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  • High-impact exercise in adulthood and vertebral dimensions in midlife - the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 study

    https://bmcmusculoskeletdisord.biome...891-017-1794-8

    Jo Bowyer
    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

    Comment


    • Feeling younger and identifying with older adults: Testing two routes to maintaining well-being in the face of age discrimination


      http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0187805

      Abstract


      Integrating the social identity and aging literatures, this work tested the hypothesis that there are two independent, but simultaneous, responses by which adults transitioning into old age can buffer themselves against age discrimination: an individual response, which entails adopting a younger subjective age when facing discrimination, and a collective response, which involves increasing identification with the group of older adults. In three experimental studies with a total number of 488 older adults (50 to 75 years of age), we manipulated age discrimination in a job application scenario and measured the effects of both responses on perceived health and self-esteem. Statistical analyses include individual study results as well as a meta-analysis on the combined results of the three studies. Findings show consistent evidence only for the individual response, which was in turn associated with well-being. Furthermore, challenging previous research, the two responses (adopting a younger subjective age and increasing group identification) were not only theoretically, but also empirically distinct. This research complements prior research by signaling the value of considering both responses to discrimination as complementary rather than mutually exclusive.
      Jo Bowyer
      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

      Comment


      • MRI-defined paraspinal muscle morphology in Japanese population: The Wakayama Spine Study

        http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0187765
        Abstract

        Objective

        This study aimed to establish sex- and age-dependent distributions of the cross sectional area and fatty infiltration ratio of paraspinal muscles, and to examine the correlation between paraspinal muscle degeneration and low back pain in the Japanese population.

        Methods

        In this cross-sectional study, data from 796 participants (241 men, 555 women; mean age, 63.5 years) were analyzed. The measurement of the cross sectional area and fatty infiltration ratio of the erector spinae and multifidus from the level of T12/L1 to L4/5 and psoas major at the level of T12/L1 was performed using axial T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between fatty infiltration of the paraspinal muscles and the prevalence of low back pain.

        Results

        The cross sectional area was larger in men than women, and tended to decrease with age, with the exception of the erector spinae at T12/L1 and L1/2 in women. The fatty infiltration ratio was lower in men than women, except for multifidus at T12/L1 in 70–79 year-olds and psoas major in those less than 50 years-old, and tended to increase with age. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index showed that the fatty infiltration ratio of the erector spinae at L1/2 and L2/3 was significantly associated with low back pain (L1/2 level: odds ratio, 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.005–1.104; L2/3 level: odds ratio, 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.001–1.113).

        Conclusion

        This study measured the cross sectional area and fatty infiltration ratio of paraspinal muscles in the Japanese population using magnetic resonance imaging, and demonstrated that the fatty infiltration ratio of the erector spinae in the upper lumbar spine was significantly associated with the presence of low back pain. The measurements could be used as reference values, which are important for future comparative studies.
        Yup, where there's fatty infiltration, there'll be inflammation. Get them moving and loading through pain.
        Jo Bowyer
        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

        Comment


        • Enhancing Innovation and Underlying Neural Mechanisms Via Cognitive Training in Healthy Older Adults

          https://www.frontiersin.org/articles...017.00314/full

          Non-invasive interventions, such as cognitive training (CT) and physical exercise, are gaining momentum as ways to augment both cognitive and brain function throughout life. One of the most fundamental yet little studied aspects of human cognition is innovative thinking, especially in older adults. In this study, we utilize a measure of innovative cognition that examines both the quantity and quality of abstracted interpretations. This randomized pilot trial in cognitively normal adults (56–75 years) compared the effect of cognitive reasoning training (SMART) on innovative cognition as measured by Multiple Interpretations Measure (MIM). We also examined brain changes in relation to MIM using two MRI-based measurement of arterial spin labeling (ASL) to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) and functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) to measure default mode and central executive network (CEN) synchrony at rest. Participants (N = 58) were randomized to the CT, physical exercise (physical training, PT) or control (CN) group where CT and PT groups received training for 3 h/week over 12 weeks. They were assessed at baseline-, mid- and post-training using innovative cognition and MRI measures. First, the CT group showed significant gains pre- to post-training on the innovation measure whereas the physical exercise and control groups failed to show significant gains. Next, the CT group showed increased CBF in medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), two nodes within the Default Mode Network (DMN) compared to physical exercise and control groups. Last, significant correlations were found between innovation performance and connectivity of two major networks: CEN (positive correlation) and DMN (negative correlation). These results support the view that both the CEN and DMN are important for enhancement of innovative cognition. We propose that neural mechanisms in healthy older adults can be modified through reasoning training to better subserve enhanced innovative cognition.
          Jo Bowyer
          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

