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  • Sensory Feedback in Interlimb Coordination: Contralateral Afferent Contribution to the Short-Latency Crossed Response during Human Walking

    http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0168557

    Abstract

    A constant coordination between the left and right leg is required to maintain stability during human locomotion, especially in a variable environment. The neural mechanisms underlying this interlimb coordination are not yet known. In animals, interneurons located within the spinal cord allow direct communication between the two sides without the need for the involvement of higher centers. These may also exist in humans since sensory feedback elicited by tibial nerve stimulation on one side (ipsilateral) can affect the muscles activation in the opposite side (contralateral), provoking short-latency crossed responses (SLCRs). The current study investigated whether contralateral afferent feedback contributes to the mechanism controlling the SLCR in human gastrocnemius muscle. Surface electromyogram, kinematic and kinetic data were recorded from subjects during normal walking and hybrid walking (with the legs moving in opposite directions). An inverse dynamics model was applied to estimate the gastrocnemius muscle proprioceptors’ firing rate. During normal walking, a significant correlation was observed between the magnitude of SLCRs and the estimated muscle spindle secondary afferent activity (P = 0.04). Moreover, estimated spindle secondary afferent and Golgi tendon organ activity were significantly different (P ≤ 0.01) when opposite responses have been observed, that is during normal (facilitation) and hybrid walking (inhibition) conditions. Contralateral sensory feedback, specifically spindle secondary afferents, likely plays a significant role in generating the SLCR. This observation has important implications for our understanding of what future research should be focusing on to optimize locomotor recovery in patient populations.
    Jo Bowyer
    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

    Comment


    • Understanding the Goals of Everyday Instrumental Actions Is Primarily Linked to Object, Not Motor-Kinematic, Information: Evidence from fMRI

      http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0169700

      Abstract

      Prior research conceptualised action understanding primarily as a kinematic matching of observed actions to own motor representations but has ignored the role of object information. The current study utilized fMRI to identify (a) regions uniquely involved in encoding the goal of others’ actions, and (b) to test whether these goal understanding processes draw more strongly on regions involved in encoding object semantics or movement kinematics. Participants watched sequences of instrumental actions while attending to either the actions’ goal (goal task), the movements performed (movement task) or the objects used (object task). The results confirmed, first, a unique role of the inferior frontal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus and medial frontal gyrus in action goal understanding. Second, they show for the first time that activation in the goal task overlaps directly with object- but not movement-related activation. Moreover, subsequent parametric analyses revealed that movement-related regions become activated only when goals are unclear, or observers have little action experience. In contrast to motor theories of action understanding, these data suggest that objects—rather than movement kinematics—carry the key information about others’ actions. Kinematic information is additionally recruited when goals are ambiguous or unfamiliar.
      Jo Bowyer
      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

      Comment


      • Entorhinal cortex acts independently of the hippocampus in remembering movement .

        http://neurosciencenews.com/hippocam...ormation-5933/

        Until now, the hippocampus was considered the most important brain region for forming and recalling memory, with other regions only contributing as subordinates. But a study published today in Science finds that a brain region called entorhinal cortex plays a new and independent role in memory. A team of researchers led by Jozsef Csicsvari, Professor at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria), showed that, in rats, the entorhinal cortex replays memories of movement independent of input from the hippocampus.

        “Until now, the entorhinal cortex has been considered subservient to the hippocampus in both memory formation and recall. But we show that the medial entorhinal cortex can replay the firing pattern associated with moving in a maze independent of the hippocampus. The entorhinal cortex could be a new system for memory formation that works in parallel to the hippocampus”, Jozsef Csicsvari explains.

