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Papers related to ageing

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  • Oldies are Goldies

    https://noijam.com/2018/03/01/oldies-are-goldies/
    Jo Bowyer
    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

    Comment


    • What Happens in the Brain During Unconsciousness?

      http://neurosciencenews.com/unconsciousness-brain-8582/

      Examining different aspects of unconsciousness

      The basis for the three studies, as well as other work from the Center for Consciousness Science, comes from a theory Mashour produced during his residency.

      “I published a theoretical article when I was a resident in anesthesiology suggesting that anesthesia doesn’t work by turning the brain off, per se, but rather by isolating processes in certain areas of the brain,” Mashour says. “Instead of seeing a highly connected brain network, anesthesia results in an array of islands with isolated cognition and processing. We have taken this thought, as well as the work of others, and built upon it with our research.”

      In the study in the Journal of Neuroscience, the team analyzed different areas of the brain during sedation, surgical anesthesia and a vegetative state.

      “It’s often suggested that different areas of the brain that typically talk to one another get out of sync during unconsciousness,” says Anthony Hudetz, Ph.D., professor of anesthesiology, scientific director of the Center for Consciousness Science and senior author on the study. “We showed in the early stages of sedation, the information processing timeline gets much longer and local areas of the brain become more tightly connected within themselves. That tightening might lead to the inability to connect with distant areas.”

      In the Frontiers in Human Neuroscience study, the team delved into how the brain integrates information and how it can be measured in the real world.
      Jo Bowyer
      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

      Comment


      • Domino Effect: Individual Damaged Neuron Types Cause Neurodegenerative Diseases

        http://neurosciencenews.com/damaged-...neration-8588/

        Some nerve cells (neurons) or neuron classes in the brain seem to age faster than others. For example, the loss of the sense of smell is one of the first clinical signs of natural aging. This can be accompanied by a neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimer’s.

        “Age is the major risk factor as to why people suffer from Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease,” says Prof. Ilona Grunwald Kadow from the School of Life Sciences at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) – “only a small proportion of these diseases are due to known genetic reasons”. The question is why do some neurons age faster than others? Why are some more sensitive? And is the damage to certain types of neurons the reason why whole nerve networks no longer function properly?
        Jo Bowyer
        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

        Comment


        • An economic evaluation of an integrated care pathway in geriatric rehabilitation for older patients with complex health problems

          http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0191851
          Abstract

          Background

          Integrated care pathways which cover multiple care settings are increasingly used as a tool to structure care, enhance coordination and improve transitions between care settings. However, little is known about their economic impact. The objective of this study is to determine the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of an integrated care pathway designed for patients with complex health problems transferring from the hospital, a geriatric rehabilitation facility and primary care.

          Methods

          This economic evaluation was performed from a societal perspective alongside a prospective cohort study with two cohorts of patients. The care as usual cohort was included before implementation of the pathway and the care pathway cohort after implementation of the pathway. Both cohorts were measured over nine months, during which intervention costs, healthcare costs, patient and family costs were identified. The outcome measures were dependence in activities of daily living (measured with the KATZ-15) and quality adjusted life years (EQ-5D-3L). Costs and effects were bootstrapped and various sensitivity analyses were performed to assess robustness of the results.

          Results

          After nine months, the average societal costs were significantly lower for patients in the care pathway cohort (€50,791) versus patients in the care as usual cohort (€62,170; CI = -22,090, -988). Patients in the care pathway cohort had better scores on the KATZ-15 (1.04), indicating cost-effectiveness. No significant differences were found between the two groups on QALY scores (0.01).

          Conclusions

          The results of this study indicate that the integrated care pathway is a cost-effective intervention. Therefore, dissemination of the integrated care pathway on a wider scale could be considered. This would provide us the opportunity to confirm the findings of our study in larger economic evaluations. When looking at QALYs, no effects were found. Therefore, it is also recommended to explore if therapy in geriatric rehabilitation could also pay attention to other quality of life-related domains, such as mood and social participation.
          I worked with the first/second generation of pioneering geriatricians in the 1970s, we had this then. What happened? In my opinion it was the rise of management structures that were headed up by managers as opposed to clinicians.
          Jo Bowyer
          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

          Comment


          • Getting lost: Why older people might lose their way

            https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0315140715.htm

            "All things considered, young participants did better in navigation, which is in line with previous studies. However, we found an association between decreased navigational performance and deficits in grid cell activity," says Prof. Thomas Wolbers, a DZNE senior scientist and supervisor of the current study. "Grid cells fired differently when comparing young and old adults. Specifically, firing patterns were less stable over time in older individuals, which indicates that these brain circuits are compromised in old age. This might be a cause of why many senior people tend to have troubles with spatial navigation."

