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  • #76
    Shared Negative Experiences Lead to Identity Fusion via Personal Reflection

    http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0145611

    Abstract

    Across three studies, we examined the role of shared negative experiences in the formation of strong social bonds—identity fusion—previously associated with individuals' willingness to self-sacrifice for the sake of their groups. Studies 1 and 2 were correlational studies conducted on two different populations. In Study 1, we found that the extent to which Northern Irish Republicans and Unionists experienced shared negative experiences was associated with levels of identity fusion, and that this relationship was mediated by their reflection on these experiences. In Study 2, we replicated this finding among Bostonians, looking at their experiences of the 2013 Boston Marathon Bombings. These correlational studies provide initial evidence for the plausibility of our causal model; however, an experiment was required for a more direct test. Thus, in Study 3, we experimentally manipulated the salience of the Boston Marathon Bombings, and found that this increased state levels of identity fusion among those who experienced it negatively. Taken together, these three studies provide evidence that shared negative experience leads to identity fusion, and that this process involves personal reflection.
    Jo Bowyer
    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

    Comment


    • #77
      Insurgency Phase of Iraq War Tied to Higher Rates of PTSD

      Abstract

      The Effect of Enemy Combat Tactics on PTSD Prevalence Rates: A Comparison of Operation Iraqi Freedom Deployment Phases in a Sample of Male and Female Veterans

      Objective: Research suggests that the nature of combat may affect later development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in combat veterans. Studies comparing rates of PTSD across different conflicts indicate that the use of asymmetric or guerilla-style tactics by enemy fighters may result in higher rates of PTSD among U.S. military personnel than the use of symmetric tactics, which mirror tactics used by U.S. forces. Investigations of the association between enemy combat tactics and PTSD across conflicts were limited because of cohort effects and a focus on male veterans. The current study examined rates of PTSD diagnosis in a sample of male and female veterans deployed to Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), a conflict with 3 distinct phases marked by varying enemy tactics.

      Method: Participants were 738 veterans enrolled in Project VALOR (Veterans’ After-Discharge Longitudinal Registry) who deployed once to OIF. Participants completed a clinician interview as well as self-report measures.

      Results: Male veterans deployed during the OIF phase marked by asymmetric tactics were more than twice as likely to be diagnosed with PTSD as those deployed during the other 2 phases, even after controlling for extent of combat exposure, demographic characteristics, and other deployment-related risk factors for PTSD. Differing rates of PTSD across the 3 OIF phases were not observed among female participants.

      Conclusion: The nature of combat (specifically, asymmetric enemy tactics) may be a risk factor for the development of PTSD among males. Factors other than enemy tactics may be more important to the development of PTSD among females.

      “The Effect of Enemy Combat Tactics on PTSD Prevalence Rates: A Comparison of Operation Iraqi Freedom Deployment Phases in a Sample of Male and Female Veterans” by Green, Jonathan D.; Bovin, Michelle J.; Erb, Sarah E.; Lachowicz, Mark; Gorman, Kaitlyn R.; Rosen, Raymond C.; Keane, Terence M.; and Marx, Brian P. in Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy. Published online December 14 2015 doi:10.1037/tra0000086
      British women served as medics in frontline platoons in the Afghan war and besides acting as first responders, often under fire, some of the injuries they dealt with were extensive. Several of them now require long term management for PTSD. There are male medics having problems as well.
      Last edited by Jo Bowyer; 30-12-2015, 08:01 PM.
      Jo Bowyer
      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

      Comment


      • #78
        Stress dynamically regulates behavior and glutamatergic gene expression in hippocampus by opening a window of epigenetic plasticity

        http://www.pnas.org/content/112/48/14960

        Significance

        Chronic stress alters the hippocampal responses to familiar and novel stressors, behaviorally, physiologically, and epigenetically. In the aftermath of chronic stress in WT mice and in mice with a BDNF loss-of-function allele without any applied stress, there is a window of plasticity that allows familiar and novel experiences to alter anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, reflected also in electrophysiological changes in the dentate gyrus (DG) in vitro. A consistent biomarker of mood-related behaviors in DG is reduced type 2 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu2), which regulates the release of glutamate. Within this window, familiar stress rapidly and epigenetically up-regulates mGlu2 by a P300-driven histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation and improves mood behaviors. This transient epigenetic plasticity may be useful for treatment of stress-related disorders where dysregulaton of glutamate is involved.
        For those patients impressed by evidence, the knowledge that there is a window of opportunity could be helpful. I talk with mine in the same way that I used to talk with students.
        Jo Bowyer
        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

        Comment


        • #79
          More dim sim

          http://neurosciencenews.com/hippocam...s-danger-3369/

          Researchers at Columbia University’s Mortimer B. Zuckerman Mind Brain Behavior Institute and the Department of Neuroscience at Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) have identified a cellular circuit that helps the mouse brain to remember which environments are safe, and which are harmful. Their study also reveals what can happen when that circuitry is disrupted–and may offer new insight into the treatment of conditions such as posttraumatic stress, panic and anxiety disorders.
          Jo Bowyer
          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