        When a spatial memory is formed, cells in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC), especially grid cells, act like a navigational system. They provide the hippocampus with information on where an animal is and give cues as to how far and in what direction the animal has moved. Rats encode location and movement by forming networks of neurons in the hippocampus that fire together. When a memory is recalled for memory stabilization, the MEC has been considered as secondary to the hippocampus. In the hippocampus, such recall occurs during the so-called “sharp wave/ripples”, when neuronal networks fire in a highly synchronized way. According to the view prevailing until now, the hippocampus is the initiator of this replay and coordinates memory consolidation, while the MEC is just a relay post that spreads the message to other brain areas.
        Jo Bowyer
        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

        Comment


        • Obesity May Not Induce Dynamic Stability Disadvantage during Overground Walking among Young Adults

          http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0169766

          Abstract

          Obesity has been related to postural instability during static standing. It remains unknown how obesity influences stability during dynamic movements like gait. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effects of obesity on dynamic gait stability control in young adults during gait. Forty-four young adults (21 normal-weight and 23 obese) participated in this study. Participants walked five times at their self-selected gait speeds on a linear walkway. Their full-body kinematics were gathered by a motion capture system. Compared with normal-weight group, individuals with obesity walked more slowly with a shorter but wider step. People with obesity also spent an elongated double stance phase than those with normal weight. A reduced gait speed decreases the body center of mass’s velocity relative to the base of support, leading to a reduction in dynamic stability. On the other hand, a shortened step in accompanying with a less backward-leaning trunk has the potential to bring the center of mass closer to the base of support, resulting in an increase in dynamic stability. As the result of these adaptive changes to the gait pattern, dynamic gait stability among people with obesity did not significantly differ from the one among people with normal weight. Obesity seems to not be inducing dynamic stability disadvantage in young adults during level overground walking. These findings could provide insight into the mechanisms of stability control among people affected by obesity during dynamic locomotion.
          Jo Bowyer
          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

          Comment


          • Balance May Rely on Timing of Movement

            http://neurosciencenews.com/movement...e-timing-5992/

            Zebrafish learn to balance by darting forward when they feel wobbly, a principle that may also apply to humans, according to a study led by researchers at NYU Langone Medical Center.

            The fish make good models to understand human balance because they use similar brain circuits, say the study authors. The researchers hope their work will one day help therapists to better treat balance problems that affect one in three aging Americans, and for whom falls are a leading cause of death.

            Published online January 19 in Current Biology, the new study found that early improvements in a zebrafish’s balance emerge from its growing ability to execute quick swims in response to the perception of instability. Over time young fish learn to make corrective movements when unstable and become better at remaining stable.

            “By untangling the forces used by the fish while swimming, and during the pauses between these corrective movements, we may have uncovered a foundational balance mechanism – the mental command to start moving when unstable,” says lead study investigator David Schoppik, PhD, assistant professor in the Department of Neuroscience and Physiology at NYU Langone.

            The behavioral tendencies revealed in the new study confirm past work that found balance to depend on networks of connections between brain cells (neural circuits) that link sensory organs in the balance, or vestibular, system to muscles that make corrective movements.

            Along with zebrafish, many animals have heavy heads, which require constant corrections to keep them from pitching forward. Humans too literally fall forward as they walk and then compensate with bursts of forward leg motion, but unlike zebrafish become less top heavy as they develop.

            “We plan next to test whether or not toddlers, like the fish in our study, are more likely to move when they feel unstable,” says study author David Ehrlich, PhD, the post-doctoral scholar in Schoppik’s lab who led many of the experiments. “Further, do adults take smaller, quicker steps on icy sidewalks or in the dark, especially as our balance system deteriorates with age?”


            The work done on the zebrafish larvae takes out the vestibular component as this is rudimentary in these creatures.




            Perspectives of older people about contingency planning for falls in the community: A qualitative meta-synthesis

            http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0177510

            Abstract

            Objective

            Despite consistent evidence for the positive impact of contingency planning for falls in older people, implementation of plans often fail. This is likely due to lack of recognition and knowledge about perspectives of older people about contingency planning. The objective of this research was to explore the perspectives of older people living in the community about use of contingency planning for getting help quickly after a fall.