            Wolbers adds: "Grid cells play a central role not just in navigation but also in other cognitive functions. Therefore, our findings might indicate a key mechanism underlying cognitive deficits in old age. Not only does this provide insights into neurophysiological changes due to aging. It may also help in designing therapies against age-related cognitive decline."
            Grid cells are key to all forms of pattern recognition.
            Jo Bowyer
            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

            Comment


          • Compound in Beets May Help Slow Alzheimer’s

            http://neurosciencenews.com/beet-alzheimers-8670/

            I suggest that people eat beetroot rather than drink the juice (which sometimes leads to a change in colour of urine). It is an excellent source of roughage.
            Jo Bowyer
            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

            Comment


            • Kyphosis and incident falls among community-dwelling older adults

              https://link.springer.com/article/10...198-017-4253-3
              Jo Bowyer
              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

              Comment


              • Older adults who have slower walking speeds may have increased risk for dementia

                https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0323121747.htm

                I am a bit of a movement geek and gait change is sometimes the first indication I have that my older patients are beginning to develop dementia, it enables me to put preventative measures in place in order to slow the progress of the disease. I am assuming that I will get it (family history) and already have measures in place for myself.
                Jo Bowyer
                Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                Comment


                • Working memory, age and education: A lifespan fMRI study

                  http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0194878

                  Abstract


                  Ageing is associated with grey matter atrophy and changes in task-related neural activations. This study investigated the effects of age and education on neural activation during a spatial working memory task in 189 participants aged between 20–80 years old, whilst controlling for grey matter density. Age was related to linear decreases in neural activation in task activated areas, and this effect was no longer significant when adjusting for education or accuracy. Age was also related to cubic increases in neural activation in non-task related areas, such as the temporal gyrus, cuneus and cerebellum when adjusting for accuracy and education. These findings support previous lifespan datasets indicating linear age-related decreases in task activation, but non-linear increases in non-task related areas during episodic memory tasks. The findings also support past studies indicating education offers a form of cognitive reserve through providing a form of neural compensation and highlights the need to consider education in ageing studies.
                  Jo Bowyer
                  Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                  "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                  Comment


                  • Metabolic Syndrome and cognitive decline in the elderly: A systematic review

                    http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0194990

                    Current available data in the literature concerning the impact of MetS on the cognition of older population is inconclusive and based on inconsistent evidence. Differential effects of individual MetS components and factors associated with the age of the sample may have accounted for divergent findings among articles, but larger and higher quality studies in this field are still needed.
                    Studies in this field are needed if we are to plan ahead. Currently there is a worrying shortage of equipment needed for those with mobility issues related to obesity.
                    Jo Bowyer
                    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                    Comment


                    • Keep an eye on exercise supervision

                      https://motorimpairment.neura.edu.au...e-supervision/
                      Jo Bowyer
                      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                      Comment


                      • Fear of falling in community-dwelling older adults: A cause of falls, a consequence, or both?

                        http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0194967
                        Jo Bowyer
                        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                        Comment


                        • Simple Urine Test Could Measure How Much Our Body Has Aged

                          http://neurosciencenews.com/urine-test-aging-8725/
                          Jo Bowyer
                          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                          Comment


                          • Human Hippocampal Neurogenesis Persists throughout Aging

                            http://www.cell.com/cell-stem-cell/f...909(18)30121-8

                            Adult hippocampal neurogenesis declines in aging rodents and primates. Aging humans are thought to exhibit waning neurogenesis and exercise-induced angiogenesis, with a resulting volumetric decrease in the neurogenic hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) region, although concurrent changes in these parameters are not well studied. Here we assessed whole autopsy hippocampi from healthy human individuals ranging from 14 to 79 years of age. We found similar numbers of intermediate neural progenitors and thousands of immature neurons in the DG, comparable numbers of glia and mature granule neurons, and equivalent DG volume across ages. Nevertheless, older individuals have less angiogenesis and neuroplasticity and a smaller quiescent progenitor pool in anterior-mid DG, with no changes in posterior DG. Thus, healthy older subjects without cognitive impairment, neuropsychiatric disease, or treatment display preserved neurogenesis. It is possible that ongoing hippocampal neurogenesis sustains human-specific cognitive function throughout life and that declines may be linked to compromised cognitive-emotional resilience.
                            Jo Bowyer
                            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                            Comment


                            • Aging muscle: Use it or lose it

                              http://science.sciencemag.org/conten...et_cid=1955064
                              Jo Bowyer
                              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                              Comment

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