Announcement

Collapse
No announcement yet.

5918

Collapse
X
 
  • Filter
  • Time
  • Show
Clear All
new posts

  • Evolutionary psychology: fringe or central to psychological science?

    http://journal.frontiersin.org/artic...016.00777/full

    The computational theory of mind, which views the brain as an information processor that operates on cognitive representations, is central to modern cognitive psychology and is the dominant perspective from which brain function is conceptualised and studied. Evolutionary Psychology (EP) is the application of evolutionary theory to understanding human behaviour and cognition. Unlike other core Psychology topic areas (such as Personality, Learning or Developmental Psychology), however, EP is not defined by the subset of psychological phenomena it seeks to describe and understand. It is instead defined by a specific meta-theoretical perspective, from which it seeks to (potentially) explain all psychological phenomena. The central question posed by this volume is whether this over-arching nature provides an opportunity for evolutionary approaches to offer an alternative meta-theoretical perspective to the information processing / representational view of brain function and behaviour.

    Readers of this volume will notice a sharp demarcation between descriptions of traditional Evolutionary Psychology, which several authors (Barret et al. 2014, Stotz 2014, Stulp et al. 2015) have presented as indistinguishable from the information processing approach, and newer conceptualisations of EP. Indeed one of the major themes running through several of the contributions (Burke 2014, Barret et al. 2014, Stephen 2014, Stotz 2014, Stulp et al. 2015) concerns the appropriate conceptualisation of EP itself, with the Santa Barbara school of massive modularity (made famous by John Tooby and Leda Cosmides) receiving the most scrutiny. As Barret and colleagues (2014) and Stotz (2014) describe, early conceptualisations of EP embraced the notion of massive modularity of mind. Individual modules were presumed to act as evolved computers, sensitive to domain specific information and processing it in adaptive ways. Framed in this manner, EP fits well within even a very strict definition of a computational theory of mind and could hardly be seen as the source of an alternative meta-theoretical approach to understanding brain and behaviour.

    It may not be appropriate, however, to view either the computational theory of mind or the field of EP so narrowly. As Klasios (2014) argues, many evolutionary psychologists adopt a more generic notion of computation, one that commits more to the abstract representation and manipulation of information, rather than to digital computation in its literal sense (although see also Bryant, 2015). EP too, is no longer wed to notions of massive modularity (Stephen 2014), with the majority of research in the field motivated by consideration of first principles of evolutionary theory and is neither constrained nor informed by assumptions of massive modularity or domain specific mechanisms (Burke 2014). With these considerations in mind, Klasios (2014) and Bryant (2015) both argue that computation is still the most profitable account of the mind and is able to accommodate both evolutionary and e-cognition (extended, embodied approaches which place emphasis on the role played by the whole organism and its environment in the decision-making process, rather than simply the brain) perspectives, that favour notions of neural adaptations that are "complex, widely distributed, and highly diffuse" (Klasios 2014) over the more strictly isolated mental modules supposed by massive modularity.

    Burke (2014) further argues that commitments to massive modularity, or to either a computational, direct or e-cognition view of the brain, are unnecessary for evolutionary theory to become the foundational theory of psychological science. Presenting a series of six reasons for the current failure of evolutionary theory to inform most research within psychological science, Burke (2014, with supporting arguments given by Jonason & Dane 2014, and Stephen 2014), suggests that a mixture of misunderstandings about the field of EP coupled with motivated opposition and misguided scepticism are to blame.

    If Burke's assessment is accurate, such barriers may only be overcome by a concerted effort to unite EP with Behavioural Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. Stotz (2014) proposes one such unity with her Extended Evolutionary Psychology. Combining evolutionary theories concerning genetic, epigenetic, behavioural and cultural systems of inheritance, developmental plasticity and niche construction, with e-cognition, Stotz outlines a truly integrative EP. Stotz' Extended Evolutionary Psychology draws on complex mechanisms of inheritance to help understand the evolution of psychological traits. But it also sees investigations of e-cognition informing theories of niche construction and transgenerational developmental plasticity. Thus, the integration of evolutionary theory with psychology provides reciprocated benefits to both fields.

    Barrett and colleagues (2014, 2015) and Stulp and colleagues (2015) argue for an Extended Mind Hypothesis. The Extended Mind Hypothesis sits within an evolutionarily informed framework, but places much emphasis on the sociocultural nature of human psychology and the external resources (cultural and technological artifacts) that form part of the modern human cognitive system. The Extended Mind Hypothesis offers the various forms of e-cognition, rather than EP, as the appropriate meta-theoretical perspective to succeed the computational theory of mind. In arguments that mirror those presented by Burke (2014), however, Stephen and colleagues (2015) argue that while e-cognition represents an interesting alternative to more traditional proximal explanations of behaviour (such as computational theory of mind), behaviour must still be examined through a sophisticated evolutionary lens if an ultimate understanding is to be reached.

