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  • Posture alteration as a measure to accommodate uneven ground in able-bodied gait

    http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0190135

    Abstract


    Though the effects of imposed trunk posture on human walking have been studied, less is known about such locomotion while accommodating changes in ground level. For twelve able participants, we analyzed kinematic parameters mainly at touchdown and toe-off in walking across a 10-cm visible drop in ground level (level step, pre-perturbation step, step-down, step-up) with three postures (regular erect, ~30° and ~50° of trunk flexion from the vertical). Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs revealed step-specific effects of posture on the kinematic behavior of gait mostly at toe-off of the pre-perturbation step and the step-down as well as at touchdown of the step-up. In preparation to step-down, with increasing trunk flexion the discrepancy in hip−center of pressure distance, i.e. effective leg length, (shorter at toe-off versus touchdown), compared with level steps increased largely due to a greater knee flexion at toe-off. Participants rotated their trunk backwards during step-down (2- to 3-fold backwards rotation compared with level steps regardless of trunk posture) likely to control the angular momentum of their whole body. The more pronounced trunk backwards rotation in trunk-flexed walking contributed to the observed elevated center of mass (CoM) trajectories during the step-down which may have facilitated drop negotiation. Able-bodied individuals were found to recover almost all assessed kinematic parameters comprising the vertical position of the CoM, effective leg length and angle as well as hip, knee and ankle joint angles at the end of the step-up, suggesting an adaptive capacity and hence a robustness of human walking with respect to imposed trunk orientations. Our findings may provide clinicians with insight into a kinematic interaction between posture and locomotion in uneven ground. Moreover, a backward rotation of the trunk for negotiating step-down may be incorporated into exercise-based interventions to enhance gait stability in individuals who exhibit trunk-flexed postures during walking.
    Jo Bowyer
    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

    Comment


    • Midbrain 'start neurons' control whether we walk or run

      https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0117131149.htm
      Jo Bowyer
      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

      Comment


      • Structure, function, and control of the human musculoskeletal network

        http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology...l.pbio.2002811
        Jo Bowyer
        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

        Comment


        • Selective Suppression of Local Interneuron Circuits in Human Motor Cortex Contributes to Movement Preparation

          http://www.jneurosci.org/content/38/5/1264?etoc=
          Abstract

          Changes in neural activity occur in the motor cortex before movement, but the nature and purpose of this preparatory activity is unclear. To investigate this in the human (male and female) brain noninvasively, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to probe the excitability of distinct sets of excitatory inputs to corticospinal neurons during the warning period of various reaction time tasks. Using two separate methods (H-reflex conditioning and directional effects of TMS), we show that a specific set of excitatory inputs to corticospinal neurons are suppressed during motor preparation, while another set of inputs remain unaffected. To probe the behavioral relevance of this suppression, we examined whether the strength of the selective preparatory inhibition in each trial was related to reaction time. Surprisingly, the greater the amount of selective preparatory inhibition, the faster the reaction time was. This suggests that the inhibition of inputs to corticospinal neurons is not involved in preventing the release of movement but may in fact facilitate rapid reactions. Thus, selective suppression of a specific set of motor cortical neurons may be a key aspect of successful movement preparation.
          SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT

          Movement preparation evokes substantial activity in the motor cortex despite no apparent movement. One explanation for the lack of movement is that motor cortical output in this period is gated by an inhibitory mechanism. This notion was supported by previous noninvasive TMS studies of human motor cortex indicating a reduction of corticospinal excitability. On the contrary, our data support the idea that there is a coordinated balance of activity upstream of the corticospinal output neurons. This includes a suppression of specific local circuits that supports, rather than inhibits, the rapid generation of prepared movements. Thus, the selective suppression of local circuits appears to be an essential part of successful movement preparation instead of an external control mechanism.
          Jo Bowyer
          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

          Comment


          • Using pedometers in a short term walking program boosts long term activity

            https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0309170715.htm
            Jo Bowyer
            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

            Comment


            • Factors affecting walking ability in female patients with rheumatoid arthritis

              http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0195059
              Abstract

              Objective

              To determine the factors associated with gait parameters in female patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

              Methods

              The gait analysis was performed in a large cohort of RA patients, and three basic gait parameters (step length, cadence and gait speed) were calculated. Clinical and laboratory data were also collected. Factors associated with gait parameters were analyzed using multivariable linear regression in the three models with forced entry. Then, we divided those patients with Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index (HAQ) scores ≤ 0.5 into two groups according to their gait speed that were compared to identify the characteristics of patients with a good HAQ score but poor walking ability.

