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  • #31
    The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioural Treatment for Non-Specific Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0134192

    Abstract

    Objectives

    To assess whether cognitive behavioural (CB) approaches improve disability, pain, quality of life and/or work disability for patients with low back pain (LBP) of any duration and of any age.

    Methods

    Nine databases were searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) from inception to November 2014. Two independent reviewers rated trial quality and extracted trial data. Standardised mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for individual trials. Pooled effect sizes were calculated using a random-effects model for two contrasts: CB versus no treatment (including wait-list and usual care (WL/UC)), and CB versus other guideline-based active treatment (GAT).

    Results

    The review included 23 studies with a total of 3359 participants. Of these, the majority studied patients with persistent LBP (>6 weeks; n=20). At long term follow-up, the pooled SMD for the WL/UC comparison was -0.19 (-0.38, 0.01) for disability, and -0.23 (-0.43, -0.04) for pain, in favour of CB. For the GAT comparison, at long term the pooled SMD was -0.83 (-1.46, -0.19) for disability and -0.48 (-0.93, -0.04) for pain, in favour of CB. While trials varied considerably in methodological quality, and in intervention factors such as provider, mode of delivery, dose, duration, and pragmatism, there were several examples of lower intensity, low cost interventions that were effective.

    Conclusion

    CB interventions yield long-term improvements in pain, disability and quality of life in comparison to no treatment and other guideline-based active treatments for patients with LBP of any duration and of any age.
    Jo Bowyer
    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

    Comment


    • #32
      The Obesogenic Quality of the Home Environment: Associations with Diet, Physical Activity, TV Viewing, and BMI in Preschool Children

      http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0134490

      Abstract

      Objectives

      The home environment is thought to play a key role in early weight trajectories, although direct evidence is limited. There is general agreement that multiple factors exert small individual effects on weight-related outcomes, so use of composite measures could demonstrate stronger effects. This study therefore examined whether composite measures reflecting the ‘obesogenic’ home environment are associated with diet, physical activity, TV viewing, and BMI in preschool children.

      Methods

      Families from the Gemini cohort (n = 1096) completed a telephone interview (Home Environment Interview; HEI) when their children were 4 years old. Diet, physical activity, and TV viewing were reported at interview. Child height and weight measurements were taken by the parents (using standard scales and height charts) and reported at interview. Responses to the HEI were standardized and summed to create four composite scores representing the food (sum of 21 variables), activity (sum of 6 variables), media (sum of 5 variables), and overall (food composite/21 + activity composite/6 + media composite/5) home environments. These were categorized into ‘obesogenic risk’ tertiles.

      Results

      Children in ‘higher-risk’ food environments consumed less fruit (OR; 95% CI = 0.39; 0.27–0.57) and vegetables (0.47; 0.34–0.64), and more energy-dense snacks (3.48; 2.16–5.62) and sweetened drinks (3.49; 2.10–5.81) than children in ‘lower-risk’ food environments. Children in ‘higher-risk’ activity environments were less physically active (0.43; 0.32–0.59) than children in ‘lower-risk’ activity environments. Children in ‘higher-risk’ media environments watched more TV (3.51; 2.48–4.96) than children in ‘lower-risk’ media environments. Neither the individual nor the overall composite measures were associated with BMI.

      Conclusions

      Composite measures of the obesogenic home environment were associated as expected with diet, physical activity, and TV viewing. Associations with BMI were not apparent at this age.
      It is also possible that associations between the home environment and weight may only appear among those who are genetically susceptible to weight gain. Weight is known to have a strong genetic basis[38], and there is evidence that genetic risk influences responses to the environment[39]. However, no studies have directly tested genetic moderation within the context of the overall obesogenic home environment.
      Jo Bowyer
      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