    Newer conceptualisations of EP are uncommitted to notions of massive modularity, look beyond the Pleistocene for the selection pressures that have shaped psychological mechanisms and incorporate developmental and cultural impacts into theories concerning the evolved functions of psychological mechanisms. It is clear however, that the massive modularity roots of modern EP still influence how many, including both advocates and critics, view the field. One message that is clear from the works presented in this volume, is that EP must mature and free itself of many of its early assumptions and assertions (as seems to be currently happening empirically, if not yet theoretically, Burke 2014). Only if this occurs, will EP be placed to properly integrate with Evolutionary Biology and be in a position to cement evolutionary theory as a unifying meta-theory for Psychological Science. Whether such a New Evolutionary Psychology should incorporate computational theories of mind or reject these in favour of the newer e-cognition perspectives is an empirical question and not one whose answer needs to be decided before the weight of evidence has settled in either court (Stephen, 2014).
    Keywords: e-cognition, evolutionary psychology, massive modularity, Developmental niche construction, Computational theory of mind, developmental plasticity, Biocultural Evolution
    Jo Bowyer
    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

    Comment


    • Where am I? Who am I? The Relation Between Spatial Cognition, Social Cognition and Individual Differences in the Built Environment

      http://journal.frontiersin.org/artic...016.00064/full

      Knowing who we are, and where we are, are two fundamental aspects of our physical and mental experience. Although the domains of spatial and social cognition are often studied independently, a few recent areas of scholarship have explored the interactions of place and self. This fits in with increasing evidence for embodied theories of cognition, where mental processes are grounded in action and perception. Who we are might be integrated with where we are, and impact how we move through space. Individuals vary in personality, navigational strategies, and numerous cognitive and social competencies. Here we review the relation between social and spatial spheres of existence in the realms of philosophical considerations, neural and psychological representations, and evolutionary context, and how we might use the built environment to suit who we are, or how it creates who we are. In particular we investigate how two spatial reference frames, egocentric and allocentric, might transcend into the social realm. We then speculate on how environments may interact with spatial cognition. Finally, we suggest how a framework encompassing spatial and social cognition might be taken in consideration by architects and urban planners.
      Jo Bowyer
      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

      Comment


      • Placebo Analgesia Changes Alpha Oscillations Induced by Tonic Muscle Pain: EEG Frequency Analysis Including Data during Pain Evaluation

        http://journal.frontiersin.org/artic...016.00045/full

        Placebo exhibits beneficial effects on pain perception in human experimental studies. Most of these studies demonstrate that placebo significantly decreased neural activities in pain modulatory brain regions and pain-evoked potentials. This study examined placebo analgesia-related effects on spontaneous brain oscillations. We examined placebo effects on four order-fixed 20-min conditions in two sessions: isotonic saline-induced control conditions (with/without placebo) followed by hypertonic saline-induced tonic muscle pain conditions (with/without placebo) in 19 subjects using continuous electroencephalography (EEG) recording. Placebo treatment exerted significant analgesic effects in 14 placebo responders, as subjective intensity of pain perception decreased. Frequency analyses were performed on whole continuous EEG data, data during pain perception rating and data after rating. The results in the first two cases revealed that placebo induced significant increases and a trend toward significant increases in the amplitude of alpha oscillation during tonic muscle pain compared to control conditions in frontal-central regions of the brain, respectively. Placebo-induced decreases in the subjective intensity of pain perception significantly and positively correlated with the increases in the amplitude of alpha oscillations during pain conditions. In conclusion, the modulation effect of placebo treatment was captured when the pain perception evaluating period was included. The strong correlation between the placebo effect on reported pain perception and alpha amplitude suggest that alpha oscillations in frontal-central regions serve as a cortical oscillatory basis of the placebo effect on tonic muscle pain. These results provide important evidence for the investigation of objective indicators of the placebo effect.
        This study generated tonic muscle pain via an intramuscular infusion of hypertonic saline to produce a deep aching that was similar to the muscle pain experienced in clinical situations (Stohler and Kowalski, 1999). Our understanding of the neural mechanisms of pain were primarily based on the brain activation of phasic cutaneous pain, which involves fewer methodological challenges (e.g., easier to present several times to achieve a high signal-to-noise ratio of the brain responses) compared to tonic pain (Apkarian et al., 2011). However, chronic pain is normally prolonged and originates from deep tissue (e.g., muscle and viscera) in clinical practice (Apkarian et al., 2005; Schreckenberger et al., 2005). Therefore, the tonic muscle pain achieved by intramuscular infusion of hypertonic saline was used in the present study. The automated stimulus delivery system produced a prolonged, relatively stable muscle pain and achieved a better simulation of the pain experience in clinical settings, which may be important to establish the connection between placebo analgesic studies conducted in experimental settings (healthy subjects) and clinical practice (chronic pain patients).
        Jo Bowyer
        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

        Comment


        • Psychological flexibility might be the key to better cognitive-behavioral interventions

          https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0514105729.htm

          Although numerous studies prove that Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is effective in chronic pain treatment, psychologists acknowledge they need to learn which components of CBT provide the best outcomes for different people with pain, according to UK-based clinical psychologist Lance McCracken, Ph.D. speaking in a plenary session today at the American Pain Society Annual Scientific Conference.

