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  • Why New Spinal Cord Plasticity Does Not Disrupt Old Motor Behaviors


    http://www.jneurosci.org/content/37/34/8198?etoc=

    Abstract


    When new motor learning changes the spinal cord, old behaviors are not impaired; their key features are preserved by additional compensatory plasticity. To explore the mechanisms responsible for this compensatory plasticity, we transected the spinal dorsal ascending tract before or after female rats acquired a new behavior—operantly conditioned increase or decrease in the right soleus H-reflex—and examined an old behavior—locomotion. Neither spinal dorsal ascending tract transection nor H-reflex conditioning alone impaired locomotion. Nevertheless, when spinal dorsal ascending tract transection and H-reflex conditioning were combined, the rats developed a limp and a tilted posture that correlated in direction and magnitude with the H-reflex change. When the right H-reflex was increased by conditioning, the right step lasted longer than the left and the right hip was higher than the left; when the right H-reflex was decreased by conditioning, the opposite occurred. These results indicate that ascending sensory input guides the compensatory plasticity that normally prevents the plasticity underlying H-reflex change from impairing locomotion. They support the concept of the state of the spinal cord as a negotiated equilibrium that reflects the concurrent influences of all the behaviors in an individual's repertoire; and they support the new therapeutic strategies this concept introduces.

    SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The spinal cord provides a reliable final common pathway for motor behaviors throughout life. Until recently, its reliability was explained by the assumption that it is hardwired; but it is now clear that the spinal cord changes continually as new behaviors are acquired. Nevertheless, old behaviors are preserved. This study shows that their preservation depends on sensory feedback from the spinal cord to the brain: if feedback is removed, the acquisition of a new behavior may disrupt an old behavior. In sum, when a new behavior changes the spinal cord, sensory feedback to the brain guides further change that preserves old behaviors. This finding contributes to a new understanding of spinal cord function and to development of new rehabilitation therapies.
    Jo Bowyer
    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

    Comment


    • Differences in lumbar spine and lower extremity kinematics in people with and without low back pain during a step-up task: a cross-sectional study


      https://bmcmusculoskeletdisord.biome...891-017-1721-z

      Abstract

      Background


      Low back pain (LBP) affects more than one third of the population at any given time, and chronic LBP is responsible for increased medical costs, functional limitations and decreased quality of life. A clear etiology is often difficult to identify, but aberrant posture and movement are considered contributing factors to chronic LBP that are addressed during physiotherapy intervention. Information about aberrant movement during functional activities in people with LBP can help inform more effective interventions. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are differences in lumbar spine and lower extremity kinematics in people with and without LBP during a step-up task.


      Methods


      A convenience sample of 37 participants included 19 with LBP and 18 without a history of LBP. All participants were between the ages of 18 and 65, and controls were matched to participants with LBP based on age, gender and BMI. A motion capture system was used to record spine and lower extremity kinematics during the step-up task. ANOVA tests were used to determine differences in three-dimensional kinematics between groups.


      Results


      Participants with LBP displayed less lower lumbar motion in the sagittal plane (P = 0.001), more knee motion in the coronal plane (P = 0.001), and more lower extremity motion in the axial plane (P = 0.002) than controls.


      Conclusions


      People with LBP display less lower lumbar spine motion in the sagittal plane and more out-of-plane lower extremity motion. Clinically, the step-up task can be used to identify these aberrant movements to develop more focused functional interventions for patients with LBP.