          Comment


          • Quantification of the sit-to-stand movement for monitoring age-related motor deterioration using the Nintendo Wii Balance Board

            http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0188165

            Abstract


            Simple methods for quantitative evaluations of individual motor performance are crucial for the early detection of motor deterioration. Sit-to-stand movement from a chair is a mechanically demanding component of activities of daily living. Here, we developed a novel method using the ground reaction force and center of pressure measured from the Nintendo Wii Balance Board to quantify sit-to-stand movement (sit-to-stand score) and investigated the age-related change in the sit-to-stand score as a method to evaluate reduction in motor performance. The study enrolled 503 participants (mean age ± standard deviation, 51.0 ± 19.7 years; range, 20–88 years; male/female ratio, 226/277) without any known musculoskeletal conditions that limit sit-to-stand movement, which were divided into seven 10-year age groups. The participants were instructed to stand up as quickly as possible, and the sit-to-stand score was calculated as the combination of the speed and balance indices, which have a tradeoff relationship. We also performed the timed up and go test, a well-known clinical test used to evaluate an individual’s mobility. There were significant differences in the sit-to-stand score and timed up and go time among age groups. The mean sit-to-stand score for 60s, 70s, and 80s were 77%, 68%, and 53% of that for the 20s, respectively. The timed up and go test confirmed the age-related decrease in mobility of the participants. In addition, the sit-to-stand score measured using the Wii Balance Board was compared with that from a laboratory-graded force plate using the Bland–Altman plot (bias = −3.1 [ms]-1, 95% limit of agreement: −11.0 to 3.9 [ms]-1). The sit-to-stand score has good inter-device reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.87). Furthermore, the test–retest reliability is substantial (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.64). Thus, the proposed STS score will be useful to detect the early deterioration of motor performance.
            Jo Bowyer
            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

            Comment


            • Cross off that 'to do' list, study shows all daily activity can prolong life

              https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...1116172449.htm



              "Every movement counts," said Andrea LaCroix, PhD, senior author of the study and professor in the Department of Family Medicine and Public Health at UC San Diego. "A lot of what we do on a daily basis is improving our health, such as walking to the mail box, strolling around the neighborhood, folding clothes and straightening up the house. Activities like these account for more than 55 percent of how older individuals get their daily activity."

              The 6,000 women in the study, ages 65 to 99, were followed for up to four and a half years. They wore a measuring device called an accelerometer on their hip around-the-clock for seven days while going about their daily activities. The study found that 30 minutes of light physical activity per day lowered mortality risk by 12 percent while an additional 30 minutes of moderate activity, such as bicycling at a leisurely pace or brisk walking, exhibited a 39 percent lower risk.

              "Improving levels of physical activity both light and moderate could be almost as effective as rigorous regular exercise at preventing a major chronic disease," said LaCroix, chief of the Division of Epidemiology at UC San Diego School of Medicine. "We don't have to be running marathons to stay healthy. The paradigm needs to shift when we think about being active."

              The study also found that the benefit of light physical activity extended to all subgroups examined, including different racial/ethnic backgrounds, obese and non-obese women, women with high and low functional ability and women older and younger than age 80.

              "Older people expend more energy doing the same kinds of activities they did when younger, so their daily movement has to accommodate for this," said LaCroix. "Think of it as taking a pill (activity level) at different doses (amounts of time) depending on the age of the patient. It's not one size fits all."

              Current national public health guidelines recommend 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity a week for adults. The guidelines recommend persons 65 and older follow the adult guidelines to the degree their abilities and conditions allow.

