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  • #16
    The Impact of Coping Flexibility on the Risk of Depressive Symptoms

    http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0128307

    Abstract

    Objective

    According to the dual-process theory, coping flexibility is defined as the ability to produce and implement a new coping strategy in place of an ineffective coping strategy. Specifically, coping flexibility includes two processes: evaluation coping and adaptive coping. Evaluation coping refers to sensitivity to feedback about the efficacy of a coping strategy, and adaptive coping involves the willingness to implement alternative coping strategies. The coping flexibility hypothesis (CFH) postulates that more flexible coping will be associated with more adaptive outcomes; importantly, there are numerous theories and studies that support the CFH. The main purpose of this study was to test the CFH based on dual-process theory.

    Methods

    A total of 1,770 Japanese college students participated and, completed a set of questionnaires that measured coping flexibility (evaluation coping and adaptive coping) and depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were measured via the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale.

    Results

    The proportions of women and men who reported depressive symptoms were 58.69% (95% CIs [55.74, 61.66]) and 54.17% (95% CIs [50.37, 57.95]), respectively when a cut-off score of 16 on the CES-D was used. A multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that evaluation coping (OR = 0.86, 95% CIs [0.83, 0.0.89]) and adaptive coping (OR = 0.91, 95% CIs [0.88, 0.93]) were significantly associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms.

    Conclusion

    The results of the present study indicated that the CFH based on dual-process theory was supported in a Japanese sample.
    I was trained to teach coping strategies as a physio student. I doubt that I considered teaching coping flexibility, time was limited. I do remember my annoyance with the hype surrounding pain science in the early years. "Teach them this and they will get better! (buy my book on your way out)". It seemed formulaic and too good to be true.

    In the following years research indicated that teaching of pain science to patients was effective. Those that came my way clutching leaflets and booklets hadn't managed to embody it and weren't particularly good at lateral thinking. The gaming generations tended to be more successful, taking the game to the next level was something they understood, particularly if the game involved some sort of vision quest.
    Last edited by Jo Bowyer; 27-05-2015, 09:19 PM. Reason: repetition
    Jo Bowyer
    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

    Comment


    • #17
      Lethal Interpersonal Violence in the Middle Pleistocene

      http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0126589

      Abstract

      Evidence of interpersonal violence has been documented previously in Pleistocene members of the genus Homo, but only very rarely has this been posited as the possible manner of death. Here we report the earliest evidence of lethal interpersonal violence in the hominin fossil record. Cranium 17 recovered from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site shows two clear perimortem depression fractures on the frontal bone, interpreted as being produced by two episodes of localized blunt force trauma. The type of injuries, their location, the strong similarity of the fractures in shape and size, and the different orientations and implied trajectories of the two fractures suggest they were produced with the same object in face-to-face interpersonal conflict. Given that either of the two traumatic events was likely lethal, the presence of multiple blows implies an intention to kill. This finding shows that the lethal interpersonal violence is an ancient human behavior and has important implications for the accumulation of bodies at the site, supporting an anthropic origin.
      Jo Bowyer
      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

      Comment


      • #18
        The Mere Co-Presence: Synchronization of Autonomic Signals and Emotional Responses across Co-Present Individuals Not Engaged in Direct Interaction

        http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0125804

        Abstract

        Existing evidence suggests that in social contexts individuals become coupled in their emotions and behaviors. Furthermore, recent biological studies demonstrate that the physiological signals of interacting individuals become coupled as well, exhibiting temporally synchronized response patterns. However, it is yet unknown whether people can shape each other's responses without the direct, face-to-face interaction. Here we investigated whether the convergence of physiological and emotional states can occur among “merely co-present” individuals, without direct interactional exchanges. To this end, we measured continuous autonomic signals and collected emotional responses of participants who watched emotional movies together, seated side-by-side. We found that the autonomic signals of co-present participants were idiosyncratically synchronized and that the degree of this synchronization was correlated with the convergence of their emotional responses. These findings suggest that moment-to-moment emotional transmissions, resulting in shared emotional experiences, can occur in the absence of direct communication and are mediated by autonomic synchronization.
        Jo Bowyer
        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