      Keywords

      Kinematics Low back pain Lumbar spine Lower extremities Functional
      Jo Bowyer
      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

      Comment


      • Decoding social intentions in human prehensile actions: Insights from a combined kinematics-fMRI study


        http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0184008

        Abstract


        Consistent evidence suggests that the way we reach and grasp an object is modulated not only by object properties (e.g., size, shape, texture, fragility and weight), but also by the types of intention driving the action, among which the intention to interact with another agent (i.e., social intention). Action observation studies ascribe the neural substrate of this ‘intentional’ component to the putative mirror neuron (pMNS) and the mentalizing (MS) systems. How social intentions are translated into executed actions, however, has yet to be addressed. We conducted a kinematic and a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study considering a reach-to-grasp movement performed towards the same object positioned at the same location but with different intentions: passing it to another person (social condition) or putting it on a concave base (individual condition). Kinematics showed that individual and social intentions are characterized by different profiles, with a slower movement at the level of both the reaching (i.e., arm movement) and the grasping (i.e., hand aperture) components. fMRI results showed that: (i) distinct voxel pattern activity for the social and the individual condition are present within the pMNS and the MS during action execution; (ii) decoding accuracies of regions belonging to the pMNS and the MS are correlated, suggesting that these two systems could interact for the generation of appropriate motor commands. Results are discussed in terms of motor simulation and inferential processes as part of a hierarchical generative model for action intention understanding and generation of appropriate motor commands.

        Introduction


        The way an object is grasped could depend not only on its physical characteristics like size, shape, texture, fragility and weight [1], but also on the intention driving the action [2, 3]. Using kinematics, several studies have tested whether it is possible to differentiate the reach-to-grasp motor patterns of human agents acting in isolation from those implemented when interacting with others [2]. In particular, the reach-to-grasp movement executed in isolation has been compared with a similar movement executed in the context of a social exchange. In one study [4] participants were asked to reach toward, grasp an object and put it in a concave base (i.e., individual condition), or instead pass it to a co-agent (i.e., social condition). The authors have shown that the two conditions were characterized by distinct kinematic profiles. Specifically, during the reach-to-grasp phase, the maximum hand aperture and the amplitude of peak grip closing velocity were lower for the social than for the single agent condition. In another study [5], it has been demonstrated that an unexpected human social request changes dramatically the kinematics of a pre-planned reach-to-grasp action. At a higher level of abstraction, other reach-to-grasp studies have highlighted specific kinematic patterns for cooperative or competitive behavior with respect to individual conditions [6, 7].

        Therefore, the findings that social intentions, defined as intentions accomplished in a context of reciprocal interaction (i.e., the social “why” of the action), can be quantified at the level of the kinematics, contrasts the critical assumptions that social intentions are inaccessible to perception, as things that cannot be seen [8]. Indeed, social intentions seem to have a visible face, which is reflected into different, observable, motor patterns [3].
        Jo Bowyer
        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

        Comment


        • Movement evaluation of front crawl swimming: Technical skill versus aesthetic quality


          http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0184171

          Abstract


          T
          he study aim was to compare expert with non-expert swimmers’ rating of the aesthetic and technical qualities of front crawl in video-taped recordings of swimmers with low, middle, and high level proficiency. The results suggest that: i) observers’ experience affects their judgment: only the expert observers correctly rated the swimmers’ proficiency level; ii) evaluation of movement (technical and aesthetic scores) is correlated with the level of skill as expressed in the kinematics of the observed action (swimming speed, stroke frequency, and stroke length); iii) expert and non-expert observers use different strategies to rate the aesthetic and technical qualities of movement: equating the technical skill with the aesthetic quality is a general rule non-expert observers follow in the evaluation of human movement.
          Jo Bowyer
          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

          Comment


          • Associations between lower-limb muscle activation and knee flexion in post-stroke individuals: A study on the stance-to-swing phases of gait