          Comment


          • #80
            Oxytocin, Postnatal Depression, and Parenting: A Systematic Review

            http://journals.lww.com/hrpjournal/F...ing___A.1.aspx

            INTRODUCTION

            Postnatal depression (PND) is a common disorder with a global incidence between 10 and 20 percent.1 Outcomes for children cared for by a mother with a diagnosis of PND are concerning. They have higher rates of psychiatric diagnoses by the age of six and poorer social-emotional outcomes.2 Children with depressed mothers are more often classified as insecurely attached and are hampered in their cognitive development.3 The potential mechanisms of the link between maternal PND and these child outcomes have been investigated in various behavioral and neurobiological studies. Depressed mothers are less accurate when interpreting infants’ facial expressions, and exposure to images of infant affect results in differing central function, compared to controls.4–6 Even more serious, mothers with PND are more likely to use a neglecting or an aggressive parenting style,7 and their infants’ mortality rates are higher than those of nondepressed controls.8 In view of these findings, it is important not only to improve treatment for women with PND but to continue investigating methods of reducing the poor outcomes for their children.The processes involved in the ability to parent are complex. One recent area of interest in biobehavioral science is the oxytocinergic system. Oxytocin (OT) is a hormone and neurotransmitter produced centrally in the paraventricular and supra optic nuclei. It functions in physiological processes of parturition9 and lactation,10 aids social-affiliative processes,11 and is involved in parenting behaviors,12 including bonding.13 The effects of OT have been studied in community populations. OT levels in community mothers are increased after affectionate contact with their infant.14 Administration of intranasal (IN) OT to community fathers increases their responsive structuring and decreases their hostility when interacting with their pre-school-aged children.15Our understanding of the association between OT and depression, in general, and between OT and PND, in particular, is limited. Preclinical rodent studies have established that OT has an anxiolytic role16,17 but also potentially regulates serotonin release, indicating important implications for human depression.18 Human postmortem studies have documented anatomical differences in the brains of previously depressed deceased individuals compared to controls. In previously depressed individuals, increases in the number, size,19 and mRNA concentration20 of OT neurons have been found. It is not established if these differences are a result of depressed mood, or conversely, if they cause depressive symptoms. In living participants, lower plasma OT levels were found to be related to depressive symptoms.21 When considering PND, women at risk for developing this illness have lower mid-gestation plasma OT levels.22 The administration of IN OT has been considered as an adjunctive therapy for numerous psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and autism,23 but not enough evidence exists yet for this intervention to be indicated. In terms of the effect of IN OT administration on mood, one study found an immediate increase in feelings of depression in mothers with PND.24 In community samples, however, the administration produced no effect,25,26 and in a clinical sample of non-parents with anxiety disorders, the administration also produced no effect.27In the past decade systematic reviews of PND have covered various areas of interest. The associations between PND and health conditions such as obesity, preeclampsia, and gestational diabetes have been explored,28–33 as have the associations between PND and specific populations such as fathers,34 adolescent mothers,34,35 and those affected by preterm birth36 and multiple births.31 Transcultural studies have also been published.31,36–38 Reviews have focused upon aspects of the illness and provision of health care such as the prevention,39 recognition,40 course, 41 and treatment,28,32,42 of PND. One systematic review considered the implications of PND for health care economics.43 Few reviews have focused, however, on outcomes for the parent and child as a result of PND. Hendricks and colleagues44 summarized findings of PND leading to childhood aggression, and Misri and colleagues45 examined the effect of PND on attachment between mother and infant.In the past five years, various systematic reviews have summarized findings on OT and general social behavior,46,47 social cognition,48 behavior and affect,49 and cooperation.50 One recent systematic review looked at the role of OT in mother-infant relations.12 Researchers have also explored the association between OT and psychiatric illness. One review included various psychiatric conditions,51 whereas others focused on particular diseases such as anorexia nervosa,52 autism,53 and schizophrenia.54 To my knowledge no previous systematic review has explored the association between OT, parenting, and depression, in general, or PND, in particular.Against the above background the present systematic review has three aims: – to explore the association between PND and parenting – to explore the association between OT and human parenting, both correlational (OT level in saliva or plasma) and experimental (IN administration of OT as an intervention) – to explore the association between OT and PND
            Jo Bowyer
            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