        Comment


        • #19
          Some See It, Some Don’t: Exploring the Relation between Inattentional Blindness and Personality Factors

          http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0128158

          Abstract

          Human awareness is highly limited, which is vividly demonstrated by the phenomenon that unexpected objects go unnoticed when attention is focused elsewhere (inattentional blindness). Typically, some people fail to notice unexpected objects while others detect them instantaneously. Whether this pattern reflects stable individual differences is unclear to date. In particular, hardly anything is known about the influence of personality on the likelihood of inattentional blindness. To fill this empirical gap, we examined the role of multiple personality factors, namely the Big Five, BIS/BAS, absorption, achievement motivation, and schizotypy, in these failures of awareness. In a large-scale sample (N = 554), susceptibility to inattentional blindness was associated with a low level of openness to experience and marginally with a low level of achievement motivation. However, in a multiple regression analysis, only openness emerged as an independent, negative predictor. This suggests that the general tendency to be open to experience extends to the domain of perception. Our results complement earlier work on the possible link between inattentional blindness and personality by demonstrating, for the first time, that failures to consciously perceive unexpected objects reflect individual differences on a fundamental dimension of personality.
          How much of what we say do and teach, do our patients miss? Do we as practitioners spot all forms of sensory inattention in real time and adjust our contribution accordingly?

          I want everyone walking out of my half hour sessions, to embody the changes in their brain maps and to have the awareness that something significant is beginning to happen.
          Last edited by Jo Bowyer; 03-06-2015, 11:48 PM.
          Jo Bowyer
          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

          Comment


          • #20
            Psychosocial Work Environment and Musculoskeletal Symptoms among 21-Year-Old Workers: A Population-Based Investigation (2011-2013)

            http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0130010

            Abstract

            Background

            The current labour market is becoming more flexible and informal, with job insecurity selectively affecting young workers. However, the role of these increasing adverse psychosocial working conditions on health outcomes remains little known among newly employed workers.

            Objective

            To estimate the associations between psychosocial work environment and musculoskeletal outcomes (widespread pain syndrome features and regional pain) in a population-based sample of young workers.

            Methods

            Cross-sectional data from workers aged 21 years were collected during the third wave of the EPITeen cohort study (2011-2013; n=650). The Job Content Questionnaire was used to characterize the psychosocial work environment according to the demand-control-support model. Data on pain and non-pain dimensions of the widespread pain syndrome (Fibromyalgia Survey Questionnaire) as well as on regional musculoskeletal pain (Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire) were also collected. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were computed using logistic regression and all estimates were adjusted for sex, education and occupational biomechanical demands.

            Results

            Job insecurity was significantly associated to the non-pain dimension of the widespread pain syndrome (adjusted OR [95% CI]=1.51 [1.08, 2.12]). Young workers with strain jobs were significantly more likely to report high levels of non-pain symptoms when compared with those with no-strain jobs and this effect was even stronger when social support was added to the main exposure: workers with strain jobs and low social support had twice the odds of reporting high levels of non-pain features than those with high strain but high social support jobs (adjusted OR=1.86, 95% CI: 1.04, 3.31). These significant associations were not observed when widespread pain or multisite regional pain were the outcomes.

            Conclusion

            In the beginning of professional life, high strain jobs were associated to non-pain complaints, especially when the work environment provided also low social support.
            Jo Bowyer
            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

            Comment


            • #21
              Delivering an Optimised Behavioural Intervention (OBI) to people with low back pain with high psychological risk; results and lessons learnt from a feasibility randomised controlled trial of .........

              http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2474/16/147

              Abstract
              Background
              Low Back Pain (LBP) remains a common and costly problem. Psychological obstacles to recovery have been identified, but psychological and behavioural interventions have produced only moderate improvements. Reviews of trials have suggested that the interventions lack clear theoretical basis, are often compromised by low dose, lack of fidelity, and delivery by non-experts. In addition, interventions do not directly target known risk mechanisms. We identified a theory driven intervention (Contexual Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, CCBT) that directly targets an evidence-based risk mechanism (avoidance and ensured dose and delivery were optimised. This feasibility study was designed to test the credibility and acceptability of optimised CCBT against physiotherapy for avoidant LBP patients, and to test recruitment, delivery of the intervention and response rates prior to moving to a full definitive trial.