            http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0183865

            Abstract


            Reduced knee flexion is a leading feature of post-stroke gait, but the causes have not been well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the knee flexion and the lower-limb muscle activation within the stance-to-swing phases of gait cycle in the post-stroke hemiplegic patients. Ten stroke patients and 10 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects participated in the experiment. The lower-limb kinematic signals and the surface electromyography (sEMG) signals of the left and right rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF) and lateral gastrocnemius (GS) were recorded during walking. The angle range (AR) of knee flexion, the root mean square (RMS) and the mean frequency (MNF) of sEMG signals were calculated from the terminal stance (TSt) to the initial swing (ISw) phases of gait cycle. Stroke patients showed lower bilateral AR of knee flexion and lower RMS of GS on the paretic side, but higher MNF of RF on the non-paretic side compared with the controls. Within the stroke patients, significant differences were found between their paretic and non-paretic limbs in the AR of knee flexion, as well as in the RMS and MNF of GS (p < 0.05). Regression analysis showed that the RMS of BF, MNF of BF and MNF of GS explained 82.1% of variations in AR of knee flexion on paretic side (r2 = 0.821). But the RMS and MNF of all the muscles (including the RF, GS and BF) could explain 65.6% of AR of knee flexion variations on the non-paretic side (r2 = 0.656), and 45.2% of variations for the healthy subjects (r2 = 0.452). The reduced knee flexion during gait was associated with altered magnitude and frequency of muscle contractions and with simplified muscle synergy in the post-stroke hemiplegic patients. Identifying the muscles that are responsible for knee stiffness may facilitate improvement of rehabilitation strategy for post-stroke gait.
            Jo Bowyer
            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

            Comment


            • Non-specific chronic low back pain: differences in spinal kinematics in subgroups during functional tasks


              https://link.springer.com/article/10...586-017-5217-1

              Abstract

              Purpose


              A multidimensional classification approach suggests that motor control impairment subgroups exist in non-specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP). Differences in sitting lumbar posture have been identified between two such subgroups [flexion pattern (FP) and active extension pattern (AEP)] and healthy individuals; however, functional spinal movement has not been explored. This study will evaluate whether NSCLBP subgroups exhibit regional spinal kinematic differences, compared to healthy individuals, during functional tasks.

              Methods


              Observational, cross-sectional study design. Spinal kinematics of 50 NSCLBP subjects (27 FP, 23 AEP) and 28 healthy individuals were investigated using 3D motion analysis (Vicon™) during functional tasks [reaching upwards, step down, step up, lifting, and replacing a box, stand-to-sit, sit-to-stand, bending to retrieve (and returning from retrieving) a pen from the floor]. Mean sagittal angle for the total thoracic, total lumbar, upper thoracic, lower thoracic, upper lumbar, and lower lumbar regions between groups was compared.

              Results


              Significant differences were observed in lower thoracic and upper lumbar regions between NSCLBP subgroups during most tasks. Significant differences were observed between the FP and healthy group in the lower thoracic region during stand-to-sit-to-stand tasks and bending (and returning from) to retrieve a pen from the floor. All significant results demonstrated the FP group to operate in comparatively greater flexion.

              Conclusions


              The thoraco-lumbar spine discriminated between FP and AEP, and FP and healthy groups during functional tasks. FP individuals demonstrated more kyphotic thoraco-lumbar postures, which may be pain provocative. No significant differences were observed between AEP and healthy groups, suggesting that alternative mechanisms may occur in AEP.
              Keywords

              Non-specific chronic low back pain Functional movement Kinematics Lumbar Thoracic
              Jo Bowyer
              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

              Comment


              • Does physical activity buffer insomnia due to back and neck pain?


                http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0184288

                Abstract

                Introduction


                Musculoskeletal pain is highly prevalent and a burden to society, recurrent and persistent low back pain (LBP) and neck pain (NP) being the most common conditions. They are associated with other poor health outcomes such as sleep problems.

                Physical activity (PA) prevents LBP and NP, but the direct effect on sleep is unclear. This study explored the effect of pain on insomnia, and examined if adherence to moderate-to-high intensity levels of PA influenced this relationship.

                Methods


                In this prospective observational study, 1821 workers were followed over 3 years. Data included self-rated measures of LBP and NP, insomnia and level and amount of PA. Pain variables were used in a “risk profile” for future sick-listing, insomnia was categorized into those with and without such problems, and adherence to PA was defined as reporting moderate-to-high levels in two consecutive years.