            Comment


            • #81
              Cultural look at moral purity: Wiping the face clean

              http://journal.frontiersin.org/artic...015.00577/full

              Morality is associated with bodily purity in the custom of many societies. Does that imply moral purity is a universal psychological phenomenon? Empirically, it has never been examined, as all prior experimental data came from Western samples. Theoretically, we suggest the answer is not so straightforward—it depends on the kind of universality under consideration. Combining perspectives from cultural psychology and embodiment, we predict a culture-specific form of moral purification. Specifically, given East Asians' emphasis on the face as a representation of public self-image, we hypothesize that facial purification should have particularly potent moral effects in a face culture. Data show that face-cleaning (but not hands-cleaning) reduces guilt and regret most effectively against a salient East Asian cultural background. It frees East Asians from guilt-driven prosocial behavior. In the wake of their immorality, they find a face-cleaning product especially appealing and spontaneously choose to wipe their face clean. These patterns highlight both culturally variable and universal aspects of moral purification. They further suggest an organizing principle that informs the vigorous debate between embodied and amodal perspectives.
              Jo Bowyer
              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

              Comment


              • #82
                Can Doping be a Good Thing? Using Psychoactive Drugs to Facilitate Physical Activity Behaviour

                http://download.springer.com/static/...f4c6a6a97d66b8

                Humans are Inherently ‘‘Lazy’’
                In my opinion, we have not paid enough attention to the core psychobiological reason for why most people do not regularly engage in physical activity: humans do not like to exert effort [7]. This is not surprising because, when humans evolved, energy was not readily available and wasting it via unnecessary physical activity could have reduced survival. In other words, famine, infectious disease, the energy needs of a large brain, or other evolutionary pressures may have led to the selection of a ‘‘sloth gene’’ in early humans [8]. Our inherent ‘‘laziness’’ was not a problem then because the need to hunt, farm, go to places, and fight against other humans provided strong motivation for physical activity. However, aversion to effort motivated us to progressively build the current hypokinetic environment. I also argue that perception of effort is the main reason why most people choose sedentary activities for their leisure time.
                Also posted in the Movement thread
                Last edited by Jo Bowyer; 13-01-2016, 11:11 PM.
                Jo Bowyer
                Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                Comment


                • #83
                  Inflammation Connected to Elevated Glutamate Could Guide Depression Treatments

                  http://neurosciencenews.com/glutamat...ammation-3423/

                  Abstract

                  Conceptual convergence: increased inflammation is associated with increased basal ganglia glutamate in patients with major depression

                  Inflammation and altered glutamate metabolism are two pathways implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. Interestingly, these pathways may be linked given that administration of inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-α to otherwise non-depressed controls increased glutamate in the basal ganglia and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) as measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Whether increased inflammation is associated with increased glutamate among patients with major depression is unknown. Accordingly, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 50 medication-free, depressed outpatients using single-voxel MRS, to measure absolute glutamate concentrations in basal ganglia and dACC. Multivoxel chemical shift imaging (CSI) was used to explore creatine-normalized measures of other metabolites in basal ganglia. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory markers were assessed along with anhedonia and psychomotor speed. Increased log plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) was significantly associated with increased log left basal ganglia glutamate controlling for age, sex, race, body mass index, smoking status and depression severity. In turn, log left basal ganglia glutamate was associated with anhedonia and psychomotor slowing measured by the finger-tapping test, simple reaction time task and the Digit Symbol Substitution Task. Plasma CRP was not associated with dACC glutamate. Plasma and CSF CRP were also associated with CSI measures of basal ganglia glutamate and the glial marker myoinositol. These data indicate that increased inflammation in major depression may lead to increased glutamate in the basal ganglia in association with glial dysfunction and suggest that therapeutic strategies targeting glutamate may be preferentially effective in depressed patients with increased inflammation as measured by CRP.
                  Last edited by Jo Bowyer; 13-01-2016, 11:20 PM.
                  Jo Bowyer
                  Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                  "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                  Comment


                  • #84
                    Loneliness, Social Networks, and Health: A Cross-Sectional Study in Three Countries

                    http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0145264

                    Introduction

                    The association between social relationships and health is well documented and has been of interest to the scientific community for many years [1–3]. Much of the earlier literature used different concepts interchangeably, such as feeling lonely, living in a single household, having few social contacts or a small social network, or not having people to trust; however, recent studies have made important advances by moving beyond simple indicators related to marital status or living arrangements, to analyze different dimensions and dynamics of social networks [4, 5] and separating these effects from those of feelings of loneliness [6].

                    There is considerable evidence that the nature and extent of an individual’s social network, such as quantity and quality of social relationships [7, 8] and frequency of contact [9], can have a significant impact on health. An extensive social network has been shown to be a protective factor against dementia [2, 4]. Furthermore, older people who are married or cohabiting and those with high levels of trust and solidarity, as well as those with medium-to-high psychological resources, all experience better self-rated health [10]. Social networks and social support are related, since they are part of the same construct [11]; however, they focus on different aspects and should be evaluated separately. Litwin and Landau [12] found that the significance of the social network predicts the availability of social support. A systematic review carried out by Santini, et al. [11] investigated the association between social relationships and depression, and found that social networks play a protective role against depression, just as social support does.