            Method

            A systematic literature search seeking qualitative research was conducted in April 2014, with no limit placed on date of publication. Medline, EMBASE, Ageline, CINAHL, HealthSource- Nursing/Academic Edition, AMED and Psych INFO databases were searched. Three main concepts were explored and linked using Boolean operators; older people, falls and contingency planning. The search was updated until February 2016 with no new articles found. After removal of duplicates, 562 articles were assessed against inclusion and exclusion criteria resulting in six studies for the meta-synthesis. These studies were critically appraised using the McMaster critical appraisal tool. Bespoke data extraction sheets were developed and a meta-synthesis approach was adopted to extract and synthesise findings.

            Findings

            Three themes of ‘a mix of attitudes’, ‘careful deliberations’ and ‘a source of anxiety’ were established. Perspectives of older people were on a continuum between regarding contingency plans as necessary and not necessary. Levels of engagement with the contingency planning process seemed associated with acceptance of their risk of falling and their familiarity with available contingency planning strategies.

            Conclusion

            Avoiding a long lie on the floor following a fall is imperative for older people in the community but there is a lack of knowledge about contingency planning for falls. This meta-synthesis provides new insights into this area of health service delivery and highlights that implementation of plans needs to be directed by the older people rather than the health professionals.
            Update 31/05/2017
            Last edited by Jo Bowyer; 31-05-2017, 10:07 PM.
            Jo Bowyer
            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

            Comment


            • Neuronal Correlates of Functional Coupling between Reach- and Grasp-Related Components of Muscle Activity

              http://journal.frontiersin.org/artic...00007/abstract

              Coordinated reach-to-grasp movements require precise spatiotemporal synchrony between proximal forelimb muscles (shoulder, elbow) that transport the hand towards a target during reach, and distal muscles (wrist, digit) that simultaneously preshape and orient the hand for grasp. The precise mechanisms through which the redundant neuromuscular circuitry coordinates reach with grasp, however, remain unclear. Recently, we demonstrated, using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), that limited numbers of global, template-like transport/preshape- and grasp-related muscle components underlie the complexity and variability of intramuscular electromyograms (EMGs) of up to 21 distal and proximal muscles recorded while monkeys performed reach-to-grasp tasks. Importantly, transport/preshape- and grasp-related muscle components showed invariant spatiotemporal coupling, which provides a potential mechanism for coordinating forelimb muscles during reach-to-grasp movements. In the present study, we tested whether ensemble discharges of forelimb neurons in the cerebellar nucleus interpositus (NI) and its target, the magnocellular red nucleus (RNm), a source of rubrospinal fibers, function as neuronal correlates of the transport/preshape- and grasp-related muscle components we identified. EFA applied to single-unit discharges of populations of NI and RNm neurons recorded while the same monkeys that were used previously performed the same reach-to-grasp tasks, revealed neuronal components in the ensemble discharges of both NI and RNm neuronal populations with characteristics broadly similar to muscle components. Subsets of NI and RNm neuronal components were strongly and significantly cross-correlated with subsets of muscle components, suggesting that similar functional units of reach-to-grasp behavior are expressed by NI and RNm neuronal populations and forelimb muscles. Importantly, like transport/preshape- and grasp-related muscle components, their NI and RNm neuronal correlates showed invariant spatiotemporal coupling. Clinical and lesion studies have reported disruption of coupling between reach and grasp following cerebellar damage; the present results expand on those studies by identifying a neuronal mechanism that may underlie cerebellar contributions to spatiotemporal coordination of distal and proximal limb muscles during reaching to grasp. We conclude that finding similar functional units of behavior expressed at multiple levels of information processing along interposito-rubrospinal pathways and forelimb muscles supports the hypothesis that functionally related populations of NI and RNm neurons act synergistically in the control of complex coordinated motor behaviors.
              Keywords: Cerebellum, Magnocellular red nucleus, reach to grasp, nucleus interpositus, coordination
              Jo Bowyer
              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