              Methods
              A randomised controlled feasibility trial with patients randomised to receive CCBT or physiotherapy. CCBT was delivered by trained supervised psychologists on a one to one basis and comprised up to 8 one-hour sessions. Physiotherapy comprised back to fitness group exercises with at least 60 % of content exercise-based. Patients were eligible to take part if they had back pain for more than 3 months, and scored above a threshold indicating fear avoidance, catastrophic beliefs and distress.

              Results
              89 patients were recruited. Uptake rates were above those predicted. Scores for credibility and acceptability of the interventions met the set criteria. Response rates at three and six months fell short of the 75 % target. Problems associated with poor response rates were identified and successfully resolved, rates increased to 77 % at 3 months, and 68 % at 6 months. Independent ratings of treatment sessions indicated that CCBT was delivered to fidelity. Numbers were too small for formal analysis. Although average scores for acceptance were higher in the CCBT group than in the group attending physiotherapy (increase of 7.9 versus 5.1) and change in disability and pain from baseline to 6 months were greater in the CCBT group than in the physiotherapy group, these findings should be interpreted with caution.

              Conclusions
              CCBT is a credible and acceptable intervention for LBP patients who exhibit psychological obstacles to recovery.
              Jo Bowyer
              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

              Comment


              • #22
                The Neural Basis of Testable and Non-Testable Beliefs

                http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0124596

                Abstract

                Beliefs about the state of the world are an important influence on both normal behavior and psychopathology. However, understanding of the neural basis of belief processing remains incomplete, and several aspects of belief processing have only recently been explored. Specifically, different types of beliefs may involve fundamentally different inferential processes and thus recruit distinct brain regions. Additionally, neural processing of truth and falsity may differ from processing of certainty and uncertainty. The purpose of this study was to investigate the neural underpinnings of assessment of testable and non-testable propositions in terms of truth or falsity and the level of certainty in a belief. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to study 14 adults while they rated propositions as true or false and also rated the level of certainty in their judgments. Each proposition was classified as testable or non-testable. Testable propositions activated the DLPFC and posterior cingulate cortex, while non-testable statements activated areas including inferior frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and an anterior region of the superior frontal gyrus. No areas were more active when a proposition was accepted, while the dorsal anterior cingulate was activated when a proposition was rejected. Regardless of whether a proposition was testable or not, certainty that the proposition was true or false activated a common network of regions including the medial prefrontal cortex, caudate, posterior cingulate, and a region of middle temporal gyrus near the temporo-parietal junction. Certainty in the truth or falsity of a non-testable proposition (a strong belief without empirical evidence) activated the insula. The results suggest that different brain regions contribute to the assessment of propositions based on the type of content, while a common network may mediate the influence of beliefs on motivation and behavior based on the level of certainty in the belief.
                Belief can be defined as a propositional mental construct that affirms or denies the truth of a state of affairs and is closely linked to basic judgment processes [1]. The maintenance of a large and stable set of beliefs is essential for intelligent behavior, since this forms the basis for any actions which one may take to achieve one’s goals [2]. Beliefs are also frequently used to build mental models of the state of the world and are therefore important constructs to guide decision-making. Dysfunctional belief processing is also likely to play a role in psychiatric illnesses, including psychotic disorders (delusional beliefs) and depression (negative beliefs about self, future and world) [3,4]. Furthermore, patient beliefs about the causes of their illnesses and about potential treatment modalities may also be relevant for treatment [5–7].
                Jo Bowyer
                Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                Comment


                • #23
                  Effectiveness of Tai Chi on Physical and Psychological Health of College Students: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

                  http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0132605

                  Abstract

                  Objective

                  To investigate the effectiveness and safety of Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) on physical and psychological health of college students.

                  Methods

                  Two hundred six college students were recruited and randomly allocated to a control group or a TCC exercise group in an equal ratio. Participants in the control group were instructed to maintain their original activity level and those in the TCC exercise group received 12 weeks of TCC exercise training based on their original activity level. Physical and psychological outcomes were evaluated at baseline, 13 weeks and 25 weeks. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed for the above outcomes.