              "Our study shows, for the first time using device-measured light physical activity in older women, that there are health benefits at activity levels below the guideline recommendations. With the increasing baby boomer population in the United States, it is imperative that future health guidelines recommend light physical activity in addition to more strenuous activity," said LaCroix. "When we get up from the couch and chair and move around, we are making good choices and contributing to our health."
              Jo Bowyer
              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

              Comment


              • Some sugars are good for you, engineers discover

                https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...1116092536.htm

                A new use for sugar has been uncovered, which can aid healing and encourage blood vessel formation, say scientists. This would help tackle the increasing number of non-healing skin wounds associated with age, poor blood supply and diabetes. The breakthrough research could save money for health service providers in the UK and overseas, say the authors.
                It's not new! We have been using honey for millenia, I was using a combination of UVL and honey dressings on recalcitrent pressure sores in the 1970s.
                Jo Bowyer
                Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                Comment


                • Association between sarcopenia and low back pain in local residents prospective cohort study from the GAINA study


                  https://bmcmusculoskeletdisord.biome...891-017-1807-7

                  Abstract

                  Background


                  Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common ailments that people experience in their lifetime. On the other hands, Sarcopenia also leads to several physical symptoms and contributes to reducing the quality of life of elderly people.The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between sarcopenia and low back pain among the general population.

                  Methods


                  The subjects included 216 adults (79 men and 137 women; mean age, 73.5 years) undergoing a general medical examination in Hino, Japan. Skeletal muscle index (SMI), The percentage of young adults’ mean (%YAM) of the calcaneal bone mass using with quantitative ultrasound (QUS) method and walking speed were measured, and subjects who met the criteria of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia were assigned to the sarcopenia group. Subjects with decreased muscle mass only were assigned to the pre-sarcopenia group, and all other subjects were assigned to the normal group. Then, we compared the correlations with low back pain physical finding. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and the low back pain visual analogue scale (VAS) were used as indices of low back pain. Statistical analysis was performed among three groups with respect their characteristic, demographics, data of sarcopenia determining factor, VAS and ODI. We also analysed prevalence of LBP and sarcopenia. We investigated the correlations between ODI and the sarcopenia-determining factors of walking speed, muscle mass and grip strength.

                  Results


                  Sarcopenia was noted in 12 subjects (5.5%). The pre-sarcopenia group included 38 subjects (17.6%), and the normal group included 166 subjects (76.9%). The mean ODI score was significantly higher in the sarcopenia group (25.2% ± 12.3%; P < 0.05) than in the pre-sarcopenia group (11.2% ± 10.0%) and the normal group (11.9% ± 12.3%). %YAM and BMI were significantly lower in the sarcopenia group than in other groups (P < 0.05). A negative correlation existed between walking speed and ODI (r = −0.32, P < 0.001).

                  Conclusions


                  The results of this study suggested that decreased physical ability due to quality of life in residents with LBP may be related to sarcopenia.

                  Keywords

                  Sarcopenia Low back pain Muscle strength Osteoporosis
                  Jo Bowyer
                  Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                  "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                  Comment


                  • Alzheimer's Tau protein forms toxic complexes with cell membranes

                    https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...1122093045.htm

                    My father who is in his 9th decade came up to me recently at a social gathering shook my hand and introduced himself. There is very little left of what he was, except formal good manners, a legacy he passed on to me and my brothers. It gets him through and enables him to function. I in turn passed it on to my daughter, both of us use good manners as default but can segue rapidly into rudeness when needed. I was once assaulted in broad daylight in Leicester Square. My assailant was so appalled by my disgusting language, that he went pale and backed off.
                    Jo Bowyer
                    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                    Comment


                    • Aging-related limit of exercise efficacy on motor decline

                      http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0188538

                      Identifying lifestyle strategies and allied neurobiological mechanisms that reduce aging-related motor impairment is imperative, given the accelerating number of retirees and increased life expectancy. A physically active lifestyle prior to old age can reduce risk of debilitating motor decline. However, if exercise is initiated after motor decline has begun in the lifespan, it is unknown if aging itself may impose a limit on exercise efficacy to decelerate further aging-related motor decline. In Brown-Norway/Fischer 344 F1 hybrid (BNF) rats, locomotor activity begins to decrease in middle age (12–18 months). One mechanism of aging-related motor decline may be decreased expression of GDNF family receptor, GFRα-1, which is decreased in substantia nigra (SN) between 12 and 30 months old. Moderate exercise, beginning at 18 months old, increases nigral GFRα-1 and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression within 2 months. In aged rats, replenishing aging-related loss of GFRα-1 in SN increases TH in SN alone and locomotor activity. A moderate exercise regimen was initiated in sedentary male BNF rats in a longitudinal study to evaluate if exercise could attenuate aging-related motor decline when initiated at two different ages in the latter half of the lifespan (18 or 24 months old). Motor decline was reversed in the 18-, but not 24-month-old, cohort. However, exercise efficacy in the 18-month-old group was reduced as the rats reached 27 months old. GFRα-1 expression was not increased in either cohort. These studies suggest exercise can decelerate motor decline when begun in the latter half of the lifespan, but its efficacy may be limited by age of initiation. Decreased plasticity of GFRα-1 expression following exercise may limit its efficacy to reverse motor decline.
                      Jo Bowyer
                      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                      Comment