              Results

              A total of 318 female patients were analyzed. Knee extension strength had the strongest positive association with all three gait parameters (P < 0.0001), while methotrexate use was also positively associated with all three gait parameters (step length: P < 0.05, cadence: P < 0.05 in model 1 and 2; P < 0.01 in model 3, gait speed: P < 0.01). The disease activity score was negatively associated with step length and gait speed (step length, gait speed: P < 0.01 in model 1 and 2; P < 0.05 in model 3). 26% of patients with good HAQ scores showed slow gait speed. Patients with good HAQ scores and slow gait speed had higher disease activity scores (P < 0.05) and lower knee extension strength (P < 0.0001) than those with good HAQ scores and normal gait speed.

              Conclusions

              High knee extension strength, low disease activity and administration of methotrexate were strongly associated with good walking ability in female patients with RA. And, even if patients showed good HAQ scores, about quarter of those patients had poor walking ability, and they showed higher disease activity, lower knee extension strength, compared to the patients with normal gait speed.
              Jo Bowyer
              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

              Comment


              • Practicing Tai Chi helps improve respiratory function in patients with COPD

                https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0404182507.htm

                Currently, pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is used where available to improve exercise capacity and quality of life, but the treatment requires access to trained staff and specialized facilities. A new study looked at Tai Chi as a lower cost, more easily accessed treatment option. Investigators found that this slow, methodical form of exercise is equivalent to PR for improving respiratory function in patients with COPD.
                Totally agree, trained staff are expensive. But what about students? I was of the generation of British physio students who were part of the work force, a clinical supervisor was within reach, but we did the work, and it was an excellent introduction to interaction with patients.
                Jo Bowyer
                Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                Comment


                • Get moving to get happier, study finds

                  https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0404163635.htm
                  Jo Bowyer
                  Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                  "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                  Comment


                  • The effects of unexpected mechanical perturbations during treadmill walking on spatiotemporal gait parameters, and the dynamic stability measures by which to quantify postural response


                    http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0195902


                    Abstract


                    Most falls occur after a loss of balance following an unexpected perturbation such as a slip or a trip. Greater understanding of how humans control and maintain stability during perturbed walking may help to develop appropriate fall prevention programs. The aim of this study was to examine changes in spatiotemporal gait and stability parameters in response to sudden mechanical perturbations in medio-lateral (ML) and anterior-posterior (AP) direction during treadmill walking. Moreover, we aimed to evaluate which parameters are most representative to quantify postural recovery responses. Ten healthy adults (mean = 26.4, SD = 4.1 years) walked on a treadmill that provided unexpected discrete ML and AP surface horizontal perturbations. Participants walked under no perturbation (normal walking), and under left, right, forward, and backward sudden mechanical perturbation conditions. Gait parameters were computed including stride length (SL), step width (SW), and cadence, as well as dynamic stability in AP- (MoS-AP) and ML- (MoS-ML) directions. Gait and stability parameters were quantified by means, variability, and extreme values. Overall, participants walked with a shorter stride length, a wider step width, and a higher cadence during perturbed walking, but despite this, the effect of perturbations on means of SW and MoS-ML was not statistically significant. These effects were found to be significantly greater when the perturbations were applied toward the ML-direction. Variabilities, as well as extremes of gait-related parameters, showed strong responses to the perturbations. The higher variability as a response to perturbations might be an indicator of instability and fall risk, on the same note, an adaptation strategy and beneficial to recover balance. Parameters identified in this study may represent useful indicators of locomotor adaptation to successfully compensate sudden mechanical perturbation during walking. The potential association of the extracted parameters with fall risk needs to be determined in fall-prone populations.
                    Jo Bowyer
                    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                    Comment


                    • Physical activity measured with wrist and ankle accelerometers: Age, gender, and BMI effects

                      http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0195996
                      Jo Bowyer
                      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                      Comment


                      • Decoding the Brain’s Learning Machine

                        http://neurosciencenews.com/cerebellum-learning-8959/

                        Jo Bowyer
                        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                        Comment


                        • Kinetic and kinematic variables affecting trunk flexion during level walking in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis

                          http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0197228
                          Jo Bowyer
                          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                          Comment


                          • Idiosyncratic representation of peripersonal space depends on the success of one's own motor actions, but also the successful actions of others!

                            http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0196874
                            Jo Bowyer
                            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                            Comment


                            • Ready for change: Oscillatory mechanisms of proactive motor control

                              http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0196855
                              Jo Bowyer
                              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                              Comment


                              • How the Office Org Chart in Your Brain Helps Organize Your Actions

                                https://neurosciencenews.com/action-orgnization-9472/
                                Jo Bowyer
                                Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                                "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                                Comment

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