      Comment


      • #33
        Cyborgs, extended minds and calculators

        http://noijam.com/2015/08/14/cyborgs...d-calculators/

        Therapeutic encounters

        As a clinician, the extended mind thesis raises the notion that the patient is simply not an object to be acted on – observed, assessed, tested and treated, but is an integrated component of clinical thinking, reasoning, understanding and acting. Of course, many approaches to therapy advocate this kind of approach, whether they be called biopsychosocial, holistic, or anything else. However consider the following from Clark and Chalmers’ summary

        “It may be, for example, that in some cases interfering with someone’s environment will have the same moral significance as interfering with their person. And if the view is taken seriously, certain forms of social activity might be reconceived as less akin to communication and action, and as more akin to thought. In any case, once the hegemony of skin and skull is usurped, we may be able to see ourselves more truly as creatures of the world.”

        How might clinical encounters differ if they were conceptualised as forms of collective thought of two extended and conjoined minds?
        Jo Bowyer
        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

        Comment


        • #34
          Does mindfulness improve outcomes in chronic pain patients?

          http://www.bodyinmind.org/pain-mindf...ody+in+Mind%29
          Jo Bowyer
          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

          Comment


          • #35
            A cross sectional study between the prevalence of chronic pain and academic pressure in adolescents in China (Shanghai)

            http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2474/16/219

            Abstract
            Background
            The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of four types of chronic pain (headache, abdominal pain, neck and shoulder pain (NSP), and low back pain (LBP)) and to explore the relationship between the prevalence of chronic pain and self-reported academic pressure in high school students in Shanghai, China.

            Method
            Three thousand students were randomly surveyed on related issues using a questionnaire, and the results were analyzed using a multivariate logistic regression model.

            Results
            Among the 2849 high school students who completed the questionnaire, the overall prevalence rates of headache, abdominal pain, NSP, and LBP were 30.3, 20.9, 32.8, and 41.1 %, respectively. The students in general experienced a heavy burden of learning, a high level of stress, and sleep deprivation, which were closely related to the four types of chronic pain.

            Conclusion
            Chronic pain is a common condition in Chinese adolescents and is closely related to self-reported academic pressure.


            Pain, pain intensity and pain disability in high school students are differently associated with physical activity, screening hours and sleep

            https://bmcmusculoskeletdisord.biome...891-017-1557-6

            Abstract

            Background
            Studies exploring the association between physical activity, screen time and sleep and pain usually focus on a limited number of painful body sites. Nevertheless, pain at different body sites is likely to be of different nature. Therefore, this study aims to explore and compare the association between time spent in self-reported physical activity, in screen based activities and sleeping and i) pain presence in the last 7-days for 9 different body sites; ii) pain intensity at 9 different body sites and iii) global disability.

            Methods
            Nine hundred sixty nine students completed a questionnaire on pain, time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity, screen based time watching TV/DVD, playing, using mobile phones and computers and sleeping hours. Univariate and multivariate associations between pain presence, pain intensity and disability and physical activity, screen based time and sleeping hours were investigated.

            Results
            Pain presence: sleeping remained in the multivariable model for the neck, mid back, wrists, knees and ankles/feet (OR 1.17 to 2.11); moderate physical activity remained in the multivariate model for the neck, shoulders, wrists, hips and ankles/feet (OR 1.06 to 1.08); vigorous physical activity remained in the multivariate model for mid back, knees and ankles/feet (OR 1.05 to 1.09) and screen time remained in the multivariate model for the low back (OR = 2.34. Pain intensity: screen time and moderate physical activity remained in the multivariable model for pain intensity at the neck, mid back, low back, shoulder, knees and ankles/feet (Rp2 0.02 to 0.04) and at the wrists (Rp2 = 0.04), respectively. Disability showed no association with sleeping, screen time or physical activity.

