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Papers related to ageing

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  • Obesity Plus Aging Linked to Alzheimer’s Markers in the Brain

    https://neurosciencenews.com/obesity...zheimers-9470/
    Jo Bowyer
    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

    Comment


    • Habitual physical activity levels do not predict leg strength and power in healthy, active older adults

      http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0200089
      Jo Bowyer
      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

      Comment


      • Vitamin D No Defense Against Dementia or MS

        https://neurosciencenews.com/vitamin...dementia-9542/
        Jo Bowyer
        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

        Comment


      • The “Big Bang” of Alzheimer’s: Genesis of Disease Identified

        https://neurosciencenews.com/alzheimers-genesis-9547/
        Jo Bowyer
        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

        Comment


        • Dance training is superior to repetitive physical exercise in inducing brain plasticity in the elderly


          http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0196636

          Abstract


          Animal research indicates that a combination of physical activity and sensory enrichment has the largest and the only sustaining effect on adult neuroplasticity. Dancing has been suggested as a human homologue to this combined intervention as it poses demands on both physical and cognitive functions. For the present exploratory study, we designed an especially challenging dance program in which our elderly participants constantly had to learn novel and increasingly difficult choreographies. This six-month-long program was compared to conventional fitness training matched for intensity. An extensive pre/post-assessment was performed on the 38 participants (63–80 y), covering general cognition, attention, memory, postural and cardio-respiratory performance, neurotrophic factors and–most crucially–structural MRI using an exploratory analysis. For analysis of MRI data, a new method of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) designed specifically for pairwise longitudinal group comparisons was employed. Both interventions increased physical fitness to the same extent. Pronounced differences were seen in the effects on brain volumes: Dancing compared to conventional fitness activity led to larger volume increases in more brain areas, including the cingulate cortex, insula, corpus callosum and sensorimotor cortex. Only dancing was associated with an increase in plasma BDNF levels. Regarding cognition, both groups improved in attention and spatial memory, but no significant group differences emerged. The latter finding may indicate that cognitive benefits may develop later and after structural brain changes have taken place. The present results recommend our challenging dance program as an effective measure to counteract detrimental effects of aging on the brain.
          Jo Bowyer
          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

          Comment


          • Accelerometer-based predictive models of fall risk in older women: a pilot study

            https://www.nature.com/articles/s41746-018-0033-5


            Abstract


            Current clinical methods of screening older adults for fall risk have difficulties. We analyzed data on 67 women (mean age = 77.5 years) who participated in the Objective Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health (OPACH) study within the Women’s Health Initiative and in an accelerometer calibration substudy. Participants completed the short physical performance battery (SPPB), questions about falls in the past year, and a timed 400-m walk while wearing a hip triaxial accelerometer (30 Hz). Women with SPPB ≤ 9 and 1+reported falls (n = 19) were grouped as high fall risk; women with SPPB = 10–12 and 0 reported falls (n = 48) were grouped as low fall risk. Random Forests were trained to classify women into these groups, based upon traditional measures of gait and/or signal-based features extracted from accelerometer data. Eleven models investigated combined feature effects on classification accuracy, using 10-fold cross-validation. The models had an average 73.7% accuracy, 81.1% precision, and 0.706 AUC. The best performing model including triaxial data, cross-correlations, and traditional measures of gait had 78.9% accuracy, 84.4% precision, and 0.846 AUC. Mediolateral signal-based measures—coefficient of variance, cross-correlation with anteroposterior accelerations, and mean acceleration—ranked as the top 3 features. The classification accuracy is promising, given research on probabilistic models of falls indicates accuracies ≥80% are challenging to achieve. The results suggest accelerometer-based measures captured during walking are potentially useful in screening older women for fall risk. We are applying algorithms developed in this paper on an OPACH dataset of 5000 women with a 1-year prospective falls log and week-long, free-living accelerometer data.
            Jo Bowyer
            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

            Comment


            • Would a longer lifespan make us happier? A philosopher’s take

              https://theconversation.com/would-a-...sophers%20take
              Jo Bowyer
              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

              Comment


              • Functional aspects of meningeal lymphatics in ageing and Alzheimer’s disease

                https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-018-0368-8
                Jo Bowyer
                Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                Comment


                • Thinking-While-Moving Exercises May Improve Cognition in Elderly with Mild Cognitive Deficits: A Proof-of-Principle Study

                  https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/490173
                  Jo Bowyer
                  Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                  "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                  Comment