                    On the other hand, loneliness may have deleterious effects on health [13, 14]. Lonely individuals have lower cardiovascular contractility, heart rate, and cardiac output than non-lonely individuals [13]; they are also more likely to present alterations in the immunological system [15] and obesity [16]. Loneliness is also associated with poorer sleep efficiency and quality [13, 15], depressive symptomatology [14], alcoholism [17], Alzheimer’s disease [18], and suicidal ideation and behavior [19]. Furthermore, some studies report that lonely individuals also show an increased risk of all-cause mortality [20, 21].

                    Although previous evidence shows that social networks and loneliness have effects on health [22], there is still a need to know whether the relationship between the subjective perception of loneliness and health is different from the relationship between each component of the social network and health, after controlling for potential confounders, and to analyze with identical methods whether these relationships are different across countries with different population, health, and socio-economic characteristics and family structures. International studies have clearly documented the difference in health across countries with different social welfare systems [23]. Earlier studies analyzing loneliness [24, 25] and social networks [26] found differences across countries. Moreover, differences across generations have been documented in previous studies. Jylha [27] found that age is related to negative life changes that increase loneliness and weaken social integration, whereas Carstensen [28] suggested that although social networks grow smaller with advancing age, they also grow more satisfying.

                    In addition, more research is needed to better understand the differences between the concepts by analyzing separately loneliness and the number of contacts with members of the network, since these are two different concepts: loneliness is a subjective feeling, and the number of contacts is an objective aspect [6, 29]. Previous studies found that the subjective experience of loneliness is more harmful to health than the actual number of the social contacts that a person has [29]. A longitudinal study found that loneliness predicts changes in depressive symptoms, and the association between these variables is not attributable to objective social isolation, emotional closeness in relationships or social support [14]. Although social networks have been well documented and loneliness is now being increasingly studied, to our knowledge few studies have been carried out that analyze both variables at the same time (loneliness and size of the network), much less that disentangle and analyze separately the other components of the social network: frequency and quality of contact.

                    The present study aims to: a) disentangle the differential associations of health with the different components of the social network (size and quality of the network, and frequency of contact with members of the network) and the subjective perception of loneliness; b) analyze the additional explanatory power of each of the elements in their association with health status; and c) examine whether this association differs across countries.

                    The hypotheses postulated are: a) the components of the social network and the subjective perception of loneliness will be associated with health status; b) loneliness will be more associated with health than the size, frequency and quality of social networks; c) the association between the aforesaid variables and health status will be different across the countries considered in this study, due to their different social protection systems, economic situations, social network structures, and family ties.



                    Positive and Negative Experiences of Social Support and Risk of Dementia in Later Life: An Investigation Using the English Longitudinal Study of
                    Ageing


                    http://content.iospress.com/articles...ease/jad161160

                    Abstract

                    Background: Having a network of close relationships may reduce the risk of developing dementia. However, social exchange theory suggests that social interaction entails both rewards and costs. The effects of quality of close social relationships in later life on the risk of developing dementia are not well understood.
                    Objective: To investigate the effects of positive and negative experiences of social support within key relationships (spouse or partner, children, other immediate family, and friends) on the risk of developing dementia in later life.
                    Methods: We analyzed 10-year follow up data (2003/4 to 2012/13) in a cohort of 10,055 dementia free (at baseline) core participants aged 50 years and over from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Incidence of dementia was identified from participant or informant reported physician diagnosed dementia or overall score of informant-completed IQCODE questionnaire. Effects of positive and negative experiences of social support measured at baseline on risk of developing dementia were investigated using proportional hazards regression accommodating interval censoring of time-to-dementia.
                    Results: There were 340 (3.4%) incident dementia cases during the follow-up. Positive social support from children significantly reduced the risk of dementia (hazard ratio, HR?=?0.83, p?=?0.042, 95% CI: 0.69 to 0.99). Negative support from other immediate family (HR?=?1.26, p?=?0.011, CI: 1.05 to 1.50); combined negative scores from spouse and children (HR?=?1.23, p?=?0.046, CI: 1.004 to 1.51); spouse, children, and other family (HR?=?1.27, p?=?0.021, CI?=?1.04 to 1.56); other family & friends (HR?=?1.25, p?=?0.033, CI: 1.02 to 1.55); and the overall negative scores (HR?=?1.31, p?=?0.019, CI: 1.05 to 1.64) all were significantly associated with increased risk of dementia.
                    Conclusion: Positive social support from children is associated with reduced risk of developing dementia whereas experiences of negative social support from children and other immediate family increase the risk. Further research is needed to better understand the causal mechanisms that drive these associations.
                    Update 03/05/2017




                    Why Social Isolation Can Bring A Greater Risk of Illness

                    http://neurosciencenews.com/social-i...-illness-6983/

                    Social isolation has been linked to a wide range of health problems, as well as a shorter lifespan in humans and other animals. In fact, during a U.S. Senate hearing on aging issues this spring, a representative for the Gerontological Society of America urged lawmakers to support programs that help older adults stay connected to their communities, stating that social isolation is a “silent killer that places people at higher risk for a variety of poor health outcomes.”