            Conclusions
            This study suggests both similarities and differences in the patterns of association between time spent in physical activity, sleeping and in screen based activities and pain presence at 8 different body sites. In addition, they also suggest that the factors associated with the presence of pain, pain intensity and pain associated disability are different.
            Keywords

            Pain Disability evaluation Physical activity Screen time Sleep

            Update 17/05/2017
            Last edited by Jo Bowyer; 17-05-2017, 04:39 PM.
            Jo Bowyer
            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

            Comment


            • #36
              Establishing key components of yoga interventions for reducing depression and anxiety, and improving well-being: a Delphi method study

              http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-68...ource=Teradata

              Abstract
              Background
              Previous research suggests benefits of yoga in reducing depression and anxiety. However, common concerns in reviews of the research include lack of detail, rationale and consistency of approach of interventions used. Issues related to heterogeneity include amount, types and delivery of yoga interventions. This study aims to document consensus-based recommendations for consistency of yoga interventions for reducing depression and anxiety.

              Methods
              The Delphi method was used to establish consensus from experienced yoga teachers. Thirty-three eligible teachers were invited to participate, from four different countries. Two rounds of an online survey were sent to participants. The first round sought initial views. The second round sought consensus on a summary of those views. Survey questions related to frequency and duration (dosage) of the yoga, approaches and techniques to be included or avoided, and training and experience for yoga teachers.

              Results
              Twenty-four teachers agreed to participate. Eighteen completed the second round (n = 18). General consensus (>75% of participants in agreement) was achieved on parameters of practice (dosage): an average of 30 to 40 minutes, to be done 5 times per week, over a period of 6 weeks. Numerous recommendations for yoga techniques to include or avoid were collected in the first round. The second round produced a consensus statement on those recommendations. Breath regulation and postures were considered very important or essential for people with depression; and relaxation, breath regulation and meditation being very important or essential for people with anxiety. Other recommended components also achieved consensus. There was also general consensus that it is very important or essential for teachers to have a minimum of 500 training hours over 2 years, at least 2 years teaching experience, training in developing personalised yoga practices, training in yoga for mental health, and professional supervision or mentoring.

              Conclusions
              The Delphi process has achieved a consensus statement on the application of yoga for reducing anxiety and depression. This consensus provides a checklist for identification of commonalities and evaluation of past research. Future research can proceed to develop and evaluate consensus-based yoga intervention protocols for the reduction of anxiety and depression, and improvements in well-being.

              Keywords: Yoga; Mental health; Depression; Anxiety; Well-being; Consensus; Intervention protocol; Delphi method
              Jo Bowyer
              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

              Comment


              • #37
                The “Reading the Mind in the Eyes” Test: Complete Absence of Typical Sex Difference in ~400 Men and Women with Autism

                http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0136521

                Abstract

                The “Reading the Mind in the Eyes” test (Eyes test) is an advanced test of theory of mind. Typical sex difference has been reported (i.e., female advantage). Individuals with autism show more difficulty than do typically developing individuals, yet it remains unclear how this is modulated by sex, as females with autism have been under-represented. Here in a large, non-male-biased sample we test for the effects of sex, diagnosis, and their interaction. The Eyes test (revised version) was administered online to 395 adults with autism (178 males, 217 females) and 320 control adults (152 males, 168 females). Two-way ANOVA showed a significant sex-by-diagnosis interaction in total correct score (F(1,711) = 5.090, p = 0.024, ηp2 = 0.007) arising from a significant sex difference between control males and females (p < 0.001, Cohen’s d = 0.47), and an absence of a sex difference between males and females with autism (p = 0.907, d = 0.01); significant case-control differences were observed across sexes, with effect sizes of d = 0.35 in males and d = 0.69 in females. Group-difference patterns fit with the extreme-male-brain (EMB) theory predictions. Eyes test-Empathy Quotient and Eyes test-Autism Spectrum Quotient correlations were significant only in females with autism (r = 0.35, r = -0.32, respectively), but not in the other 3 groups. Support vector machine (SVM) classification based on response pattern across all 36 items classified autism diagnosis with a relatively higher accuracy for females (72.2%) than males (65.8%). Nevertheless, an SVM model trained within one sex generalized equally well when applied to the other sex. Performance on the Eyes test is a sex-independent phenotypic characteristic of adults with autism, reflecting sex-common social difficulties, and provides support for the EMB theory predictions for both males and females. Performance of females with autism differed from same-sex controls more than did that of males with autism. Females with autism also showed stronger coherence between self-reported dispositional traits and Eyes test performance than all other groups.
                Simon Baron-Cohen is probably the leading UK research scientist in this field.
                Jo Bowyer
                Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                Comment