                In Poisson regression models, individuals with pain risk profiles were analysed according to PA adherence for the outcome insomnia. Repeated measurements allowed control for prior pain.

                Results


                In this mainly male working population, individuals with a risk profile for LBP and NP had a significant increased risk (RR = 1.5) of developing insomnia one year later when not adhering to moderate-to-high levels of PA. Among those not reporting prior pain, the risk was even larger (RR = 2.5).

                Generalizability may be restricted to relatively healthy males. The individuals who reported a pain risk profile two consecutive years did not get the buffer effect from adhering to moderate-to-high levels of PA in terms of developing insomnia.
                The only factor that has been consistently shown to prevent LBP and NP, is physical activity (PA) [17]. However, PA is typically a “perishable” entity [18, 19]; it needs to be performed on a regular basis for the beneficial effects to take place. In today’s society, people are becoming more and more sedentary, and much of the “normal” everyday PA is lost [20]. Further, a recent study found that one of the consequences of LBP is physical inactivity [21], adding further insult to the pain problem. However, a systematic review concluded that the direct effect of exercise on sleep is unclear [22].

                In this study, the prospective relationship between LBP, NP and insomnia was explored, and the effect of PA on this relationship. It was a secondary analysis of existing data from a workplace inventory concerning workers’ health, lifestyle and productivity. The organisations that supplied data were large Swedish industrial companies, and data existed from 1821 employees measured at three time points, in 2000, 2001–2 and 2003. The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between LBP/NP and insomnia, and to investigate the influence of adhering to moderate-to-high levels of PA on this relationship.

                Specific hypotheses were
                1. Future insomnia is predicted by LBP and NP.
                2. PA influences this relationship; in such a way that individuals with LBP/NP who adhere to moderate-to-high levels of PA over time experience less insomnia compared to individuals who do not adhere.
                Last edited by Jo Bowyer; 20-09-2017, 09:59 PM.
                Jo Bowyer
                Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                Comment


                • Corticospinal excitability for hand muscles during motor imagery of foot changes with imagined force level

                  http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0185547

                  In the motions involved with daily life as well as those used in sports, simultaneous use of multiple limbs (e.g. both hands or a hand and a foot) is often required. It is well known that movement of one limb influences that of the others. This remote effect has been well studied [25,26,27].
                  Jo Bowyer
                  Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                  "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                  Comment


                  • High-intensity workouts won't work for most people

                    https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...1003124821.htm
                    Jo Bowyer
                    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                    Comment


                    • Mechanical properties of water alter temporal parameters of human walking

                      http://www.hoajonline.com/phystherre...2055-2386/4/10

                      Abstract


                      Background:

                      Walking in water is an effective rehabilitation exercise for patients with various diseases. However, how the mechanical properties of water alter the temporal parameters of human walking is still unclear. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to examine the durations of various gait phases relative to gait cycle at the same speeds both on land and in water.

                      Methods:

                      Ten healthy male subjects walked on land and in water at slow (2.4 km/h) and moderate (3.6 km/h) speeds. Subjects’ movements were recorded using a digital videocamera. Durations of stance, singlestance, and double-stance phases relative to gait cycle were calculated.

                      Results:

                      Relative stance phase duration was significantly shorter in water than on land, whereasrelative single-stance phase duration was significantly longer in water than on land. It was revealed that the buoyance effect of water alters the longer duration of single-stance phase in water compared with on land.

                      Conclusion:

                      The present findings clarify that water can alter the temporal parameters of gait during walking.
                      Keywords: Mechanical property of water, temporal parameters, healthy adults, human walking
                      Jo Bowyer
                      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                      Comment


                      • Are people who practice yoga better at motor imagery?


