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  • Many Different Types of Anxiety and Depression Exist

    http://neurosciencenews.com/anxiety-...on-types-8138/

    The five categories, defined by their specific symptoms and areas of brain activation, are: tension, anxious arousal, general anxiety, anhedonia — the inability to feel pleasure — and melancholia.
    Jo Bowyer
    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

    Comment


    • What’s the attraction? Social connectedness as a driver of recreational drug use

      http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/...1.2017.1409816

      Enhanced social connectedness seems to contribute to the attractiveness and acts as a potent force underpinning recreational drug use. This research suggests that harm mitigation strategies must speak to a wider audience as well as address the social attraction of drugs because focusing on younger populations and antisocial features does not seem to reflect reality for recreational users.
      This is a difficult one, I ask patients who are forthcoming about it whether they have researched medium and long term effects, the answer is inevitably "No". I'd like to think that my question may have planted a seed.
      Jo Bowyer
      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

      Comment


      • How Social Networking Keeps People Healthy

        http://neurosciencenews.com/social-media-health-8166/

        Sharing short messages to an audience on a social network, called microblogging, allows people to reach out without imposing unwanted communication on someone who might feel obligated to respond. Responses on online social networks are more voluntary.
        Jo Bowyer
        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

        Comment


        • The Japanese concept of ikigai: why purpose might be a better goal than happiness

          https://theconversation.com/the-japa...an%20happiness
          Jo Bowyer
          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

          Comment


          • Lesion network localization of criminal behavior


            http://www.pnas.org/content/early/20...706587115.full

            Significance


            Cases like that of Charles Whitman, who murdered 16 people after growth of a brain tumor, have sparked debate about why some brain lesions, but not others, might lead to criminal behavior. Here we systematically characterize such lesions and compare them with lesions that cause other symptoms. We find that lesions in multiple different brain areas are associated with criminal behavior. However, these lesions all fall within a unique functionally connected brain network involved in moral decision making. Furthermore, connectivity to competing brain networks predicts the abnormal moral decisions observed in these patients. These results provide insight into why some brain lesions, but not others, might predispose to criminal behavior, with potential neuroscience, medical, and legal implications.
            Jo Bowyer
            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

            Comment


            • How Singing Your Heart Out Could Make You Happier

              http://neurosciencenews.com/happiness-singing-8224/
              Jo Bowyer
              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

              Comment


              • The Japanese concept of ikigai: why purpose might be a better goal than happiness

                https://theconversation.com/the-japa...an%20happiness
                Jo Bowyer
                Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                Comment


                • The impact of pre-existing anxiety on affective and cognitive processing of a Virtual Reality analogue trauma

                  http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0190360

                  Introduction


                  More than half of all adults are likely to be exposed to at least one traumatic event in their lifetime [1,2] defined as direct exposure to death, threatened death, actual or threatened serious injury or sexual violence, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [3]. Common initial stress responses following traumatic events are fear, helplessness, horror and subsequent involuntary intrusive memories [4,5]. While this initial stress response is only temporarily for most people [6], others fail to recover and develop stress-associated disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety disorders, depression or substance abuse [7,8]. Identifying factors associated with the development of stress-associated disorders following trauma might have important prognostic and treatment implications. One key factor in this context might be individual differences in stress processing [9,10]. The aim of the current study was to explore the impact of individual differences in trait anxiety on affective and cognitive processing of an analogue trauma.

                  Individuals with pre-traumatic high trait anxiety (HA) may be especially vulnerable to traumatic events due to less effective stress processing. According to Spielberger’s trait-state anxiety model HA is characterised by increased neurobiological sensitivity and attention towards negative stimuli [11,12]. Thus, HA might influence affective and cognitive processing of traumatic events via more intense stress responses, emotion dysregulation and increased intrusive memories [9,1315].

                  In affective processing of stress, both an intense psychophysiological stress response, and emotion dysregulation are assumed important peri-traumatic risk factors for stress-associated disorders [5,16,17]. Emotional response to analogue trauma predicts posttraumatic stress symptoms especially in individuals with high emotion dysregulation [16]. HA individuals show increased anxiety responses in general and seem to display specifically slower recovery from stress and are less able to return to initial emotional states [18,19], resulting in a specific stress response pattern including the peri-traumatic as well as recovery emotional response. Individuals with HA seem to further apply a dysfunctional pattern of emotion regulation strategies with high levels of emotional suppression and low levels of cognitive reappraisal [20,21]. The modulation of the intensity and duration of emotions is especially important in HA individuals because of their disposition to experience intense and prolonged negative emotional responses [18,22], which is associated with higher rates of psychopathology [14,23]. HA is also associated with the development of PTSD [24,25]. Thus, it is likely that individual differences in HA modulate cognitive and affective stress responses to trauma.

                  Impaired cognitive processing of stress is indicated by involuntary intrusive memories of the potentially traumatic event [26] as an important post-traumatic risk factor for PTSD [27]. In addition, HA seems to impair memory suppression of negative memories [28] and is associated with less fear reduction [29] and the development of intrusions [30]. In particular, persisting intrusions seem to be critical in HA individuals [9,31], contribute to the development and maintenance of PTSD [13] and constitute a core symptom of PTSD [3]. Cognitive processes modulating intrusions seems to be related to the time frame of memory consolidation, which is not exactly defined yet [32,33]. Therefore, the presumable time courses of intrusion development should be also captured in the modelling of trauma exposure and responses.

