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  • #61
    Worst case scenario: you'll get to see some really imaginative anime, Jo-chan
    Dan
    Tactile Raconteur

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    • #62
      Doumo arigatou:
      Jo Bowyer
      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

      Comment


      • #63
        Inflammation is associated with decreased functional connectivity within corticostriatal reward circuitry in depression

        http://www.nature.com/mp/journal/vao...p2015168a.html

        Abstract
        Depression is associated with alterations in corticostriatal reward circuitry. One pathophysiological pathway that may drive these changes is inflammation. Biomarkers of inflammation (for example, cytokines and C-reactive protein (CRP)) are reliably elevated in depressed patients. Moreover, administration of inflammatory stimuli reduces neural activity and dopamine release in reward-related brain regions in association with reduced motivation and anhedonia. Accordingly, we examined whether increased inflammation in depression affects corticostriatal reward circuitry to lead to deficits in motivation and goal-directed motor behavior. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted on 48 medically stable, unmedicated outpatients with major depression. Whole-brain, voxel-wise functional connectivity was examined as a function of CRP using seeds for subdivisions of the ventral and dorsal striatum associated with motivation and motor control. Increased CRP was associated with decreased connectivity between ventral striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) (corrected P<0.05), which in turn correlated with increased anhedonia (R=−0.47, P=0.001). Increased CRP similarly predicted decreased dorsal striatal to vmPFC and presupplementary motor area connectivity, which correlated with decreased motor speed (R=0.31 to 0.45, P<0.05) and increased psychomotor slowing (R=−0.35, P=0.015). Of note, mediation analyses revealed that these effects of CRP on connectivity mediated significant relationships between CRP and anhedonia and motor slowing. Finally, connectivity between striatum and vmPFC was associated with increased plasma interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1beta and IL-1 receptor antagonist (R=−0.33 to −0.36, P<0.05). These findings suggest that decreased corticostriatal connectivity may serve as a target for anti-inflammatory or pro-dopaminergic treatment strategies to improve motivational and motor deficits in patients with increased inflammation, including depression.
        Jo Bowyer
        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

        Comment


        • #64
          The cognitive-interpersonal maintenance model of anorexia nervosa revisited: a summary of the evidence for cognitive, socio-emotional and interpersonal predisposing and perpetuating factors

          http://www.jeatdisord.com/content/1/...ource=Teradata

          Abstract
          Aim
          To describe the evidence base relating to the Cognitive-Interpersonal Maintenance Model for anorexia nervosa (AN).

          Background
          A Cognitive-Interpersonal Maintenance Model maintenance model for anorexia nervosa was described in 2006. This model proposed that cognitive, socio-emotional and interpersonal elements acted together to both cause and maintain eating disorders.

          Method
          A review of the empirical literature relating to the key constructs of the model (cognitive, socio-emotional, interpersonal) risk and maintaining factors for anorexia nervosa was conducted.

          Results
          Set shifting and weak central coherence (associated with obsessive compulsive traits) have been widely studied. There is some evidence to suggest that a strong eye for detail and weak set shifting are inherited vulnerabilities to AN. Set shifting and global integration are impaired in the ill state and contribute to weak central coherence. In addition, there are wide-ranging impairments in socio-emotional processing including: an automatic bias in attention towards critical and domineering faces and away from compassionate faces; impaired signalling of, interpretation and regulation of emotions. Difficulties in social cognition may in part be a consequence of starvation but inherited vulnerabilities may also contribute to these traits. The shared familial traits may accentuate family members’ tendency to react to the frustrating and frightening symptoms of AN with high expressed emotion (criticism, hostility, overprotection), and inadvertently perpetuate the problem.