                  • The impact of sarcopenic obesity on knee and hip osteoarthritis: a scoping review

                    https://bmcmusculoskeletdisord.biome...891-018-2175-7


                    The progressive, debilitating nature of knee and hip osteoarthritis can result in severe, persistent pain and disability, potentially leading to a need for total joint arthroplasty (TJA) in end-stage osteoarthritis. TJA in adults with obesity is associated with increased surgical risk and prolonged recovery, yet classifying obesity only using body mass index (BMI) precludes distinction of obesity phenotypes and their impact on surgical risk and recovery. The sarcopenic obesity phenotype, characterized by high adiposity and low skeletal muscle mass, is associated with higher infection rates, poorer function, and slower recovery after surgery in other clinical populations, but not thoroughly investigated in osteoarthritis. The rising prevalence and impact of this phenotype demands further attention in osteoarthritis treatment models of care, particularly as osteoarthritis-related pain, disability, and current treatment practices may inadvertently be influencing its development.
                    Jo Bowyer
                    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                    Comment


                    • Older People Less Apt to Recognize They’ve Made a Mistake

                      https://neurosciencenews.com/older-p...mistakes-9652/




                      Wessel’s team recruited 38 younger adults (average age of 22) and 39 older adults (average age of 68) to take a series of tests that involved looking away from a circle appearing in a box on one side of a computer screen. While the test was simple, younger adults couldn’t resist glancing at the circle before shifting their gaze about 20 percent of the time on average. That’s expected, Wessel says, as it’s human nature to focus on something new or unexpected, and the researchers wanted the participants to err.

                      After each failed instance, the participants were asked whether they had made an error. They then were asked “how sure” and used a sliding scale from “unsure” to “very sure” to determine how confident they were about whether they had made a mistake in the test.

                      The younger participants were correct in acknowledging when they had erred 75 percent of the time. The older test-takers were correct 63 percent of the time when asked whether they had erred. That means in more than one-third of instances, the older participants didn’t realize they had made a mistake.

                      Even more, the younger participants who made an error on the test were far less certain than the older participants that they were correct. In other words, the younger adults hedged more.

                      “It shows when the younger adults thought they were correct, but in fact had made an error, they still had some inkling that they might have erred,” says Wessel, who is affiliated with the Department of Neurology and the Iowa Neuroscience Institute. “The older adults often have no idea at all that they were wrong.”

                      The researchers underscored these observations by measuring how much participants’ pupils dilated as they took the tests. In humans and most animals, pupils dilate when something unexpected occurs–triggered by surprise, fright, and other core emotions. It also happens when people think they’ve blundered, which is why researchers measured pupils in the experiments.


                      Researchers found younger adults’ pupils dilated when they thought they erred. This effect was reduced when they committed errors they did not recognize. In comparison, older adults showed a strong reduction of this pupil dilation after errors that they recognized and showed no dilation at all when they committed an error they did not recognize.

                      “That mirrors what we see in the behavioral observations,” Wessel says, “that more often they don’t know when they’ve made an error.”
                      Last edited by Jo Bowyer; 03-08-2018, 11:33 PM.
                      Jo Bowyer
                      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                      Comment


                      • Should prevention of falls start earlier? Co-ordinated analyses of harmonised data on falls in middle-aged adults across four population-based cohort studies

                        http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0201989

                        The high prevalence and burden of falls in older adults has been widely described [1, 2]. Meta-analyses suggest that interventions targeting adults aged 65+ could lower the risk of falls by up to 30% [3]. But despite this, population injury rates for falls and injuries from falls continue to rise independent of the ageing of the population [4, 5], suggesting a failure of intervention strategies and/or a change in risk factor profiles of those who fall. The rising rates in injuries from falls and the ageing of the population has led to calls for new approaches to falls prevention [6]. Current falls prevention guidelines predominantly focus on adults over the age of 65 with a high falls risk based on presence of risk factors [7, 8]. While this approach is sensible from the point of view of providing care to those with the highest need, it ignores the opportunity for early preventive interventions.

                        A past fall is the strongest predictor of a future fall [9], suggesting that primary prevention is important. The second strongest predictor of falls is abnormality of gait or balance [9]. At the population-level, onset of declines in balance ability and other measures of physical functioning are typically observed between ages 40 and 60 [10, 11]. The prevalence of other risk factors for falls, such as syncope, dizziness and chronic conditions, also increase after the age of 50 [12, 13], particularly in women after menopause. These findings suggest that middle-age may be a critical life stage for early interventions for falls prevention.
                        Jo Bowyer
                        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                        Comment


                      • The sun should not set twice before hip fracture repair

                        https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0807095154.htm
                        Jo Bowyer
                        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                        Comment


                        • How many times per week should an older person perform resistance training? “More is more” versus “less is more”

                          https://motorimpairment.neura.edu.au...imes-per-week/
                          Jo Bowyer
                          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                          Comment


                          • People with dementia and financial abuse – the warning signs and how to avoid it

                            https://theconversation.com/people-w...o%20avoid%20it
                            Jo Bowyer
                            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                            Comment

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