                        http://www.bodyinmind.org/people-pra...ody+in+Mind%29

                        Yoga has been associated with pain reduction in a vast number of groups – including fibromyalgia, chronic low back pain, chronic neck pain, osteoarthritis, carpel tunnel syndrome, delayed onset muscle soreness, migraine, headache, rheumatoid arthritis, labour pains and in haemodialysis patients (Sutar 2016). So, what is it about yoga that might lead to pain reduction in such a vast range of pain groups?

                        People who practise yoga have been found to have heightened ‘bodily awareness’ (Rani & Roa 1994). For anyone who has tried yoga, you might be able to understand why. There is a large focus on the precision of body positioning and movement and a strong awareness of bodily processes. A task of judging a body part as belonging to the left or right side of the body is one way of interrogating cortical proprioceptive body maps, such as those that might be used during yoga practise. When we judge an image of a hand as belonging to the left or right side, we recruit our cortical body maps and mentally rotate our virtual hand to match that of the image. Depending on the outcome, the matching is either confirmed or negated. Given this – we predicted that people who practise yoga regularly would have a more robust cortical proprioceptive body representation and perform better at a left/right judgement task.

                        We were wrong (Wallwork et al 2015). We analysed data from a large (1737 participants) online cross-sectional investigation of left/right neck rotation and left/right hand judgements and found that in 86 age and gender-matched pairs of yoga practitioners vs non-practising controls, performance was no better in the yoga group. That is, the response time and accuracy to complete the task did not differ.

                        Why? The literature suggests that yoga increases bodily awareness – however our findings suggest that this bodily awareness may be limited to interoception (the ability to consciously perceive bodily sensations) rather than proprioception, motor planning or spatial perception – which are more obviously targeted in motor imagery, such as the left/right judgement task. That is, the large relaxation and meditative component of yoga might contribute to an enhanced interoceptive body awareness, however because the left/right judgment task is predominantly a visuoproprioceptive task, it is unlikely to identify any differences in this type of ‘bodily awareness’. It’s also possible that yoga does enhance cortical proprioceptive maps, however our cross-sectional study design might have limited us in detecting any such differences. Another possibility is that the available literature is flawed and that yoga does not enhance body awareness at all.
                        Jo Bowyer
                        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                        Comment


                        • A ballerina dances with the geometry of her own movements

                          https://aeon.co/videos/a-ballerina-d...b9d2c-69418129



                          Taking inspiration from the rotoscope – an early filmmaking device that allowed animators to trace over live-action – the Japanese design group EUPHRATES used an innovative computer algorithm to capture outlines and extract other information from a video of a ballerina, Kurimu Urabe of the Bolshoi, dancing in a ballet studio. Working from that information, the filmmakers created dynamic animations to interact with the dancer. The resulting short video, Ballet Rotoscope, is an inspired and extremely satisfying slice of augmented reality.
                          Jo Bowyer
                          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                          Comment


                          • The Multifeature Gait Score: An accurate way to assess gait quality


                            http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0185741

                            Abstract

                            Purpose


                            This study introduces a novel way to accurately assess gait quality. This new method called Multifeature Gait Score (MGS) is based on the computation of multiple parameters characterizing six aspects of gait (temporal, amplitude, variability, regularity, symmetry and complexity) quantified with one inertial sensor. According to the aspects described, parameters were aggregated into partial scores to indicate the altered aspect in the case of abnormal patterns. In order to evaluate the overall gait quality, partial scores were averaged to a global score.

                            Methods


                            The MGS was computed for 3 groups namely: healthy adult (10 subjects), sedentary elderly (11 subjects) and active elderly (20 subjects). Data were gathered from an inertial sensor located at the lumbar region during two sessions of 12m walking.

                            Results


                            The results based on ANOVA and Tukey tests showed that the partial scores with the exception of those which describe the symmetry aspect were able to discriminate between groups (p<0.05). This significant difference was also confirmed by the global score which shows a significantly lower value for the sedentary elderly group (3.58 ±1.15) compared to the healthy adults (5.19 ±0.84) and active elderly (4.82 ±1.26). In addition, the intersession repeatability of the elaborated global score was excellent (ICC = 0.93, % SEM = 10.81).