          Conclusion
          The cognitive interpersonal model is supported by accumulating evidence. The model is complex in that cognitive and socio-emotional factors both predispose to the illness and are exaggerated in the ill state. Furthermore, some of the traits are inherited vulnerabilities and are present in family members. The clinical formulations from the model are described as are new possibilities for targeted treatment.
          Keywords: Anorexia nervosa; Model; Complex intervention; Eating disorder
          Jo Bowyer
          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

          Comment


          • #65
            The Influence of Depression on Cognitive Control: Disambiguating Approach and Avoidance Tendencies

            http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0143714

            Abstract

            Dysfunctions of approach and avoidance motivation play an important role in depression, which in turn may affect cognitive control, i.e., the ability to regulate thoughts and action to achieve internal goals. We use a novel experimental paradigm, i.e. a computer simulated driving-task, to study the impact of depression on cognitive control by measuring approach and avoidance actions in continuous time. In this task, 39 subjects with minimal to severe depression symptoms were instructed to use a joystick to move a virtual car as quickly as possible to a target point without crossing a stop-sign or crashing into a wall. We recorded their continuous actions on a joystick and found that depression 1) leads to further stopping distance to task target; and 2) increases the magnitude of late deceleration (avoidance) but not early acceleration (approach), which was only observed in the stop-sign condition. Taken together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that depressed individuals have greater avoidance motivation near stopping target, but are minimally affected by approach motivation.
            Jo Bowyer
            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

            Comment


            • #66
              Gaze Following Is Modulated by Expectations Regarding Others’ Action Goals

              http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0143614

              Abstract

              Humans attend to social cues in order to understand and predict others’ behavior. Facial expressions and gaze direction provide valuable information to infer others’ mental states and intentions. The present study examined the mechanism of gaze following in the context of participants’ expectations about successive action steps of an observed actor. We embedded a gaze-cueing manipulation within an action scenario consisting of a sequence of naturalistic photographs. Gaze-induced orienting of attention (gaze following) was analyzed with respect to whether the gaze behavior of the observed actor was in line or not with the action-related expectations of participants (i.e., whether the actor gazed at an object that was congruent or incongruent with an overarching action goal). In Experiment 1, participants followed the gaze of the observed agent, though the gaze-cueing effect was larger when the actor looked at an action-congruent object relative to an incongruent object. Experiment 2 examined whether the pattern of effects observed in Experiment 1 was due to covert, rather than overt, attentional orienting, by requiring participants to maintain eye fixation throughout the sequence of critical photographs (corroborated by monitoring eye movements). The essential pattern of results of Experiment 1 was replicated, with the gaze-cueing effect being completely eliminated when the observed agent gazed at an action-incongruent object. Thus, our findings show that covert gaze following can be modulated by expectations that humans hold regarding successive steps of the action performed by an observed agent.
              Jo Bowyer
              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

              Comment


              • #67
                Family Health Climate and Adolescents’ Physical Activity and Healthy Eating: A Cross-Sectional Study with Mother-Father-Adolescent Triads

                http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0143599

                Abstract

                Introduction

                The importance of the family environment for children’s and adolescents’ health behavior has been demonstrated, the underlying mechanisms of this influence remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between family environmental and individual determinants. It was hypothesized that the Family Health Climate (FHC) is associated with adolescents’ physical activity and dietary behavior and that intrinsic motivation mediates this association.

                Methods

                Cross-sectional data were collected from 198 families (mother, father, and child) using questionnaires. Perceptions of FHC of mothers, fathers, and their children were assessed using the FHC-scales for physical activity (FHC-PA) and nutrition (FHC-NU). The adolescents also rated their intrinsic motivation for exercise and healthy eating, their physical activity and consumption of healthful food. A structural equation model was analyzed and a bootstrapping procedure was used to test direct and indirect effects.

                Results

                The FHC-PA was related to the amount of weekly physical activity and the FHC-NU to the consumption of fruit, vegetables and salad. These effects were mediated by adolescents’ intrinsic motivation; the indirect effects were significant for both behaviors.

                Discussion

                These results emphasize the importance of the FHC in shaping adolescents’ physical activity and dietary behavior. Individual motivational factors are potential mediators of family and parental influences. Considering family-level variables and their interaction with individual factors contributes to the understanding of adolescents’ health behavior.
                Jo Bowyer
                Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                Comment


                • #68
                  Clinical Manifestation of Depression after Stroke: Is It Different from Depression in Other Patient Populations?

                  http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0144450

                  Abstract

                  Background

                  Despite ample research on depression after stroke, the debate continues regarding whether symptoms such as sleep disturbances, loss of energy, changes in appetite and diminished concentration should be considered to be consequences of stroke or general symptoms of depression. By comparing symptoms in depressed and non-depressed stroke patients with patients in general practice and patients with symptomatic atherosclerotic diseases, we aim to further clarify similarities and distinctions of depression after stroke and depression in other patient populations. Based on this, it is possible to determine if somatic symptoms should be evaluated in stroke patients in diagnosing depression after stroke.