                  Likewise, negative appraisals of intrusive memories can elicit threat and predict PTSD [34]. According to Ehlers & Clark's cognitive model of PTSD, impaired cognitive processing due to high peri-traumatic arousal is reflected by the predominance of data-driven over conceptual processing of traumatic events, resulting in increased intrusions and disorganised trauma memories [26,35]. Particularly in HA individuals, less data-driven processing seems to result in less intrusive memories [14].

                  However, given that intrusive memories are also positively associated with increased emotional stress responses [30,36] as well as with emotion dysregulation [15,37], the interplay between these risk factors might be more complex. To date, only a few studies attempted to disentangle the relationship between different risk factors for maladaptive stress processing. One study revealed that the intensity of the anxious emotional response mediates the positive relationship between HA, depression, trait dissociation and subsequent intrusive memories [13]. Another study found that emotional response and pre-existing emotions predicted peri-traumatic cognitive processing, which in turn predicted emotion dysregulation. Emotion dysregulation in turn predicted intrusions [15].

                  The majority of studies on risk factors in coping with traumatic events have relied on retrospective assessments [5] thereby limiting their validity due to strong memory biases. Prospective analogue designs are able to overcome these limitations. One example of an established prospective analogue design in trauma research is the trauma film paradigm which comprise watching stressful films in a controlled laboratory setting [38,39]. Analogue studies have the advantage that all individuals are exposed to the same degree and type of analogue traumatic events, which allow for comparisons between individuals and to draw specific conclusions about distinct traumatic events [26]. It has further been shown that the results of clinical studies can be replicated in analogue designs with non-clinical samples [26] speaking to the external validity of analogue designs.
                  An interesting study.

                  Approaches to management in the UK go back as far as WW1. Soldiers were sent to work on farms, arable to start with, the more visceral aspects if/as/when they could cope. There is a current programme which takes traumatised personell to a rural area to work with traumatised horses.
                  Jo Bowyer
                  Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                  "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                  Comment


                  • Perfectionism among young people significantly increased since 1980s, study finds

                    https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0102103305.htm
                    Jo Bowyer
                    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                    Comment


                    • Fabulous time waster for non perfectionists

                      TerribleGentleIslandcanary-size_restricted.gif

                      Canned ravioli vs Puʻu ʻOʻo lava.

                      Jo Bowyer
                      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                      Comment


                      • How perfectionism became a hidden epidemic among young people

                        https://theconversation.com/how-perf...young%20people
                        Jo Bowyer
                        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                        Comment


                        • Five reasons why we overeat

                          https://theconversation.com/five-rea...20we%20overeat
                          Jo Bowyer
                          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                          Comment


                          • Exposure to trees, the sky and birdsong in cities beneficial for mental wellbeing

                            https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0109214943.htm

                            Researchers at King's College London, landscape architects J & L Gibbons and art foundation Nomad Projects have used smartphone-based technology to assess the relationship between nature in cities and momentary mental wellbeing in real time. They found that (i) being outdoors, seeing trees, hearing birdsong, seeing the sky, and feeling in contact with nature were associated with higher levels of mental wellbeing, and that (ii) the beneficial effects of nature were especially evident in those individuals with greater levels of impulsivity who are at greater risk of mental health issues. The researchers developed a smartphone-based app, Urban Mind, to examine how exposure to natural features in cities affects a person's mental wellbeing.

                            The Urban Mind app monitored 108 individuals who collectively completed 3,013 assessments over a one-week period.
                            Jo Bowyer
                            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                            Comment


                            • Why more men are wearing makeup than ever before

                              https://theconversation.com/why-more...0ever%20before

                              file-20180115-101505-f72x6n.jpg?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&q=45&auto=format&w=926&fit=clip.jpg

                              As someone old enough to be most of my patients' Mum or Grandma, I get asked for advice from men far more than women. As I look like a bag lady in my street clothes, I can't imagine why.
                              Jo Bowyer
                              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                              Comment


                              • The British Army’s belonging campaign finally recognises that masculinity has changed

                                https://theconversation.com/the-brit...0has%20changed


                                There is evidence to support the idea that the way British (male) soldiers think about their own masculinity is changing – as a result of the different types of tasks that they are now required to carry out. Research indicates, for example, the development of “peacekeeper masculinity” within the British Army, which encourages and values qualities such as care, empathy, equality and mutual respect.

                                In addition to being out of date, the traditional notion of the soldier as tough, aggressive and unemotional is damaging – both to the soldiers themselves and to others around them. It creates enormous pressures on men to live up to impossible standards of masculinity. Those pressures can contribute to antisocial behaviour, such as domestic violence towards their partners and sexual abuse against fellow soldiers, both male and female.

                                When soldiers do find they are suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder or other forms of mental illness, these ideas about keeping a stiff upper lip and denying their emotions can stop them from seeking and getting the help that they need.

                                The “belonging” campaign does not mark an end to the pressures on soldiers to live up to unachievable stereotypes of masculinity. It does, however, suggest that the British Army is willing to challenge those stereotypes and put forward a more varied and realistic set of alternatives.
                                Jo Bowyer
                                Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                                "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                                Comment

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