                • #38
                  Speaking and Listening with the Eyes: Gaze Signaling during Dyadic Interactions

                  http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0136905

                  Abstract

                  Cognitive scientists have long been interested in the role that eye gaze plays in social interactions. Previous research suggests that gaze acts as a signaling mechanism and can be used to control turn-taking behaviour. However, early research on this topic employed methods of analysis that aggregated gaze information across an entire trial (or trials), which masks any temporal dynamics that may exist in social interactions. More recently, attempts have been made to understand the temporal characteristics of social gaze but little research has been conducted in a natural setting with two interacting participants. The present study combines a temporally sensitive analysis technique with modern eye tracking technology to 1) validate the overall results from earlier aggregated analyses and 2) provide insight into the specific moment-to-moment temporal characteristics of turn-taking behaviour in a natural setting. Dyads played two social guessing games (20 Questions and Heads Up) while their eyes were tracked. Our general results are in line with past aggregated data, and using cross-correlational analysis on the specific gaze and speech signals of both participants we found that 1) speakers end their turn with direct gaze at the listener and 2) the listener in turn begins to speak with averted gaze. Convergent with theoretical models of social interaction, our data suggest that eye gaze can be used to signal both the end and the beginning of a speaking turn during a social interaction. The present study offers insight into the temporal dynamics of live dyadic interactions and also provides a new method of analysis for eye gaze data when temporal relationships are of interest.
                  This is something I am still learning to do by watching my "neurotypical" daughter.

                  Turn-taking behaviour

                  Attempts have been made to look at transitions in turn-taking, and this has been described in the form of a “turn system” [2], suggesting that speakers often signal “transition ready states” that indicate their desire to pass the turn to their interaction partner. These signals are a collection of observable behaviours (e.g., head and eye direction) [21], and there are reports of a positive correlation between the number of these signals and the smoothness of the turn transition from one person to the other [2]. Critically, however, the specific temporal nature of these transitions has not been assessed, though it was noted [2] that this would offer useful insights into understanding dyadic interactions.

                  While gazing-toward and gazing-away from a partner may be driven by different mechanisms and is potentially context dependent [17–19], there is good reason to hypothesize that both mechanisms are related to the way turn-taking is regulated during interactions. Gaze behaviour, both toward and away from a partner, correlate with speech and turn transitions [22], and can signal different intentions. For example, eye gaze aligns with turn transitions such that speakers tend to end speech utterances with a gaze at their partner [1], presumably to signal that the turn is ending and to provide the partner with an opportunity to take the floor. Speakers also tend to look away as they begin talking [1,2,23]. It has therefore been suggested that gaze fills both a monitoring and regulating role [24], and this is supported by the observation of gaze differences between speech endings that occur at the end of phrases and ones that occur due to mid utterance hesitations [1]. Kendon [1] found that speakers gaze at their partner as they are about to end their phrase, but during hesitations averted gaze is found instead. The implication is that speakers gaze towards their conversational partners as a way to signal to them that they are ready for a turn transition to occur, but during times when they are not ready to give up the floor (e.g. during hesitations) they avert gaze to indicate that they want to retain their role as speaker. That said, it is important to note that a conversation is a two-way street, and speakers are not solely responsible for turn-taking [25]. For example, listeners have been found to gesture more and make more head/gaze shifts prior to speaking, possibly as a way to request a turn shift [26].