                      • Age-related changes in oscillatory power affect motor action

                        http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0187911

                        When people age, they perform complex tasks more slowly, and often, less accurately than they once did [1]. This includes even simple motor tasks. For example, aging leads to an increased variability in movement execution, as well as to a progressive slow-down in response to external stimuli [2, 3]. Moreover, older adults exhibit a reduced accuracy in the performance of visually guided movements [4]. The variability of age-related movement and the slow-down in behavior have complex origins, being a combination of neural degeneration as well as degeneration of the muscles and effectors [5]. To better characterize the neural origins of age-related behavioral changes, we, in the present study, made use of electroencephalograms (EEG) to investigate whether age-related changes might affect some functions of the cortical motor system more strongly than others.

                        The cortical motor system is associated with a variety of characteristic neural oscillations over a broad range of frequencies [6]. In general, neural oscillations in the frequency domain can be described by their amplitude and phase. While the former represents the power of the oscillation, the latter represents the oscillation’s timing with regard to a reference point in time [79]. Since these two properties of neural oscillations–power and phase–have been associated with different aspects of motor function, we conjectured that they could help identify and characterize the complex motoric changes that occur during normal aging.

                        Phase locking of neural activity is a basic mechanism of neural synchronization, which is assumed to enable communication between spatially separated neural populations and to be a representation of coordinated information processing [911]. Both phase resetting or locking of ongoing activity and event-related activation of neural assemblies are involved in the generation of event-related potentials (ERPs) [10, 12, 13]. In a previous study, we identified a phase-related signature of movement. When younger healthy subjects performed a simple binary choice task that required movements of either the left or the right index finger, we found that oscillations in the δ-θ frequency band showed a characteristic phase locking at electrodes contralateral to the moving hand, irrespective of whether the movement was internally or externally triggered [9]. The neural generators of the lateralized phase locking in the δ-θ frequency band are motoric but not exactly identified (as reported in [9]). Nonetheless, it proved to become a convenient tool to assess motor timing.
                        Jo Bowyer
                        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                        Comment


                        • Elderly emergency patients presenting with non-specific complaints: Characteristics and outcomes

                          http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0188954

                          Abstract

                          Background

                          Non-specific complaints (NSC) are common at the emergency department, but only a few studies have shown evidence that these complaints are associated with a poor prognosis in elderly emergency patients.

                          Objective

                          To describe patient characteristics and outcomes in a cohort of elderly emergency patients presenting with NSC. Outcomes were: patient characteristics, hospitalization, 90-day ED-return visits, and 30-day mortality.

                          Method

                          A retrospective cohort study was conducted amongst elderly patients present to the Internal Medicine Emergency Department (ED) between 01-09-2010 and 31-08-2011. NSC were defined as indefinable complaints that lack a pre-differential diagnosis needed to initiate of a standardized patient evaluation. Cox regression was performed to calculate Hazard Ratios (HR) and corrected for confounders such as comorbidity.

                          Results

                          In total, 1784 patients were enrolled; 244 (13.7%) presented with NSC. Compared to those with SC, comorbidity was higher in the NSC-group (Charlson comorbidity index 3.0 vs. 2.4, p<0.001). The triage level did not differ, but ED-length of stay was longer in the NSC-group (188 vs. 178 minutes, p = 0.004). Hospitalization was more frequent (84.0 vs. 71.1%, p<0.001) and the length of hospital stay (9 vs. 6 days, p<0.001 was longer in the NSC- than in the SC-group. The number of ED-return visits were comparable between both groups (HR 0.8, 95%CI 0.6–1.1). Mortality within 30-days was higher in the NSC- (20.1%) than in the SC-group (11.0%, HR 1.7 95%CI 1.2–2.4).