                    Now, researchers at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania have found a possible explanation for this association. The team observed that in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, social isolation leads to sleep loss, which in turn leads to cellular stress and the activation of a defense mechanism called the unfolded protein response (UPR). Their findings are published online in the journal SLEEP this month. The UPR is found in virtually all animal species. Although its short-term activation helps protect cells from stress, chronic activation can harm cells. Long-term, harmful activation of the UPR is suspected as a contributor to the aging process and to specific age-related diseases such as Alzheimer’s and diabetes.

                    Studies also have shown that social isolation is a growing problem in developed countries. In the United States, for example, about half of people older than 85 live alone, and decreased mobility or ability to drive may cut opportunities for other socialization.

                    “A lot of elderly people live alone, and so we suspect that stresses from the combination of aging and social isolation creates a double-whammy at the cellular and molecular level,” said senior author Nirinjini Naidoo, PhD, a research associate professor of Sleep Medicine. “If you have an age-related disruption of the UPR response, compounded by sleep disturbances, and then you add social isolation, that may be a very unhealthy cocktail.”

                    This line of research stemmed from a surprise finding by the new study’s first author, Marishka K. Brown, PhD, who was then a postdoctoral researcher at Penn. She is now Program Director of the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). While evaluating the effects of aging on the UPR in fruit flies, she noticed that molecular markers of UPR activation were at higher levels in flies kept singly in vials, compared to same-aged flies kept in groups.

                    “Ultimately, she realized that keeping animals isolated induces a cellular stress response and a higher level of UPR activation,” Naidoo said. Markers of UPR activation include the protein BiP, a molecular “chaperone” that helps ensure proper protein folding within cells. Proteins, after being synthesized as simple chains of amino acids, are meant to fold into functional shapes, which are often highly complex. This delicate process is easily disturbed when cells are under stress and can lead to the harmful, runaway clumping of unfolded or misfolded proteins.

                    As its name suggests, the UPR is supposed to protect against this cellular catastrophe. But when it fails to work efficiently to restore proper protein-folding conditions, and stays activated, it can trigger harmful inflammation, suppress normal, healthy cellular activity, and ultimately force the death of the cell. Scientists have found evidence that this inefficient, chronic response becomes more likely with aging. “When animals get older, you start to see a more maladaptive UPR,” Naidoo said.

                    Why does social isolation trigger the UPR? Naidoo and others have shown in prior studies that sleep loss induces the UPR in multiple animal species. Other studies have shown that social isolation induces sleep loss, again in multiple species, including humans. When Brown forced the isolated flies to sleep more, for example by giving them the sleep drug Ambien (zolpidem), their levels of UPR markers dropped to those seen in grouped flies. Conversely, when she caused sleep loss in otherwise healthy grouped flies, their levels of UPR markers rose towards the levels seen in socially isolated flies.


                    Update 27/06/2017




                    Purpose in Life by Day Linked to Better Sleep at Night

                    http://neurosciencenews.com/sleep-day-purpose-7055/

                    Summary:
                    Researchers at Northwestern University report older adults who suffer from sleep disturbances such as sleep apnea and restless leg syndrome might enjoy a better night’s sleep by cultivating a purpose in life.
                    Update 11/07/2017




                    What determines the preference for future living arrangements of middle-aged and older people in urban China?

                    http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0180764

                    Abstract

                    Objective

                    Living arrangements are important to the elderly. However, it is common for elderly parents in urban China to not have a living situation that they consider ideal. An understanding of their preferences assists us in responding to the needs of the elderly as well as in anticipating future long-term care demands. The aim of this study is to provide a clear understanding of preferences for future living arrangements and their associated factors among middle-aged and older people in urban China.

                    Methods

                    Data were extracted from the CHARLS 2011–2012 national baseline survey of middle-aged and elderly people. In the 2011 wave of the CHARLS, a total of 17,708 individual participants (10,069 main respondents and 7,638 spouses) were interviewed; 2509 of the main respondents lived in urban areas. In this group, 41 people who were younger than 45 years old and 162 who had missing data in the variable “living arrangement preference” were excluded. Additionally, 42 people were excluded because they chose “other” for the variable “living arrangement preference” (which was a choice with no specific answer). Finally, a total of 2264 participants were included in our study.

                    Results

                    The most popular preference for future living arrangements was living close to their children in the same community/neighborhoods, followed by living with adult children. The degree of community handicapped access, number of surviving children, age, marital status, access to community-based elderly care centers and number of years lived in the same community were significantly associated with the preferences for future living arrangements among the respondents.