                  Much of the work presented thus far represents the quantitative support for the initial theoretical models [1,2] of signaling in conversation. And some of these studies were conducted in settings that allowed conversations to flow naturally (e.g., [1,23,25]). However, most are limited by the fact that they employed aggregated methods of analysis. In light of the recent and growing interest in natural social attention, an area that deserves additional focus is the temporal relationship between gaze and speech. Indeed, it was noted in the earliest work that this could offer insights into how interactions unfold over time, as well as the precise function of social gaze [2].
                  Getting a patient to take the lead when they have grokked something and confining myself to putting in the occasional prompt to keep the dialogue science based, is currently top of my 'to do' list.




                  The impact of visual gaze direction on auditory object tracking

                  https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-04475-1

                  Abstract
                  Subjective experience suggests that we are able to direct our auditory attention independent of our visual gaze, e.g when shadowing a nearby conversation at a cocktail party. But what are the consequences at the behavioural and neural level? While numerous studies have investigated both auditory attention and visual gaze independently, little is known about their interaction during selective listening. In the present EEG study, we manipulated visual gaze independently of auditory attention while participants detected targets presented from one of three loudspeakers. We observed increased response times when gaze was directed away from the locus of auditory attention. Further, we found an increase in occipital alpha-band power contralateral to the direction of gaze, indicative of a suppression of distracting input. Finally, this condition also led to stronger central theta-band power, which correlated with the observed effect in response times, indicative of differences in top-down processing. Our data suggest that a misalignment between gaze and auditory attention both reduce behavioural performance and modulate underlying neural processes. The involvement of central theta-band and occipital alpha-band effects are in line with compensatory neural mechanisms such as increased cognitive control and the suppression of task irrelevant inputs.
                  Update 05/07/2017
                  Last edited by Jo Bowyer; 05-07-2017, 08:48 PM.
                  Jo Bowyer
                  Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                  "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                  Comment


                  • #39
                    Neural Correlates of Empathy with Pain Show Habituation Effects. An fMRI Study

                    http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0137056

                    Abstract

                    Background

                    Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the actual experience of pain and the perception of another person in pain share common neural substrates, including the bilateral anterior insular cortex and the anterior midcingulate cortex. As many fMRI studies include the exposure of participants to repeated, similar stimuli, we examined whether empathic neural responses were affected by habituation and whether the participants' prior pain experience influenced these habituation effects.

                    Method

                    In 128 trials (four runs), 62 participants (31 women, 23.0 ± 4.2 years) were shown pictures of hands exposed to painful pressure (pain pictures) and unexposed (neutral pictures). After each trial, the participants rated the pain of the model. Prior to the experiment, participants were either exposed to the same pain stimulus (pain exposure group) or not (touch exposure group). In order to assess possible habituation effects, linear changes in the strength of the BOLD response to the pain pictures (relative to the neutral pictures) and in the ratings of the model’s pain were evaluated across the four runs.

                    Results

                    Although the ratings of the model’s pain remained constant over time, we found neural habituation in the bilateral anterior/midinsular cortex, the posterior midcingulate extending to dorsal posterior cingulate cortex, the supplementary motor area, the cerebellum, the right inferior parietal lobule, and the left superior frontal gyrus, stretching to the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex. The participant’s prior pain experience did neither affect their ratings of the model’s pain nor their maintenance of BOLD activity in areas associated with empathy. Interestingly, participants with high trait personal distress and fantasy tended to show less habituation in the anterior insula.