                  Results

                  Compared with the control group, the TCC exercise group showed significant improvements at the end of the 12-week intervention period for flexibility (length of Sit and Reach (cm): TCC group 14.09±7.40 versus control 12.88±6.57, P = 0.039 adjusted for its baseline measures using a general linear model) and balance ability (open eyes perimeter: TCC group 235.6(191~314) versus control 261(216~300); closed eyes perimeter: TCC group 370.5 (284~454) versus control 367 (293~483); P = 0.0414, 0.008, respectively, adjusted for corresponding baseline measures using a general linear model). No significant changes in other physical and mental outcomes were found between the two groups. No adverse events were reported during the study period.

                  Conclusion

                  TCC exercise was beneficial in college students for improving flexibility and balance capability to some extent, compared with usual exercise.
                  Jo Bowyer
                  Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                  "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                  Comment


                  • #24
                    The Neuroendocrine System and Stress, Emotions, Thoughts and Feelings

                    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3115283/

                    Abstract
                    The philosophy of mind is intimately connected with the philosophy of action. Therefore, concepts like free will, motivation, emotions (especially positive emotions), and also the ethical issues related to these concepts are of abiding interest. However, the concepts of consciousness and free will are usually discussed solely in linguistic, ideational and cognitive (i.e. “left brain”) terms. Admittedly, consciousness requires language and the left-brain, but the aphasic right brain is equally conscious; however, what it “hears” are more likely to be music and emotions. Joy can be as conscious as the conscious motivation produced by the left-brain reading a sign that says, “Danger mines!!” However, look in the index of a Western textbook of psychology, psychiatry or philosophy for positive emotions located in the limbic system. Notice how discussion of positive spiritual/emotional issues in consciousness and motivation are scrupulously ignored. For example, the popular notions of “love” being either Eros (raw, amoral instinct) or agape (noble, non-specific valuing of all other people) miss the motivational forest for the trees. Neither Eros (hypothalamic) nor agape (cortical) has a fraction of the power to relieve stress as attachment (limbic love), yet until the 1950s attachment was neither appreciated nor discussed by academic minds. This paper will point out that the prosocial, “spiritual” positive emotions like hope, faith, forgiveness, joy, compassion and gratitude are extremely important in the relief of stress and in regulation of the neuroendocrine system, protecting us against stress. The experimental work reviewed by Antonio Damasio and Barbara Fredrickson, and the clinical example of Alcoholics Anonymous, will be used to illustrate these points.

                    Keywords: Positive emotions, Limbic system, Spiritual, “Right-brain”
                    Jo Bowyer
                    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                    Comment


                    • #25
                      Physiotherapists may stigmatise or feel unprepared to treat people with low back pain and psychosocial factors that influence recovery: a systematic review

                      http://www.journalofphysiotherapy.co...abstract?cc=y=

                      Abstract
                      Question: What are physiotherapists’ perceptions about identifying and managing the cognitive, psychological and social factors that may act as barriers to recovery for people with low back pain (LBP)? Design: Systematic review and qualitative metasynthesis of qualitative studies in which physiotherapists were questioned, using focus groups or semi-structured interviews, about identifying and managing cognitive, psychological and social factors in people with LBP. Participants: Qualified physiotherapists with experience in treating patients with LBP. Outcome measures: Studies were synthesised in narrative format and thematic analysis was used to provide a collective insight into the physiotherapists’ perceptions. Results: Three main themes emerged: physiotherapists only partially recognised cognitive, psychological and social factors in LBP, with most discussion around factors such as family, work and unhelpful patient expectations; some physiotherapists stigmatised patients with LBP as demanding, attention-seeking and poorly motivated when they presented with behaviours suggestive of these factors; and physiotherapists questioned the relevance of screening for these factors because they were perceived to extend beyond their scope of practice, with many feeling under-skilled in addressing them. Conclusion: Physiotherapists partially recognised cognitive, psychological and social factors in people with LBP. Physiotherapists expressed a preference for dealing with the more mechanical aspects of LBP, and some stigmatised the behaviours suggestive of cognitive, psychological and social contributions to LBP. Physiotherapists perceived that neither their initial training, nor currently available professional development training, instilled them with the requisite skills and confidence to successfully address and treat the multidimensional pain presentations seen in LBP.
                      Jo Bowyer
                      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                      Comment


                      • #26
                        Inverted Perceptual Judgment of Nociceptive Stimuli at Threshold Level following Inconsistent Cues.