                    Conclusion

                    There is a trend towards preference for living near adult children in urban China. Additionally, age has a positive effect on preference for living close to their children. Considerations should be made in housing design and urban community development plans to fulfill older adults’ expectations. In addition, increasing the accessibility of public facilities in the residential area was important to the elderly, especially for those who preferred living in proximity to their children rather than co-residing with their children. We found that more surviving children were associated with a lower likelihood of choosing “institutionalization”, and it positively contributed to preference for intergenerational living arrangements in our study. As expected, compared with their married counterparts, people who were separated/divorced/widowed preferred living with adult children rather than living independently. A relatively shorter length of residence in the same community was an important indicator of preference for independent living; this finding might require further research.
                    Update 19/07/2017
                    Last edited by Jo Bowyer; 19-07-2017, 10:49 AM.
                    Jo Bowyer
                    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                    Comment


                    • #85
                      Patient preference in psychological treatment and associations with self-reported outcome: national cross-sectional survey in England and Wales

                      http://bmcpsychiatry.biomedcentral.c...888-015-0702-8

                      Abstract

                      Background
                      Providers of psychological therapies are encouraged to offer patients choice about their treatment, but there is very little information about what preferences people have or the impact that meeting these has on treatment outcomes.

                      Method
                      Cross-sectional survey of people receiving psychological treatment from 184 NHS services in England and Wales. 14,587 respondents were asked about treatment preferences and the extent to which these were met by their service. They were also asked to rate the extent to which therapy helped them cope with their difficulties.

                      Results
                      Most patients (12,549–86.0 %, 95 % CI: 85.5–86.6) expressed a preference for at least one aspect of their treatment. Of these, 4,600 (36.7 %, 95 % CI: 35.8–37.5) had at least one preference that was not met. While most patients reported that their preference for appointment times, venue and type of treatment were met, only 1,769 (40.5 %) of the 4,253 that had a preference for gender had it met. People who expressed a preference that was not met reported poorer outcomes than those with a preference that was met (Odds Ratios: appointment times = 0.29, venue = 0.32, treatment type = 0.16, therapist gender = 0.32, language in which treatment was delivered = 0.40).

                      Conclusions
                      Most patients who took part in this survey had preferences about their treatment. People who reported preferences that were not met were less likely to state that treatment had helped them with their problems. Routinely assessing and meeting patient preferences may improve the outcomes of psychological treatment.
                      Keywords

                      Psychological treatment Choice behaviour Patient preference Psychotherapy Treatment outcome

                      What are the chances that the conclusions of this paper apply equally to to the manual therapies? Over the years I have become adept at spotting those who are unlikely to do well with me and referring them on to someone who is likely to be a better fit. We have a sizeable French community in London, many would prefer to see a francophone practitioner.
                      Jo Bowyer
                      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                      Comment


                      • #86
                        Preferential decoding of emotion from human non-linguistic vocalizations versus speech prosody

                        http://www.sciencedirect.com/science...01051115300478

                        Highlights

                        We compared the time course of neural responses evoked by emotional speech prosody and non-linguistic vocalizations (e.g., laughter) by measuring event-related brain potentials.

                        Vocalizations and speech were differentiated rapidly, with preferential decoding of vocalizations at early stages of sensory processing and attention allocation (N1–P2 component).

                        Vocal expressions conveying anger elicited a larger late positivity associated with cognitive (re) appraisal of these signals when compared to sad and happy expressions.

                        In vocal communication, non-linguistic vocalizations are given temporal precedence over speech-embedded emotions due to their distinct evolutionary and neurofunctional origins.
                        Abstract
                        This study used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to compare the time course of emotion processing from non-linguistic vocalizations versus speech prosody, to test whether vocalizations are treated preferentially by the neurocognitive system. Participants passively listened to vocalizations or pseudo-utterances conveying anger, sadness, or happiness as the EEG was recorded. Simultaneous effects of vocal expression type and emotion were analyzed for three ERP components (N100, P200, late positive component). Emotional vocalizations and speech were differentiated very early (N100) and vocalizations elicited stronger, earlier, and more differentiated P200 responses than speech. At later stages (450–700 ms), anger vocalizations evoked a stronger late positivity (LPC) than other vocal expressions, which was similar but delayed for angry speech. Individuals with high trait anxiety exhibited early, heightened sensitivity to vocal emotions (particularly vocalizations). These data provide new neurophysiological evidence that vocalizations, as evolutionarily primitive signals, are accorded precedence over speech-embedded emotions in the human voice.
                        Keywords
                        Emotional communication; Vocal expression; Speech prosody; ERPs; Anxiety



                        The Science of Laughter – And Why It Also Has A Dark Side

                        http://neurosciencenews.com/neuroscience-laughter-6661/

                        When you hear someone laugh behind you, you probably picture them on the phone or with a friend – smiling and experiencing a warm, fuzzy feeling inside. Chances are just the sound of the laughter could make you smile or even laugh along. But imagine that the person laughing is just walking around alone in the street, or sitting behind you at a funeral. Suddenly, it doesn’t seem so inviting.
                        What illness can teach us

                        While we have garnered detailed knowledge of brain features crucial for facial expressions, swallowing, tongue and throat movements, far less is known about how positive emotions actually get transformed into laughter. Luckily, a number of illnesses and conditions have helped shed some light on its underlying neural functions.