                    Conclusion

                    Neural structures showed a decrease of the BOLD signal, indicating habituation over the course of 45 minutes. This can be interpreted as a neuronal mechanism responding to the repeated exposure to pain depictions, which may be regarded as functional in a range of contexts.
                    My italics
                    Jo Bowyer
                    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                    Comment


                    • #40
                      The Individuation and Recognition of Emotion

                      https://www.somasimple.com/forums/sh...55&postcount=1
                      Jo Bowyer
                      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                      Comment


                      • #41
                        What Comes First, Job Burnout or Secondary Traumatic Stress? Findings from Two Longitudinal Studies from the U.S. and Poland

                        http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0136730

                        Abstract

                        This longitudinal research examined the directions of the relationships between job burnout and secondary traumatic stress (STS) among human services workers. In particular, using cross-lagged panel design, we investigated whether job burnout predicts STS at 6-month follow up or whether the level of STS symptoms explains job burnout at 6-month follow-up. Participants in Study 1 were behavioral or mental healthcare providers (N = 135) working with U.S. military personnel suffering from trauma. Participants in Study 2 were healthcare providers, social workers, and other human services professions (N = 194) providing various types of services for civilian trauma survivors in Poland. The cross-lagged analyses showed consistent results for both longitudinal studies; job burnout measured at Time 1 led to STS at Time 2, but STS assessed at Time 1 did not lead to job burnout at Time 2. These results contribute to a discussion on the origins of STS and job burnout among human services personnel working in highly demanding context of work-related secondary exposure to traumatic events and confirm that job burnout contributes to the development of STS.
                        Jo Bowyer
                        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                        Comment


                        • #42
                          Placebo analgesia and its opioidergic regulation suggest that empathy for pain is grounded in self pain

                          http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2015/09/24/1511269112

                          Significance

                          Empathy is of major importance for everyday social interaction. Recent neuroscientific models suggest that pain empathy relies on the activation of brain areas that are also engaged during the first-hand experience of pain. These models rely on rather unspecific and correlational evidence. Here, we show that inducing pain analgesia also reduces pain empathy, and that this is associated with decreased activation of empathy-related brain areas. We then document that blocking placebo analgesia via an opioid antagonist also blocks placebo analgesia effects on pain empathy. This finding suggests that pain empathy is grounded in neural responses and neurotransmitter activity related to first-hand pain.

                          Abstract
                          Empathy for pain activates brain areas partially overlapping with those underpinning the first-hand experience of pain. It remains unclear, however, whether such shared activations imply that pain empathy engages similar neural functions as first-hand pain experiences. To overcome the limitations of previous neuroimaging research, we pursued a conceptually novel approach: we used the phenomenon of placebo analgesia to experimentally reduce the first-hand experience of pain, and assessed whether this results in a concomitant reduction of empathy for pain. We first carried out a functional MRI experiment (n = 102) that yielded results in the expected direction: participants experiencing placebo analgesia also reported decreased empathy for pain, and this was associated with reduced engagement of anterior insular and midcingulate cortex: that is, areas previously associated with shared activations in pain and empathy for pain. In a second step, we used a psychopharmacological manipulation (n = 50) to determine whether these effects can be blocked via an opioid antagonist. The administration of the opioid antagonist naltrexone blocked placebo analgesia and also resulted in a corresponding “normalization” of empathy for pain. Taken together, these findings suggest that pain empathy may be associated with neural responses and neurotransmitter activity engaged during first-hand pain, and thus might indeed be grounded in our own pain experiences.

                          pain empathy placebo fMRI psychopharmacology
                          Hmmm. I wonder.

                          Despite the fact that I am not currently suffering persistent pain and won't have a lived experience of it until the next time it happens to me, there is definately something going on in the maps with mirror neurons along with a powerful sense of empathy, which rises and falls in sync with the patient I am dealing with at the time.