                        http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0132069

                        The present study revealed the induction of associations incongruent with a given message in the perception of pain. We created a context of unreliable cues whereby subjects perceived the stimulus opposite to that suggested by a prior cue, i.e., potentially nociceptive stimuli at pain threshold level that were announced as painful were judged as non-painful and vice versa. These findings are consistent with reported data on the effects of distrust on non-painful cognitive responses.
                        "In god I trust! Everyone elde must bring data!"

                        Comment


                        • #27
                          Investigating the Goldilocks Hypothesis: The Non-Linear Impact of Positive Trait Change on Well-Being

                          http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0131316

                          Abstract

                          This paper attempts to reconcile two perspectives on the impact of positive trait change. The first perspective views positive trait change as salubrious because it reflects the process of self-enhancement, whereas the second perspective views positive change as costly because it disrupts the self-verification process. We propose that benefits and costs accrue at discrete rates, such that moderate positive trait change is more beneficial than too little and too much positive change. This constitutes a Goldilocks hypothesis. Using the MIDUS longitudinal dataset (N = 1,725) we test this hypothesis on four traits, namely, social extraversion, agentic extraversion (agency), conscientiousness, and neuroticism. The Goldilocks hypothesis was supported for social extraversion, agentic extraversion (agency), and conscientiousness. Reduction in neuroticism seemed uniformly predictive of higher well-being. Thus, not all amounts of positive trait change are beneficial. While we find no evidence for a limit to the benefits of reduced neuroticism, there is a “just right” amount of positive change in extraversion and conscientiousness that results in the highest level of well-being. Our findings suggest that non-monotonic models may be more valid in investigations of personality change and well-being.
                          We don't get to choose our patients. I am luckier than most as a generalist practitioner in that I see four generations of the families I work with and have watched the children I started with go on to make their mark in the world and have families of their own. Personalities can change, those with goldilocks personalities do well as patients and in life. Those than don't may need help with framing perspective of the situation that has brought them to see us.
                          Jo Bowyer
                          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                          Comment


                          • #28
                            Pain Catastrophising Affects Cortical Responses to Viewing Pain in Others

                            Abstract

                            Pain catastrophising is an exaggerated cognitive attitude implemented during pain or when thinking about pain. Catastrophising was previously associated with increased pain severity, emotional distress and disability in chronic pain patients, and is also a contributing factor in the development of neuropathic pain. To investigate the neural basis of how pain catastrophising affects pain observed in others, we acquired EEG data in groups of participants with high (High-Cat) or low (Low-Cat) pain catastrophising scores during viewing of pain scenes and graphically matched pictures not depicting imminent pain. The High-Cat group attributed greater pain to both pain and non-pain pictures. Source dipole analysis of event-related potentials during picture viewing revealed activations in the left (PHGL) and right (PHGR) paraphippocampal gyri, rostral anterior (rACC) and posterior cingulate (PCC) cortices. The late source activity (600–1100 ms) in PHGL and PCC was augmented in High-Cat, relative to Low-Cat, participants. Conversely, greater source activity was observed in the Low-Cat group during the mid-latency window (280–450 ms) in the rACC and PCC. Low-Cat subjects demonstrated a significantly stronger correlation between source activity in PCC and pain and arousal ratings in the long latency window, relative to high pain catastrophisers. Results suggest augmented activation of limbic cortex and higher order pain processing cortical regions during the late processing period in high pain catastrophisers viewing both types of pictures. This pattern of cortical activations is consistent with the distorted and magnified cognitive appraisal of pain threats in high pain catastrophisers. In contrast, high pain catastrophising individuals exhibit a diminished response during the mid-latency period when attentional and top-down resources are ascribed to observed pain.
                            Pain catastrophising has been defined as an exaggerated negative mental set brought to bear during the actual or anticipated pain experience [1,2] (reviewed in Quartana et al. [3]). In healthy people, high levels of pain catastrophising contribute to perceived pain intensity during experimental pain [1,4,5]. Pain catastrophising is also associated with increased pain severity, pain behaviour, emotional distress and disability in patients with chronic pain such as osteoarthritis [6,7], rheumatoid arthritis [8], spinal cord injury [9], fibromyalgia [10], low back pain [11,12], and musculoskeletal injury [13,14]. High pain catastrophising predicts stronger post-operative pain [15] and greater consumption of analgesics [16]. Thus, pain catastrophising contributes to both the perception of pain and to the clinical outcomes of pain [17].
                            The communal coping model [2,9,18,19] has been suggested as an explanatory framework for pain catastrophising. According to this model, people with higher levels of pain catastrophising communicate their pain to others to solicit social support in an attempt to mitigate their pain and pain-related emotional distress [17,20].
                            Furthermore, high pain catastrophisers also benefit from reductions to pain intensity by disclosure of pain-related emotions [24].
                            Our findings support the attentional bias theory of pain catastrophising which argues that pain experience is amplified via exaggerated attention to sensory and affective cues [25], and accord with empirical evidence pointing towards attention bias as a cognitive mechanism for pain catastrophising behaviour (reviewed in Quartana et al. [3]).