              Comment


              • Sodium Pumps Mediate Activity-Dependent Changes in Mammalian Motor Networks

                http://www.jneurosci.org/content/37/4/906?etoc=

                Abstract

                Ubiquitously expressed sodium pumps are best known for maintaining the ionic gradients and resting membrane potential required for generating action potentials. However, activity- and state-dependent changes in pump activity can also influence neuronal firing and regulate rhythmic network output. Here we demonstrate that changes in sodium pump activity regulate locomotor networks in the spinal cord of neonatal mice. The sodium pump inhibitor, ouabain, increased the frequency and decreased the amplitude of drug-induced locomotor bursting, effects that were dependent on the presence of the neuromodulator dopamine. Conversely, activating the pump with the sodium ionophore monensin decreased burst frequency. When more “natural” locomotor output was evoked using dorsal-root stimulation, ouabain increased burst frequency and extended locomotor episode duration, whereas monensin slowed and shortened episodes. Decreasing the time between dorsal-root stimulation, and therefore interepisode interval, also shortened and slowed activity, suggesting that pump activity encodes information about past network output and contributes to feedforward control of subsequent locomotor bouts. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from spinal motoneurons and interneurons, we describe a long-duration (∼60 s), activity-dependent, TTX- and ouabain-sensitive, hyperpolarization (∼5 mV), which is mediated by spike-dependent increases in pump activity. The duration of this dynamic pump potential is enhanced by dopamine. Our results therefore reveal sodium pumps as dynamic regulators of mammalian spinal motor networks that can also be affected by neuromodulatory systems. Given the involvement of sodium pumps in movement disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism, knowledge of their contribution to motor network regulation also has considerable clinical importance.

                SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The sodium pump is ubiquitously expressed and responsible for at least half of total brain energy consumption. The pumps maintain ionic gradients and the resting membrane potential of neurons, but increasing evidence suggests that activity- and state-dependent changes in pump activity also influence neuronal firing. Here we demonstrate that changes in sodium pump activity regulate locomotor output in the spinal cord of neonatal mice. We describe a sodium pump-mediated afterhyperpolarization in spinal neurons, mediated by spike-dependent increases in pump activity, which is affected by dopamine. Understanding how sodium pumps contribute to network regulation and are targeted by neuromodulators, including dopamine, has clinical relevance due to the role of the sodium pump in diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, parkinsonism, epilepsy, and hemiplegic migraine.
                central pattern generator locomotion mouse Na+/K+-ATPase sodium pump spinal cord
                Jo Bowyer
                Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                Comment


                • Maps in the head

                  https://aeon.co/essays/how-cognitive...f6dd1-69418129

                  How animals navigate their way around provides clues to how the brain forms, stores and retrieves memories
                  Jo Bowyer
                  Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                  "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                  Comment


                  • About maps of the human brain

                    Architectonic Mapping of the Human Brain beyond Brodmann
                    Neuron 2015

                    Brodmann has pioneered structural brain mapping. He considered functional and pathological criteria for defining cortical areas in addition to cytoarchitecture. Starting from this idea of structural-functional relationships at the level of cortical areas, we will argue that the cortical architecture is more heterogeneous than Brodmann’s map suggests. A triple-scale concept is proposed that includes repetitive modular-like structures and micro- and meso-maps. Criteria for defining a cortical area will be discussed, considering novel preparations, imaging and optical methods, 2D and 3D quantitative architectonics, as well as high-performance computing including analyses of big data. These new approaches contribute to an understanding of the brain on multiple levels and challenge the traditional, mosaic-like segregation of the cerebral cortex.
                    For the pretty long version:
                    http://www.cell.com/neuron/abstract/...273(15)01072-7

                    Marcel

                    "Evolution is a tinkerer not an engineer" F.Jacob
                    "Without imperfection neither you nor I would exist" Stephen Hawking