                  Methods

                  An observational multicenter study is conducted in three hospitals and seven general practices including 382 stroke patients admitted to hospital with a clinical diagnosis of intracerebral hemorrhage or ischemic infarction, 1160 patients in general practice (PREDICT-NL), and 530 patients with symptomatic atherosclerotic diseases (SMART-Medea).

                  Results

                  The prevalence of major depressive disorder according to DSM-IV criteria was 14.1% (95% CI 11.0%-18.0%) in the stroke cohort, 5.4% (95% CI 3.8%-7.9%) in the symptomatic atherosclerotic diseases cohort and 12.9% (95% CI 11.1%-15.0%) in the general practice cohorts. Comparing depressed patients of the three cohorts demonstrated broadly similar symptom profiles, as well as comparable levels of individual symptom prevalence. However, the stroke patients suffered more severely from these symptoms than patients in the other populations.

                  Conclusions

                  The findings suggest that depression after stroke is not a different type of depression. This finding indicates that all depressive symptoms should be evaluated in stroke patients, including somatic symptoms.
                  Jo Bowyer
                  Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                  "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                  Comment


                  • #69
                    One in four new doctors may be depressed, and their patients may suffer because of it

                    http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases...1208132150.htm

                    More than one in four doctors in the early stages of their careers has signs of depression, a comprehensive new study finds. And the grueling years of training for a medical career may deserve some of the blame.

                    That's bad news not just for the young doctors themselves, but also for the patients they care for now and in the future. Depressed doctors are known to be more likely to make mistakes or give worse care.

                    The startling findings come from a careful investigation of 50 years' worth of studies that looked for depression symptoms in more than 17,500 medical residents.

                    It's published in the new issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association by a team led by a current resident at Harvard and a University of Michigan Medical School psychiatrist who specializes in studying physician mental health.

                    The team aimed to find definitive answers to questions that have been studied many times and in many ways: What percentage of new doctors might be depressed, and how much does that change over time?

                    By collecting and combining data from 54 studies done around the world, the researchers concluded that 28.8 percent of physicians-in-training have signs of depression.

                    There was a small but significant increase in the rate of depression over the five decades covered by the study.
                    My guess is the increased tendency for patients to complain and the massive increased requirement for record keeping.

                    We all worked harder when I first started in order to get the work done, the documentation was considered to be less important. I would do a full days work after being up all night if I had patients that needed seeing every two hours. Some of the junior doctors I worked with were seriously sleep deprived, some broke down physically, some had what was then known as "nervous breakdown" and two died from unexplained CVS issues. We were pushed hard by senior doctors and ward sisters, but we didn't have the monkey that is "management" on our backs. I scarcely knew that they existed. Happy days!
                    Jo Bowyer
                    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                    Comment


                    • #70
                      Prosocial Behavior Mitigates the Negative Effects of Stress in Everyday Life

                      http://cpx.sagepub.com/content/early...67702615611073

                      Abstract

                      Recent theories of stress reactivity posit that, when stressed, individuals tend to seek out opportunities to affiliate with and nurture others to prevent or mitigate the negative effects of stress. However, few studies have tested empirically the role of prosocial behavior in reducing negative emotional responses to stress. The current analyses used daily diary data to investigate whether engaging in prosocial behavior buffered the negative effects of naturally occurring stressors on emotional well-being. Results showed that on a given day, prosocial behavior moderated the effects of stress on positive affect, negative affect, and overall mental health. Findings suggest that affiliative behavior may be an important component of coping with stress and indicate that engaging in prosocial behavior might be an effective strategy for reducing the impact of stress on emotional functioning.
                      Jo Bowyer
                      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                      Comment