                            Observing back pain provoking lifting actions modulates corticomotor excitability of the observer's primary motor cortex

                            http://www.sciencedirect.com/science...28393217301690

                            Highlights

                            • We developed a new movement observation paradigm about lifting a heavy object.

                            • We recorded motor evoked potentials of the primary motor cortex on back muscles.

                            • We found a movement-specific facilitation of the corticomotor excitability.

                            • Corticomotor excitability was modulated by the level of perceived pain intensity.

                            Abstract
                            Observing another person experiencing exogenously inflicted pain (e.g. by a sharp object penetrating a finger) modulates the excitability of the observer’ primary motor cortex (M1). By contrast, far less is known about the response to endogenously evoked pain such as sudden back pain provoked by lifting a heavy object.

                            Here, participants (n=26) observed the lifting of a heavy object. During this action the actor (1) flexed and extended the legs (LEG), (2) flexed and extended the back (BACK) or (3) flexed and extended the back which caused visible pain (BACKPAIN). Corticomotor excitability was measured by applying a single transcranial magnetic stimulation pulse to the M1 representation of the muscle erector spinae and participants scored their perception of the actor's pain on the numeric pain rating scale (NPRS).

                            The participants scored vicarious pain as highest during the BACKPAIN condition and lowest during the LEG condition. MEP size was significantly lower for the LEG than the BACK and BACKPAIN condition. Although we found no statistical difference in the motor-evoked potential (MEP) size between the conditions BACK and BACKPAIN, there was a significant correlation between the difference in NPRS scores between the conditions BACKPAIN and BACK and the difference in MEP size between these conditions. Participants who believed the vicarious pain to be much stronger in the BACKPAIN than in the BACK condition also exhibited higher MEPs for the BACKPAIN than the BACK condition.

                            Our results indicate that observing how others lift heavy objects facilitates motor representations of back muscles in the observer. Modulation occurs in a movement-specific manner and is additionally modulated by the extent to which the participants perceived the actor's pain. Our findings suggest that movement observation might be a promising paradigm to study the brain's response to back pain.
                            Keywords
                            Back pain; Movement observation; Vicarious pain perception; Motor resonance; Empathy; Primary motor cortex
                            Last edited by Jo Bowyer; 10-05-2017, 08:05 PM.
                            Jo Bowyer
                            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                            Comment


                            • #29
                              The Neighbourhood Built Environment and Trajectories of Depression Symptom Episodes in Adults: A Latent Class Growth Analysis

                              http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0133603

                              Abstract

                              Aim

                              To investigate the effect of the neighbourhood built environment on trajectories of depression symptom episodes in adults from the general Canadian population.

                              Research Design and Methods

                              We used 10 years of data collection (2000/01-2010/11) from the Canadian National Population Health Study (n = 7114). Episodes of depression symptoms were identified using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short-Form. We assessed the presence of local parks, healthy food stores, fast food restaurants, health services and cultural services using geospatial data. We used latent class growth modelling to identify different trajectories of depression symptom episodes in the sample and tested for the effect of neighbourhood variables on the trajectories over time.