                    Comment


                    • Accumulation of Inertial Sensory Information in the Perception of Whole Body Yaw Rotation

                      http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0170497

                      Introduction

                      Everyday life requires humans to move through the environment, while completing crucial tasks such as maintaining balance or controlling a vehicle. Success in these tasks largely relies on a veridical perception of self-motion, i.e., the continuous estimation of one’s body position, and its derivatives, with respect to the world. This estimation process is performed by the central nervous system (CNS) by combining visual, auditory and inertial (i.e., somatosensory and vestibular) sensory information–seemingly without effort. Whereas a considerable body of neurophysiological and behavioural studies address how information on self-motion is accumulated across the senses (see e.g., [1–10]), much less is known about how information on self-motion is accumulated over time. Given the dynamic nature of natural self-movements, it is rather intuitive that the CNS must accumulate sensory information not only across the senses, but also over time. For instance, it has been shown that humans walking on a straight path in darkness can estimate their travelled distance, suggesting a path integration mechanism that continuously updates based on sensory information [11,12]. Nevertheless, the perceptual processes underlying the accumulation of sensory evidence, and in specific the effect of stimulus exposure time on the human ability to perceive and discriminate self-motion, remains largely unexplored.

                      In the present work, we employ a psychophysical approach to investigate whether the human ability to discriminate among different rotation intensities around the head vertical axis improves as a function of the time available for accumulating sensory information.
                      Jo Bowyer
                      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                      Comment


                      • Both accelerator and brake are required for normal movement

                        https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0127152613.htm

                        In order to drive a car, you need a good balance between accelerator and brake. The same applies to a part of the brain -- the striatum -- that controls our movements. Research at Lund University in Sweden has led to new findings on the interaction between the "accelerator" and the "brake" in the striatum. These findings may guide the development of treatments for movement disorders such as those occurring in Parkinson's disease.
                        Jo Bowyer
                        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                        Comment


                        • Health enhancing physical activity in patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis - an observational intervention study

                          https://bmcmusculoskeletdisord.biome...891-017-1394-7

                          Abstract

                          Background
                          Osteoarthritis is one of the leading causes of inactivity worldwide. The recommended level of health enhancing physical activity (HEPA) is at least 150 min of moderate intensity physical activity per week. The purpose of this study was to explore how the proportion of patients, who reached the recommended level of HEPA, changed following a supported osteoarthritis self-management programme in primary care, and to explore how reaching the level of HEPA was influenced by body mass index (BMI), gender, age and comorbidity.

                          Methods
                          An observational study was conducted using data from a National Quality Registry in which 6810 patients in primary care with clinically verified hip or knee osteoarthritis with complete data at baseline, 3 and 12 months follow-up before December 31st 2013 were included. HEPA was defined as self-reported physical activity of at least moderate intensity either a) at least 30 min per day on four days or more per week, or b) at least 150 min per week. HEPA was assessed at baseline, and again at 3 and 12 months follow-up. Cochran’s Q test was used to determine change in physical activity over time. The association between reaching the level of HEPA and time, age, BMI, gender, and Charnley classification was investigated using the generalized estimation equation (GEE) model.

                          Results
                          The proportion of patients who reached the level of HEPA increased by 345 patients, from 77 to 82%, from baseline to 3 months follow-up. At 12 months, the proportion of patients who reached the level of HEPA decreased to 76%. Not reaching the level of HEPA was associated with overweight, obesity, male gender and Charnley category C, i.e. osteoarthritis in multiple joint sites (hip and knee), or presence of any other disease that affects walking ability.