                      • #71
                        The roles of interoceptive sensitivity and metacognitive interoception in panic

                        http://behavioralandbrainfunctions.b...ource=Teradata

                        Abstract

                        Background
                        Interoception refers to the ability to sense body signals. Two interoceptive dimensions have been recently proposed: (a) interoceptive sensitivity (IS) –objective accuracy in detecting internal bodily sensations (e.g., heartbeat, breathing)–; and (b) metacognitive interoception (MI) –explicit beliefs and worries about one’s own interoceptive sensitivity and internal sensations. Current models of panic assume a possible influence of interoception on the development of panic attacks. Hypervigilance to body symptoms is one of the most characteristic manifestations of panic disorders. Some explanations propose that patients have abnormal IS, whereas other accounts suggest that misinterpretations or catastrophic beliefs play a pivotal role in the development of their psychopathology. Our goal was to evaluate these theoretical proposals by examining whether patients differed from controls in IS, MI, or both. Twenty-one anxiety disorders patients with panic attacks and 13 healthy controls completed a behavioral measure of IS motor heartbeat detection (HBD) and two questionnaires measuring MI.

                        Findings
                        Patients did not differ from controls in IS. However, significant differences were found in MI measures. Patients presented increased worries in their beliefs about somatic sensations compared to controls. These results reflect a discrepancy between direct body sensing (IS) and reflexive thoughts about body states (MI).

                        Conclusion
                        Our findings support the idea that hypervigilance to body symptoms is not necessarily a bottom-up dispositional tendency (where patients are hypersensitive about bodily signals), but rather a metacognitive process related to threatening beliefs about body/somatic sensations.

                        Keywords

                        Anxiety disorder Panic attacks Interoception sensitivity Metacognitive interoception Heartbeat detection
                        This can and does happen to patients in the treatment room and as a young practitioner I found them very disturbing to witness. Many report a feeling of doom, they "know" that they are about to die. Trying to be an oasis of calm when one of these happens isn't easy and there is no point in trying to reason with them. When it subsides, which usually happens within minutes it may be helpful to take them for a short walk to get some water, let them talk about it and help them to deconstruct it. It turned out that one of my patients had a grandmother who died in the hospital in which I was working and there were other issues in the patient's background which were contributory. Because the patient wanted to continue with me, we worked out a plan whereby she would be in and out of the hospital within fifteen minutes to start with and we gradually built it up as she gained in confidence.
                        Jo Bowyer
                        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                        Comment


                        • #72
                          Emotion Understanding in Clinically Anxious Children: A Preliminary Investigation

                          http://journal.frontiersin.org/artic...015.01916/full

                          Children’s understanding of the nature, origins and consequences of emotions has been intensively investigated over the last 30–40 years. However, few empirical studies have looked at the relation between emotion understanding and anxiety in children and their results are mixed. The aim of the present study was to perform a preliminary investigation of the relationships between emotion understanding, anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and attachment security in clinically anxious children. A sample of 16 clinically anxious children (age 8–12, eight girls/boys) was assessed for emotion understanding (Test of Emotion Comprehension), anxiety (Screening for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised and Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule), emotion dysregulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale) and attachment security (Security Scale). Children who reported more overall anxiety also reported greater difficulties in regulating their emotions, and were less securely attached to their parents. The results also showed that more specific symptoms of anxiety (i.e., OCD and PTSD) correlated not only with emotion dysregulation and attachment insecurity but also with emotion understanding. Finally, there were interrelations among emotion understanding, attachment security, and emotion dysregulation. The present results provide the first comprehensive evidence for a socio-emotional framework and its relevance to childhood anxiety.
                          Jo Bowyer
                          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                          Comment


                          • #73
                            Involvement of Sensory Regions in Affective Experience: A Meta-Analysis