                              Results

                              We uncovered three distinct trajectories of depression symptom episodes: low prevalence (76.2% of the sample), moderate prevalence (19.2%) and high prevalence of depression symptom episodes (2.8%). The presence of any neighbourhood service (healthy food store, fast-food restaurant, health service, except for cultural service) was significantly associated with a lower probability of a depression symptom episode for those following a trajectory of low prevalence of depression symptom episodes. The presence of a local park was also a significant protective factor in trajectory groups with both low and moderate prevalence of depression symptom episodes. Neighbourhood characteristics did not significantly affect the trajectory of high prevalence of depression symptom episodes.

                              Conclusions

                              For individuals following a trajectory of low and moderate prevalence of depression symptom episodes, the neighbourhood built environment was associated with a shift in the trajectory of depression symptom episodes. Future intervention studies are recommended to make policy recommendations.
                              Jo Bowyer
                              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                              Comment


                              • #30
                                Modulation of Higher-Order Olfaction Components on Executive Functions in Humans

                                http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0130319

                                Abstract

                                The prefrontal (PFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) appear to be associated with both executive functions and olfaction. However, there is little data relating olfactory processing and executive functions in humans. The present study aimed at exploring the role of olfaction on executive functioning, making a distinction between primary and more cognitive aspects of olfaction. Three executive tasks of similar difficulty were used. One was used to assess hot executive functions (Iowa Gambling Task-IGT), and two as a measure of cold executive functioning (Stroop Colour and Word Test-SCWT and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-WCST). Sixty two healthy participants were included: 31 with normosmia and 31 with hyposmia. Olfactory abilities were assessed using the ‘‘Sniffin’ Sticks’’ test and the olfactory threshold, odour discrimination and odour identification measures were obtained. All participants were female, aged between 18 and 60. Results showed that participants with hyposmia displayed worse performance in decision making (IGT; Cohen’s-d = 0.91) and cognitive flexibility (WCST; Cohen’s-d between 0.54 and 0.68) compared to those with normosmia. Multiple regression adjusted by the covariates participants’ age and education level showed a positive association between odour identification and the cognitive inhibition response (SCWT-interference; Beta = 0.29; p = .034). The odour discrimination capacity was not a predictor of the cognitive executive performance. Our results suggest that both hot and cold executive functions seem to be associated with higher-order olfactory functioning in humans. These results robustly support the hypothesis that olfaction and executive measures have a common neural substrate in PFC and OFC, and suggest that olfaction might be a reliable cognitive marker in psychiatric and neurologic disorders.
                                The olfactory system is directly associated with brain areas involved in cognitive and emotional processes and the evidence of an association between olfactory and some cognitive functions is strong [1–4]. Previous research has suggested a neurocognitive profile illustrating inefficiencies in memory and attentional processing associated with olfactory dysfunction [2,5]. The olfactory alteration in physiological aging, which is usually accompanied by cognitive alterations, is also well documented (hyposmia/anosmia) [1,3,6]. Additionally, and even more importantly from a neuropsychological perspective, the olfactory impairment is a characteristic of certain neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s (AD) and Parkinson’s (PD) diseases



                                New Clues to How Memories Form in the Brain

                                http://neurosciencenews.com/brain-me...ormation-7047/

                                In a new study published on July 5 in Neuron, a research group led by Professor CAO Peng of the Institute of Biophysics (IBP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences provides some clues as to memory formation in the brain.

                                In his very famous Hebbian Theory, Dr. Donald Hebb proposed that the brain learns new tasks or skills by modifying the efficacy of synaptic junctions between individual neurons. Although many studies support the “Memory-Synapse Specificity” Hypothesis, direct evidence supporting the hypothesis was lacking until now. In this new study, however, CAO’s group provides direct experimental evidence for the “Memory-Synapse Specificity” Hypothesis.

                                The IBP research shows that socially acquired olfactory memory is associated with a synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) event that occurs at a specific type of synapse on identified olfactory bulb neurons within a particular glomerular unit (Fig. 1). Such LTP lasts at least two weeks.

                                By genetically manipulating machinery for IGF1 exocytosis, the researchers identified a detailed signaling pathway that mediates this novel form of LTP, which had not been identified previously. Moreover, the study shows that this type of LTP is essential for olfactory memory but not for odor perception as such, demonstrating that this LTP encodes, at least in part, socially acquired olfactory memory.
                                Update 11/07/2017
                                Last edited by Jo Bowyer; 11-07-2017, 11:19 AM.
                                Jo Bowyer
                                Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                                "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

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