                            Conclusion


                            The results obtained support the reliability and the relevance of the MGS as a novel method to characterize gait quality.
                            Jo Bowyer
                            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                            Comment


                            • Relative mobility of the pelvis and spine during trunk axial rotation in chronic low back pain patients: A case-control study


                              http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0186369

                              Abstract

                              Background


                              Trunk axial rotation is a risk factor for chronic low back pain (CLBP). The characteristics of rotational mobility in the pelvis and spine among CLBP patients are not fully understood.

                              Purpose


                              The purpose of this study was to examine three-dimensional kinematic changes, and to compare the differences of rotational mobility and coupled motion, in patients with and without CLBP.

                              Methods


                              Fifteen patients with CLBP and 15 age and sex matched healthy subjects participated in this study. Each subject performed trunk rotation to maximum range of motion (ROM) in a standing position. The kinematics data was collected using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. The outcomes measured were the rotational ROM and the spine/pelvis ratio (SPR) in transvers plane at both maximum and 50% rotation position. The coupled angles in sagittal and frontal planes were also measured.

                              Results


                              No significant differences in rotational ROM of the thorax, pelvis, and spine were observed between two groups at maximum rotation position. However, there was a significant interaction between groups and rotational ROM of pelvis and spine (F = 4.57, p = 0.04), and the SPR in CLBP patients was significantly greater than that of the healthy subjects (CLBP; 0.50 ± 0.10 Control; 0.41 ± 0.12, p = 0.04). The results at 50% rotation position were similar to that at maximum rotation. This indicates a relative increase in spinal rotation in the CLBP patients during trunk rotation. Moreover, the CLBP patients exhibited a significantly higher anterior tilt of the pelvis and extension of the spine in the sagittal plane coupled with rotation.

                              Conclusions


                              CLBP patients had relative hyper rotational mobility of the spine as well as excessive spinal extension coupled with trunk rotation. These results suggest that uncoordinated trunk rotation might be a functional failure associated with CLBP.
                              Jo Bowyer
                              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                              Comment


                              • Rehabilitative skilled forelimb training enhances axonal remodeling in the corticospinal pathway but not the brainstem-spinal pathways after photothrombotic stroke in the primary motor cortex


                                http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0187413

                                Abstract


                                Task-specific rehabilitative training is commonly used for chronic stroke patients. Axonal remodeling is believed to be one mechanism underlying rehabilitation-induced functional recovery, and significant roles of the corticospinal pathway have previously been demonstrated. Brainstem-spinal pathways, as well as the corticospinal tract, have been suggested to contribute to skilled motor function and functional recovery after brain injury. However, whether axonal remodeling in the brainstem-spinal pathways is a critical component for rehabilitation-induced functional recovery is not known. In this study, rats were subjected to photothrombotic stroke in the caudal forelimb area of the primary motor cortex and received rehabilitative training with a skilled forelimb reaching task for 4 weeks. After completion of the rehabilitative training, the retrograde tracer Fast blue was injected into the contralesional lower cervical spinal cord. Fast blue-positive cells were counted in 32 brain areas located in the cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. Rehabilitative training improved motor performance in the skilled forelimb reaching task but not in the cylinder test, ladder walk test, or staircase test, indicating that rehabilitative skilled forelimb training induced task-specific recovery. In the histological analysis, rehabilitative training significantly increased the number of Fast blue-positive neurons in the ipsilesional rostral forelimb area and secondary sensory cortex. However, rehabilitative training did not alter the number of Fast blue-positive neurons in any areas of the brainstem. These results indicate that rehabilitative skilled forelimb training enhances axonal remodeling selectively in the corticospinal pathway, which suggests a critical role of cortical plasticity, rather than brainstem plasticity, in task-specific recovery after subtotal motor cortex destruction.
                                Jo Bowyer
                                Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                                "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                                Comment

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