                            http://journal.frontiersin.org/artic...015.01860/full

                            A growing body of work suggests that sensory processes may also contribute to affective experience. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis of affective experiences driven through visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, and somatosensory stimulus modalities including study contrasts that compared affective stimuli to matched neutral control stimuli. We found, first, that limbic and paralimbic regions, including the amygdala, anterior insula, pre-supplementary motor area, and portions of orbitofrontal cortex were consistently engaged across two or more modalities. Second, early sensory input regions in occipital, temporal, piriform, mid-insular, and primary sensory cortex were frequently engaged during affective experiences driven by visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, and somatosensory inputs. A classification analysis demonstrated that the pattern of neural activity across a contrast map diagnosed the stimulus modality driving the affective experience. These findings suggest that affective experiences are constructed from activity that is distributed across limbic and paralimbic brain regions and also activity in sensory cortical regions.
                            Jo Bowyer
                            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                            Comment


                            • #74
                              Pregnant Women’s Perceptions of Harms and Benefits of Mental Health Screening

                              http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0145189

                              Abstract

                              Background

                              A widely held concern of screening is that its psychological harms may outweigh the benefits of early detection and treatment. This study describes pregnant women's perceptions of possible harms and benefits of mental health screening and factors associated with identifying screening as harmful or beneficial.

                              Methods

                              This study analyzed a subgroup of women who had undergone formal or informal mental health screening from our larger multi-site, cross-sectional study. Pregnant women >16 years of age who spoke/read English were recruited (May-December 2013) from prenatal classes and maternity clinics in Alberta, Canada. Descriptive statistics were generated to summarize harms and benefits of screening and multivariable logistic regression identified factors associated with reporting at least one harm or affirming screening as a positive experience (January-December 2014).

                              Results

                              Overall study participation rate was 92% (N = 460/500). Among women screened for mental health concerns (n = 238), 63% viewed screening as positive, 69% were glad to be asked, and 87% took it as evidence their provider cared about them. Only one woman identified screening as a negative experience. Of the 6 harms, none was endorsed by >7% of women, with embarrassment being most cited. Women who were very comfortable (vs somewhat/not comfortable) with screening were more likely to report it as a positive experience.

                              Limitations

                              Women were largely Caucasian, well-educated, partnered women; thus, findings may not be generalizable to women with socioeconomic risk.

                              Conclusions

                              Most women perceived prenatal mental health screening as having high benefit and low harm. These findings dispel popular concerns that mental health screening is psychologically harmful.
                              Jo Bowyer
                              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                              Comment


                              • #75
                                Hypnosis for Awake Surgery of Low-grade Gliomas: Description of the Method and Psychological Assessment.

                                http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26313220

                                Abstract

                                BACKGROUND:
                                Awake craniotomy with intraoperative electric stimulation is a reliable method for extensive removal of low-grade gliomas while preserving the functional integrity of eloquent surrounding brain structures. Although fully awake procedures have been proposed, asleep-awake-asleep remains the standard technique. Anesthetic contraindications are the only limitation of this method, which is therefore not reliable for older patients with high-grade gliomas.

                                OBJECTIVE:
                                To describe and assess a novel method for awake craniotomy based on hypnosis.

                                METHODS:
                                We proposed a novel hypnosedation procedure to patients undergoing awake surgery for low-grade gliomas in our institution between May 2011 and April 2015. Surgical data were retrospectively recorded. The subjective experience of hypnosis was assessed by 3 standardized questionnaires: the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist Scale, the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experience Questionnaire, and a fourth questionnaire designed specifically for this study.

                                RESULTS:
                                Twenty-eight questionnaires were retrieved from 43 procedures performed on 37 patients. The Peritraumatic Dissociative Experience Questionnaire revealed a dissociation state in 17 cases. The Perceived Stress Scale was pathological in 8 patients. Two patients in this group stated that they would not accept a second hypnosedation procedure. The Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist Scale revealed 1 case of posttraumatic stress disorder. Burr hole and bone flap procedures were the most frequently reported unpleasant events during opening (15 of 52 events).

                                CONCLUSION:
                                The main findings of our study are the effectiveness of the technique, which in all cases allowed resection of the tumor up to functional boundaries, and the positive psychological impact of the technique in most of the patients.
                                I wonder how much of what we say and do has a hypnotic effect. I'm certain that ward rounds did.
                                Jo Bowyer
                                Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                                "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                                Comment

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