, respectively. Alaerts et al. [32, 34] and Helm et al. [33] thus showed that even the muscular force requirements of observed actions are reflected in the TMS-induced MEPs and concluded that the force requirements are encoded also in M1. There are indications that further features of actions are represented on a cortical neural level, such as accuracy affordances [35, 36] and effort [37].

                      People can accurately judge the weight of a box lifted from the ground by another person [38–41]. It has been suggested that the perception of the force requirements needed to visually judge the lifted weight are derived mainly from kinematic cues [42, 43]. This process also requires an inference of the force to be produced by the back musculature, i.e., the ES, which is strongly involved in such a whole-body lifting movements [44]. de Lussanet et al. [40, 41] have shown that such a sensorimotor, but not visual, judgment can be impaired in patients suffering from chronic low back pain or chronic shoulder pain which indicates that there is a link between chronic pain and the recognition of other people’s actions.

                      It is well-established that the ES and other lower back muscles have smaller sensorimotor representations compared to the hand musculature [45] which primarily refers to the size of the corresponding cortical surface. This is, inter alia, also reflected by the large difference in tactile acuity between the skin of the hand and the back. See Catley et al. [46] for a comparison using two-point discrimination tasks. Cortical representations of muscular movements are furthermore known to be much more detailed for muscles involved in precise and fine movements than for those involved in simpler movements. The large muscles of the back which merely maintain the upright posture are less physiologically endowed than the small muscles of the hands or the face. Additionally, the projection of the ES was found not to be as powerful for example, as that described in the intrinsic hand muscles [47]. Given on the one hand that the action observation process partly integrates necessary motor information and on the other hand that there is such a comparatively small representation of the back, it is unclear whether to expect a similar TMS-induced MEP modulation in the lower back musculature as compared to Alaerts et al. [32] due to the observation of a lifting movement.

                      But nonetheless, the ability to infer the goals or the intentions of observed actions is very robust which is necessary to successfully interact with others. It has been suggested that the process of recognising such goals can be understood within the so-called predictive coding framework [48] which states that the brain continually generates models of observed actions by minimizing the prediction error though recurrent or reciprocal interactions among levels of a cortical hierarchy that are engaged during action observation. It is considered an efficient way of processing the wealth of incoming information based on previous experience and also to infer motor intention.

                      However, as action understanding is a vital capability and as there is a direct link between motor control and the visual perception of human movements we hypothesized that the corticospinal excitability of the lower back musculature should be detectably modulated with the observation of visually presented lifting movements. Given that TMS is well-known to be an appropriate technique to assess corticospinal excitability modulations at the level of M1 [22, 49], it was used in the present study to explore excitability modulations during the observation of lifting movements that involve the lower back on a large scale. We expected that the muscular force requirements of the lower back are reflected in the MEPs measured in the ES.


                      The influence of fatigue and chronic low back pain on muscle recruitment patterns following an unexpected external perturbation

                      https://bmcmusculoskeletdisord.biome...891-017-1523-3

                      Abstract

                      Background
                      Chronic low back pain (CLBP) has been associated with altered trunk muscle responses as well as increased muscle fatigability. CLBP patients and fatigued healthy subjects could experience similar neuromuscular strategies to attempt to protect the spine. The current study examined muscle activation differences between healthy and CLBP subjects following a perturbation. In addition, the possible role of muscle fatigue was evaluated by investigating the healthy control subjects in a non-fatigued and a fatigued condition. Both experiments were combined to evaluate possible similar strategies between CLBP and fatigued samples.

                      Methods
                      Cross-sectional study where 24 CLBP subjects and 26 healthy subjects were evaluated. Both groups (CLBP vs. healthy) and both conditions (non-fatigued and a fatigued condition) were evaluated while a weight was suddenly dropped on a held tray. Erector spinae, multifidus, obliques and biceps brachii were recorded using surface electromyography. Variables describing the bursts timing and variables describing the amount of muscle activity (number of bursts and amplitude increase) post impact were studied. The analysis between groups and conditions was carried out using ANOVAs with repeated measurements for the muscle factor.

                      Results
                      CLBP subjects reacted similarly to healthy subjects regarding muscle activity post impact. However, the CLBP group showed temporal characteristics of muscle activity that were in between the fatigued and non-fatigued healthy group. Clear differences in muscle activity were displayed for healthy subjects. Fatigued healthy subjects presented more reduced activity after impact (upper limb and trunk muscles) than non-fatigued healthy subjects and different temporal characteristic in the same way than CLBP patients. This same temporal characteristic with CLBP and healthy fatigued people was a delay of the first burst of muscle activity after impact.

                      Conclusion
                      Though similar muscle pattern existed between CLBP and healthy people, CLBP temporal characteristics of muscle activity showed a pattern in between healthy people and fatigued healthy people. While the temporal muscle pattern dysfunction used by CLBP subjects could be related to maladaptive patterns, temporal and muscle activity characteristics used by healthy fatigued people may lead to back injuries.
                      Keywords

                      Electromyography Fatigue Muscle pattern Low back pain Semi-squat
                      Last edited by Jo Bowyer; 21-04-2017, 10:22 AM.
                      Jo Bowyer
                      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                      Comment


                      • Review Of &quot;Strength Training And Coordination: An Integrative Approach&quot; By Frans Bosch

                        http://www.bettermovement.org/blog/2...by-frans-bosch

                        Beautifully written book review by Todd Hargrove.
                        Jo Bowyer
                        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                        Comment


                        • Cerebral mechanisms underlying the effects of music during a fatiguing isometric ankle-dorsiflexion task