                        One particularly well documented syndrome, thought to be first identified by Charles Darwin, involves an unsettling exhibition of uncontrolled emotion. It is clinically characterised by frequent, involuntary and uncontrollable outbursts of laughing and crying. This is a distressing disorder of emotional expression at odds with the person’s underlying feelings. The condition is known as pseudobulbar affect syndrome and may be expressed in several different neurological conditions.
                        Briefly summarised, the condition arises from a disconnect between the frontal “descending pathways” in the brainstem – which control emotional drives – and the circuits and pathways that govern facial and emotional expression. Some disorders specifically associated with the condition include traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis and stroke.

                        Indeed, a study last year found that an increasingly twisted sense of humour and laughing at inappropriate times could be an early indication of dementia. Pseudobulbar affect syndrome is also one of the most common reported side effects of stroke in terms of emotional change. And given the high incidence of stroke each year, the condition is likely to be highly prevalent in the general population.
                        Update 12/05/2017




                        Social Laughter Triggers Endogenous Opioid Release in Humans

                        http://www.jneurosci.org/content/ear...I.0688-16.2017

                        Abstract

                        The size of human social networks significantly exceeds the network that can be maintained by social grooming or touching in other primates. It has been proposed that endogenous opioid release following social laughter would provide a neurochemical pathway supporting long-term relationships in humans (Dunbar, 2012) yet this hypothesis currently lacks direct neurophysiological support. We used positron emission tomography (PET) and μ-opioid-receptor (MOR) specific ligand [11C]carfentanil to quantify laughter-induced endogenous opioid release in 12 healthy males. Before the social laughter scan, the subjects watched with their close friends laughter-inducing comedy clips for 30 min. Before the baseline scan, subjects spent 30 min alone in the testing room. Social laughter increased pleasurable sensations and triggered endogenous opioid release in thalamus, caudate nucleus, and anterior insula. In addition, baseline MOR availability in the cingulate and orbitofrontal cortices was associated with the rate of social laughter. In a behavioral control experiment, pain threshold — a proxy of endogenous opioidergic activation — was elevated significantly more in both male and female volunteers after watching laughter-inducing comedy vs. non-laughter inducing drama in groups. Modulation of the opioidergic activity by social laughter may be an important neurochemical pathway that supports formation, reinforcement, and maintenance of social bonds between humans.

                        SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT

                        Social contacts are of prime importance to humans. The size of human social networks significantly exceeds the network that can be maintained by social grooming in other primates. Here we used positron emission tomography to show that endogenous opioid release following social laughter may provide a neurochemical mechanism supporting long-term relationships in humans. Participants were scanned twice; following 30-minute social laughter session, and after spending 30 minutes alone in the testing room (baseline). Endogenous opioid release was stronger following laughter versus baseline scan. Opioid receptor density in the frontal cortex predicted social laughter rates, Modulation of the opioidergic activity by social laughter may be an important neurochemical mechanism reinforcing and maintaining social bonds between humans.
                        Update 03/06/2017
                        Last edited by Jo Bowyer; 03-06-2017, 04:13 AM.
                        Jo Bowyer
                        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                        Comment


                        • #87
                          Parkinson’s Patients Benefit From Aerobic Exercise

                          http://neurosciencenews.com/aerobic-...rkinsons-3460/

                          You’ve likely heard this before: Exercise is good for you. It helps your heart, bones, back and more.

                          But here’s one thing you might not have heard: Ongoing aerobic exercise may slow the progression of Parkinson’s disease, a progressive disorder of the nervous system.

                          “Aerobic exercise means vigorous exercise, which makes you hot, sweaty and tired” says J. Eric Ahlskog, Ph.D., M.D., a neurologist at Mayo Clinic. This could include activity such as walking briskly or using an elliptical machine.

                          That doesn’t mean stretching or balance exercises are not helpful, Dr. Ahlskog notes. Those types of exercises help with Parkinson’s symptoms, such as rigid muscles, slowed movement or impaired posture and balance.

                          But to help fight the progression of Parkinson’s disease, including dementia — one of the most feared long-term outcomes of the disease — Dr. Ahlskog points to scientific studies that show aerobic exercise enhances factors that potentially have a protective effect on the brain. For instance, aerobic exercise liberates trophic factors – small proteins in the brain that behave like fertilizer does when applied to your lawn. Exercise helps maintain brain connections and counters brain shrinkage from Parkinson’s disease as well as from brain aging, says Dr. Ahlskog, author of “The New Parkinson’s Disease Treatment Book,” which further explores the benefits of aerobic exercise.

                          In an editorial published online today in JAMA Neurology, Dr. Ahlskog makes the case that modern physical therapy practices should incorporate aerobic exercise training and encourage fitness for patients with Parkinson’s disease.