                          Conclusions
                          Following the supported osteoarthritis self-management programme there was a significant increase in the proportion of patients who reached the recommended level of HEPA after 3 months. Improvements were lost after 12 months. To increase physical activity and reach long-lasting changes in levels of physical activity, more follow-up sessions might be needed.
                          Keywords

                          Exercise Osteoarthritis Patient education Registry
                          Jo Bowyer
                          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                          Comment


                          • Hip Hop Dance Experience Linked to Sociocognitive Ability

                            http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0169947

                            Abstract

                            Expertise within gaming (e.g., chess, video games) and kinesthetic (e.g., sports, classical dance) activities has been found to be linked with specific cognitive skills. Some of these skills, working memory, mental rotation, problem solving, are linked to higher performance in science, technology, math, and engineering (STEM) disciplines. In the present study, we examined whether experience in a different activity, hip hop dance, is also linked to cognitive abilities connected with STEM skills as well as social cognition ability. Dancers who varied in hip hop and other dance style experience were presented with a set of computerized tasks that assessed working memory capacity, mental rotation speed, problem solving efficiency, and theory of mind. We found that, when controlling for demographic factors and other dance style experience, those with greater hip hop dance experience were faster at mentally rotating images of hands at greater angle disparities and there was a trend for greater accuracy at identifying positive emotions displayed by cropped images of human faces. We suggest that hip hop dance, similar to other more technical activities such as video gameplay, tap some specific cognitive abilities that underlie STEM skills. Furthermore, we suggest that hip hop dance experience can be used to reach populations who may not otherwise be interested in other kinesthetic or gaming activities and potentially enhance select sociocognitive skills.
                            Jo Bowyer
                            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                            Comment


                            • Two Brain Networks That Influence Decision Making Discovered

                              http://neurosciencenews.com/decision...-network-6050/

                              Scientists at the Medical Research Council Brain Network Dynamics Unit at the University of Oxford have pinpointed two distinct mechanisms in the human brain that control the balance between speed and accuracy when making decisions.

                              Their discovery, published in eLife, sheds new light on the networks that determine how quickly we choose an option, and how much information we need to make that choice. A more detailed understanding of this intricate wiring in the brain holds the key to developing better treatments for neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s disease.

                              The fundamental trade-off between speed and accuracy in decision making has been studied for more than a century, with a number of studies suggesting that the subthalamic nucleus region of the brain plays a key role.

                              “Previous behavioural studies of decision making do not tell us about the actual events or networks that are responsible for making speed-accuracy adjustments,” says senior author Peter Brown, Professor of Experimental Neurology at the University of Oxford. “We wanted to address this by measuring the exact location and timing of electrical activity in the subthalamic nucleus and comparing the results with behavioural data collected while a decision-making task is being performed.”
                              Jo Bowyer
                              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                              Comment


                              • Comparison of muscle synergies for running between different foot strike patterns

                                http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0171535

                                Abstract

                                It is well known that humans run with a fore-foot strike (FFS), a mid-foot strike (MFS) or a rear-foot strike (RFS). A modular neural control mechanism of human walking and running has been discussed in terms of muscle synergies. However, the neural control mechanisms for different foot strike patterns during running have been overlooked even though kinetic and kinematic differences between different foot strike patterns have been reported. Thus, we examined the differences in the neural control mechanisms of human running between FFS and RFS by comparing the muscle synergies extracted from each foot strike pattern during running. Muscle synergies were extracted using non-negative matrix factorization with electromyogram activity recorded bilaterally from 12 limb and trunk muscles in ten male subjects during FFS and RFS running at different speeds (5–15 km/h). Six muscle synergies were extracted from all conditions, and each synergy had a specific function and a single main peak of activity in a cycle. The six muscle synergies were similar between FFS and RFS as well as across subjects and speeds. However, some muscle weightings showed significant differences between FFS and RFS, especially the weightings of the tibialis anterior of the landing leg in synergies activated just before touchdown. The activation patterns of the synergies were also different for each foot strike pattern in terms of the timing, duration, and magnitude of the main peak of activity. These results suggest that the central nervous system controls running by sending a sequence of signals to six muscle synergies. Furthermore, a change in the foot strike pattern is accomplished by modulating the timing, duration and magnitude of the muscle synergy activity and by selectively activating other muscle synergies or subsets of the muscle synergies.
                                Jo Bowyer
                                Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                                "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                                Comment

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