                          http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/1...00236d30d3a080

                          Abstract
                          The brain mechanisms by which music-related interventions ameliorate fatigue-related symptoms during the execution of fatiguing motor tasks are hitherto under-researched. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of music on brain electrical activity and psychophysiological measures during the execution of an isometric fatiguing ankle-dorsiflexion task performed until the point of volitional exhaustion. Nineteen healthy participants performed two fatigue tests at 40% of maximal voluntary contraction while listening to music or in silence. Electrical activity in the brain was assessed by use of a 64-channel EEG. The results indicated that music downregulated theta waves in the frontal, central, and parietal regions of the brain during exercise. Music also induced a partial attentional switching from associative thoughts to task-unrelated factors (dissociative thoughts) during exercise, which led to improvements in task performance. Moreover, participants experienced a more positive affective state while performing the isometric task under the influence of music.
                          via #psychophysiology
                          Jo Bowyer
                          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                          Comment


                          • Lower limb alignment characteristics are not associated with running injuries in runners: Prospective cohort study.

                            https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/27312709/

                            Abstract
                            There is conflicting evidence on the association between lower limb alignment characteristics and the incidence of running-related injury (RRI). Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to investigate the association between lower limb alignment characteristics and the incidence proportion of RRI in a convenience sample of recreational runners. A total of 89 recreational runners were included in this prospective cohort study. These participants had been running for at least six months and were injury-free at baseline. Lower limb alignment measurements were conducted in order to calculate lower limb discrepancy, Q-angle, subtalar angle and plantar index. All participants also answered a baseline and biweekly online surveys about their running routine, history of RRI and newly developed RRI over a period of 12 weeks. The prevalence of previous RRI and the 12-week incidence proportion of new RRI were calculated. Logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the association between lower limb length discrepancy, Q-angle, subtalar angle and plantar ach index with the incidence proportion of RRI. The prevalence of previous RRI was 55.1% (n = 49). The 12-week incidence proportion of new RRI was 27.0% (n = 24). Muscle injuries and tendinopathies were the main types of RRI identified. The lower leg and the knee were the main anatomical regions affected. We did not find significant associations between lower limb length discrepancy, Q-angle, subtalar angle and plantar arch index and injury occurrence.
                            via @AdamMeakins
                            Jo Bowyer
                            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                            Comment


                            • The effects of Tai Chi and neck exercises in the treatment of chronic non-specific neck pain: A randomized controlled trial

                              http://www.jpain.org/article/S1526-5...105-5/abstract

                              Highlights

                              Tai Chi provides moderate benefit for patients with chronic non-specific neck pain.

                              Tai Chi exercises appear to be as effective as conventional exercises for neck pain.

                              After 12 weeks a pain reduction of ≥50% was observed by 36.8% in the Tai Chi group.

                              A pain reduction of ≥50% was observed by 45.9% after conventional neck exercises.

                              Tai Chi and conventional neck exercises appear to be safe and well tolerated.
                              Abstract
                              This study aimed to test the efficacy of Tai Chi for treating chronic neck pain.

                              Subjects with chronic non-specific neck pain were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of group Tai Chi or conventional neck exercises with weekly sessions of 75-90 minutes, or a wait-list control. The primary outcome measure was pain intensity (visual analog scale, VAS). Secondary outcomes included pain on movement, functional disability, quality of life, well-being and perceived stress, postural and interoceptive awareness, satisfaction and safety.

                              Altogether, 114 participants were included (91 females, 49.4±11.7 years). After 12 weeks Tai Chi participants reported significantly less pain compared to the wait list (average difference in mm VAS: -10.5; 95%CI:-20.3,-0.9;p=0.033). Group differences were also found for pain on movement, functional disability and quality of life compared to wait list. No differences were found for Tai Chi compared to neck exercises. Patients’ satisfaction with both exercise interventions was high, and only minor side effects were observed.

                              Tai Chi was more effective than no treatment in improving pain in subjects with chronic non-specific neck pain. Since Tai Chi is probably as effective as neck exercises it may be considered a suitable alternative to conventional exercises for those with a preference towards Tai Chi.
                              Key Words:
                              Neck pain, Chronic pain, Tai Chi, neck exercises, spinal exercises, randomized controlled trial, efficacy

                              via @SimonGandevia
                              Jo Bowyer
                              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                              Comment


                              • One Small Step for Babies, One Giant Leap for Mankind

                                http://neurosciencenews.com/baby-wal...oscience-4616/

                                Even before they stand up, infants have a rough idea of how to walk; they just need some time to lay down the right neural wiring. Understanding how babies take their first steps can also help us to improve the rehabilitation of patients recovering from spinal cord injury, and children with cerebral palsy.


                                Locomotor Primitives in NewbornBabies and Their Development
                                https://www.researchgate.net/publica...ir_Development

                                Abstract
                                How rudimentary movements evolve into sophisticated ones during development remains unclear. It is often assumed that the primitive patterns of neural control are suppressed during development, replaced by entirely new patterns. Here we identified the basic patterns of lumbosacral motoneuron activity from multimuscle recordings in stepping neonates, toddlers, preschoolers, and adults. Surprisingly, we found that the two basic patterns of stepping neonates are retained through development, augmented by two new patterns first revealed in toddlers. Markedly similar patterns were observed also in the rat, cat, macaque, and guineafowl, consistent with the hypothesis that, despite substantial phylogenetic distances and morphological differences, locomotion in several animal species is built starting from common primitives, perhaps related to a common ancestral neural network.
                                Jo Bowyer
                                Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                                "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

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