                          As a society, Americans are becoming increasingly sedentary. It is a particular challenge for people with Parkinson’s disease to begin and maintain aerobic exercise. “That is where a physical therapist might serve a crucial role in helping to counter Parkinson’s disease progression,” Dr. Ahlskog says. “The physical therapist could identify the type of exercise that would appeal to the individual, initiate that plan and serve as exercise coach.”

                          For anyone with or without Parkinson’s disease, an aerobic exercise routine takes hard work and ongoing commitment.
                          I have had three patients who have done this to good effect over a number of years. Despite various notes of caution from me, all thought that they had found an answer - sub plot a "cure". When they eventually become reliant on others for everyday care, they were devastated and felt cheated despite the fact that they had given themselves extra years of productive life. I would still encourage those who wish to do this as it is possible that further progress will be made with regards to drug regimes and deep brain stimulation.
                          Jo Bowyer
                          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

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                          • #88
                            Social Influences in Sequential Decision Making

                            http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0146536

                            Abstract

                            People often make decisions in a social environment. The present work examines social influence on people’s decisions in a sequential decision-making situation. In the first experimental study, we implemented an information cascade paradigm, illustrating that people infer information from decisions of others and use this information to make their own decisions. We followed a cognitive modeling approach to elicit the weight people give to social as compared to private individual information. The proposed social influence model shows that participants overweight their own private information relative to social information, contrary to the normative Bayesian account. In our second study, we embedded the abstract decision problem of Study 1 in a medical decision-making problem. We examined whether in a medical situation people also take others’ authority into account in addition to the information that their decisions convey. The social influence model illustrates that people weight social information differentially according to the authority of other decision makers. The influence of authority was strongest when an authority's decision contrasted with private information. Both studies illustrate how the social environment provides sources of information that people integrate differently for their decisions.
                            Jo Bowyer
                            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                            Comment


                            • #89
                              Why I tense up when you watch me: Inferior parietal cortex mediates an audience’s influence on motor performance

                              http://www.nature.com/articles/srep19305

                              Abstract
                              The presence of an evaluative audience can alter skilled motor performance through changes in force output. To investigate how this is mediated within the brain, we emulated real-time social monitoring of participants’ performance of a fine grip task during functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging. We observed an increase in force output during social evaluation that was accompanied by focal reductions in activity within bilateral inferior parietal cortex. Moreover, deactivation of the left inferior parietal cortex predicted both inter- and intra-individual differences in socially-induced change in grip force. Social evaluation also enhanced activation within the posterior superior temporal sulcus, which conveys visual information about others’ actions to the inferior parietal cortex. Interestingly, functional connectivity between these two regions was attenuated by social evaluation. Our data suggest that social evaluation can vary force output through the altered engagement of inferior parietal cortex; a region implicated in sensorimotor integration necessary for object manipulation, and a component of the action-observation network which integrates and facilitates performance of observed actions. Social-evaluative situations may induce high-level representational incoherence between one’s own intentioned action and the perceived intention of others which, by uncoupling the dynamics of sensorimotor facilitation, could ultimately perturbe motor output.
                              Jo Bowyer
                              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                              Comment


                              • #90
                                Depression is under-recognised in the sport setting: time for primary care sports medicine to be proactive and screen widely for depression symptoms

                                http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/50/3/137?etoc

                                An important role of the team physician is to provide care for the whole athlete. This includes mental health issues for instance screening for depression and knowing the factors that affect the onset of depression. The USA Preventive Service Task Force (USPSTF) recommends screening adults for depression when staff-assisted depression care supports are in place to assure accurate diagnosis, effective treatment and follow-up.1 Most studies report prevalence rate of depression among college athletes ranges from as low as 15.6% to as high as 21%.2 Depression levels were significantly higher in current college athletes (about 17%) compared with former, graduated college athletes (8%).

                                The stress of sports and athletic participation place athletes at risk. Performance failure was significantly associated with depression. The statistically strongest predictors of depression in student-athletes were female gender, lower self-esteem, less social connectedness and decrease sleep. Female student-athletes had 1.32 greater odds (95% CI 1.01 to 1.73) of experiencing symptoms of depression compared to male student-athletes. Freshmen had 3.27 greater odds (95% CI 1.63 to 6.59) of experiencing symptoms of depression than their more senior counterparts.3

                                USPSTF recommends the use of one of these three screening tools; 9-Question Patient Health Questionnaire—Depression Screener (PHQ-9), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Depression Screener from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The PHQ-9, a nine-question survey, when the cut-off is a score of 5 or more has 95% sensitivity and 88.3% specificity when scored with a cut point of 11.


                                Gender Differences in Depression Appear at Age 12

                                http://neurosciencenews.com/age-depression-gender-6528/

                                Update 28/04/2017
                                Last edited by Jo Bowyer; 28-04-2017, 10:59 AM.
                                Jo Bowyer
                                Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                                "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                                Comment

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