                          Perhaps the context is different.
                          Jo Bowyer
                          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                          Comment


                          • #43
                            The Role of Self-Compassion in Buffering Symptoms of Depression in the General Population

                            http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0136598

                            Abstract

                            Self-compassion, typically operationalized as the total score of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003b), has been shown to be related to increased psychological well-being and lower depression in students of the social sciences, users of psychology websites and psychotherapy patients. The current study builds on the existing literature by examining the link between self-compassion and depressive symptomatology in a sample representative of the German general population (n = 2,404). The SCS subscales of self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification, and the “self-coldness”, composite score, which encompass these three negative subscales, consistently differed between subsamples of individuals without any depressive symptoms, with any depressive syndromes, and with major depressive disorder. The contribution of the positive SCS subscales of self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness to the variance in depressive symptomatology was almost negligible. However, when combined to a “self-compassion composite”, the positive SCS subscales significantly moderated the relationship between “self-coldness” and depressive symptoms in the general population. This speaks for self-compassion having the potential to buffer self-coldness related to depression—providing an argument for interventions that foster self-caring, kind, and forgiving attitudes towards oneself.
                            Jo Bowyer
                            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                            Comment


                            • #44
                              Feelings of Hopelessness in Midlife and Cognitive Health in Later Life: A Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study

                              http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0140261

                              Abstract

                              Background

                              Several studies have found depression and depressive feelings to be associated with subsequent dementia. As dementias typically have a long preclinical development phase, it has been difficult to determine whether depression and depressive feelings reflect a concurrent underlying dementia disease, rather than playing a causative role. Our aim was to investigate hopelessness, one dimension of depressive feelings, and evaluate the likelihood of a prodromal versus a causative role of hopelessness feelings in dementia development.

                              Methods

                              We invited a random sample of 2000 survivors from a representative population in Eastern Finland, originally investigated in midlife between 1972 and 1987, for re-examination an average of 21 years later. The age of the 1449 persons who accepted the invitation was between 39 and 64 years (mean 50.4 years) in midlife and between 65 and 80 (mean 71.3) at follow-up. To measure feelings of hopelessness in midlife and at follow-up, the participants indicated their level of agreement to two statements about their own possible future. We used logistic regression to investigate the association between the combined scores from these two items and cognitive health at follow-up, while adjusting for several health and life-style variables from midlife and for apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) status, depression and hopelessness feelings at follow-up. We compared the associations with late-life cognitive health when feelings of hopelessness were either measured in midlife or at the follow-up. In addition we analyzed the changes in hopelessness scores from midlife to follow-up in participants who were either cognitively healthy or impaired at follow-up.

                              Results

                              We found higher levels of hopelessness in midlife, but not at follow-up, to be associated with cognitive impairment at follow-up; the adjusted odds ratio for each step of the five-level hopelessness scale was 1.30 (95% confidence interval 1.11–1.51) for any cognitive impairment and 1.37 (1.05–1.78) for Alzheimer’s disease. These associations remained significant also after the final adjustments for depressive feelings and for hopelessness at follow-up. The individual changes in hopelessness scores between midlife and follow-up were not systematically related to cognitive health at the follow-up.

                              Conclusion

                              Our results suggest that feelings of hopelessness already in midlife may have long-term implications for cognitive health and increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease in later life.
                              Jo Bowyer
                              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                              Comment


                              • #45
                                THE SOCIOLOGY OF EVERYDAY

                                http://www.criticalphysio.net/2015/1...y-of-everyday/

                                With a desire to see our role as significant and promote how important physiotherapy is, it’s tempting to want to emphasise the transformative possibilities of what we do. In a competitive marketplace, where our jobs are often threatened and we’re being asked continually to account for our actions and the necessity of our work, it’s often tempting to focus on the ‘big ideas;’ the things that will set us apart from others and give us marketing/professional advantage: a point of difference.

                                But the everyday is, in reality, where we do most of our work. The micro is often much more ‘real’ than the macro, but is much less well understood. Micro histories and micro narratives are all becoming the focus for academic inquiry in recent years, and there is an increasing interest in the small, atomistic, incremental and slow change that takes place in people’s lives. Why can’t this apply to physiotherapy too?
                                Jo Bowyer
                                Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                                "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                                Comment

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