                          Conclusion

                          Elderly patients present with NSC at the ED regularly. These patients are more often hospitalized and have a substantially higher 30-day mortality than patients with SC.
                          Jo Bowyer
                          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                          Comment


                          • My father who is 90 nearly died last year of lobar pneumonia, he is able to wash and dress himself, but forgets to shave parts of his face. My mother is sarcopaenic, but less so since I read her the riot act. They live in a cluttered house and still go upstairs to bed. They have a garden and a bird table, my brother goes in daily, and they come in to Bedford to do their supermarket shop and get checked over by me. My guess is that if they were looked over by a mutidisciplinary team, a lot of changes would be made in order to make their lives easier and less hazardous. My mother has been falling for getting on for twenty years and is an expert in getting up from the floor. A friend of mine's mother refuses to have her plumbing fixed and carries buckets of cold water to add to the hot water she has run into the bathtub. Some of the elderly patients I see for home visits have everything they need and a textbook environment, In my opinion there is no incentive to move and get on with activities of daily living when everything is laid on. I am all for them outsourcing stuff they don't want to or can't do, but some are sitting in front of the TV all day. There are initiatives in the UK for carefully vetted young people to pop in once a week, mid run, or on their way to the gym. They might have a quick chat, take the rubbish out or tidy up a flower bed. I hope that this way of thinking about our elders continues, they have much to teach us and we have much to offer them without being intrusive.
                            Jo Bowyer
                            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                            Comment


                            • Sex differences in response to targeted kyphosis specific exercise and posture training in community-dwelling older adults: a randomized controlled trial

                              https://bmcmusculoskeletdisord.biome...891-017-1862-0
                              Abstract

                              Background


                              Hyperkyphosis, an excessive anterior curvature in the thoracic spine, is associated with reduced health status in older adults. Hyperkyphosis is highly prevalent, more common in older women than men. There is no standard intervention to reduce age-related hyperkyphosis. Sex differences in response to a kyphosis-specific exercise intervention are not known.

                              Methods


                              We conducted a randomized controlled trial of a targeted kyphosis-specific exercise and postural training program on the primary outcome Cobb angle of kyphosis, and investigated whether the magnitude of change differed between men and women. One hundred twelve participants aged ≥60 years with kyphosis ≥40° were enrolled and randomized to exercise or waitlist control, and 101 participants had analyzable baseline and follow-up radiographs for Cobb angle measurements. A group intervention including 10 participants per group was delivered by a physical therapist, 1-h, twice a week for 3-months. Controls were placed on a waitlist for 3 months before receiving a delayed intervention. Primary outcome was change from baseline to 3-months in Cobb angle measured from standing lateral spine radiographs. Secondary outcomes included change over 3-months in kyphometer-measured kyphosis, physical function and quality of life. Groups were combined for analysis after both received the intervention, and sex differences in response to the intervention were tested with ANOVA.

                              Results


                              Participants (60 women, 41 men) were 70.0 (SD = 5.7) years old with mean Cobb angle 55.9 (SD = 12.2) degrees at baseline. The active group had higher baseline modified Physical Performance Test scores than control, p = 0.03. Men had greater baseline kyphometer-measured kyphosis, p = 0.09, and higher bone mineral density (BMD), spine strength, more vertebral fractures and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) than women, p ≤ 0.01. There was no statistically significant difference between groups in change in Cobb at 3-months, p = 0.09, however change in kyphometer-measured kyphosis differed by 4.8 (95% CI:-6.8,-2.7) degrees, p < 0.001, favoring the active group. There were no differences between men and women in change in either kyphosis measurement after intervention, p > 0.1.

                              Conclusions


                              A 3-month targeted spine strengthening exercise and posture training program reduced kyphometer-measured, but not radiographic-measured kyphosis. Despite sex differences in baseline kyphosis, BMD, spine strength, fractures and DISH, sex did not affect treatment response.
                              Jo Bowyer
                              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                              Comment


                              • Some Video Games Are Good For Older Adults’ Brains

                                http://neurosciencenews.com/aging-gaming-8125/

                                In two separate studies, in 2014 and 2017, young adults in their twenties were asked to play 3D video games of logic and puzzles on platforms like Super Mario 64. Findings showed that the gray matter in their hippocampus increased after training.

                                The hippocampus is the region of the brain primarily associated with spatial and episodic memory, a key factor in long-term cognitive health. The gray matter it contains acts as a marker for neurological disorders that can occur over time, including mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s.

                                West and his colleagues wanted to see if the results could be replicated among healthy seniors.
                                Jo Bowyer
                                Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                                "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                                Comment

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