          CBT is the most frequently used psychological intervention for people with chronic pain, but McCracken believes psychologists can identify approaches to improve CBT outcomes. He said new directions for improving CBT for treatment of chronic pain may be found in the psychological flexibility model and Acceptance and Commitment therapy (ACT), in particular.

          Psychological flexibility basically is the ability to be more aware, more focused on goals and more engaged. One aspect of psychological flexibility pertinent to chronic pain is called committed action, which involves goal-directed, flexible persistence. For pain management, ACT is an approach based on the psychological flexibility model and focuses on building effective patterns of behavior change rather than symptom reduction.

          "Greater psychological flexibility is associated with less pain-related anxiety and avoidance, less depression, less physical and psycho-social disability and other measures of patient function," said McCracken, Professor of Behavioral Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, Kings College London. "Outcome studies suggest that ACT is effective for enhancing daily functioning and for decreasing psychological distress."

          McCracken pointed to results of a 2015 study published by British and Swedish researchers that showed acceptance of pain, one component of psychological flexibility, may be a general mechanism by which CBT treatments achieve improvements in functioning, and more specific targeting of pain-related acceptance may lead to further improvement is CBT outcomes.

          Another study, published in 2011, assessed the long-term efficacy of acceptance and commitment therapy in more than 100 people with chronic pain. The evidence showed at three-year follow-up 65 percent of study subjects had reliably improved in at least one key clinical domain, and improvements in acceptance of pain and another process called values-based action were associated with improvements in outcomes measures.

          McCracken noted that research is underway to learn how to enhance these results precisely for those who do not show reliable improvements.
          Jo Bowyer
          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

          Comment


          • Program participation results in long-term weight loss

            https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0514105707.htm

            Researchers from the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus have found that losing even a modest amount of weight can reap significant rewards, including lower blood pressure, lower blood sugar, improved sleep, and fewer aches and pains.

            But losing weight is difficult and maintaining that loss over years is even harder. The vast majority of those who lose weight gain it back. Yet research has found one group that has defied that trend.

            A new study from the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, presented today at the 2016 Society of General Internal Medicine Annual Meeting, demonstrates the effectiveness of long-term participation in a national weight-loss program.

            The investigators followed over 65,000 overweight or obese people who joined Take Off Pounds Sensibly (TOPS) between 2005 to 2010. In the first year, half of participants in the nonprofit weight-loss support group had significant weight loss. Of the patients with significant weight loss in the first year who participated in a second year, 80% kept off the weight. Each year, during years three to seven, roughly 90% of patients who continued participation in the program maintained their weight loss.

            The researchers concluded that after one year of significant weight loss, consistent participation in the program helped participants sustain their new healthy weight.

            "Maintaining long-term weight loss is a critical challenge in treating obesity and related health problems such as diabetes, high blood pressure and heart disease," said the study's lead author Nia S. Mitchell, MD, MPH at CU Anschutz. "Just losing the weight isn't enough. Since the health benefits of weight loss disappear when weight creeps back on, we need more research into effective strategies for maintaining a healthier weight once it is reached."

            Mitchell concluded that further studies of the TOPS program should examine which populations will succeed at weight loss and weight-loss maintenance and determine factors that can improve sustainable weight loss and maintenance.

            Founded in 1948, TOPS is a nonprofit, noncommercial weight-loss support group with thousands of chapters across the United States and Canada. TOPS chapters provide support from others at weekly chapter meetings, healthy eating, regular exercise and wellness information at a fraction of the cost of commercial programs.
            My patients do better with non commercial groups.
            Jo Bowyer
            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

            Comment


            • The Social Construction of Stories How Narratives Can Get in the Way of Being Happier A Conversation With Paul Dolan [5.13.16]

              https://www.edge.org/conversation/pa...ion-of-stories

              I went for dinner with a friend who spent the whole of the evening complaining about her job, her boss, her colleagues, and her commute. Everything about her day-to-day experiences was miserable. Then, at the end of dinner, she said, "I love where I work." That's quite common. She was working for an organization where she'd always wanted to work, her parents were proud, her friends were jealous. How could she not be happy when she thought about the story of how happy she was where she was working? Her experiences—day-to-day and moment-to-moment—were telling her something quite different.
              Jo Bowyer
              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

              Comment


              • The Strange Case of Interoception and Resilience or How to Become a Superhero

                http://www.bodyinmind.org/interoception-resilience/

                Interesting take.

                Comments worth a read.
                Jo Bowyer
                Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                Comment


                • "How to calm an anxious mind: Researchers are making mental health treatments easier 'for those who need it most'."

                  https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0518120523.htm

                  Anxiety disorders and related problems such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are among the most common mental health conditions. At least one in four Canadians will have an anxiety disorder in their lifetime.

                  While effective therapies for these often-debilitating disorders exist, many sufferers find them very difficult to engage with or complete. This prompted researchers at Concordia University in Montreal to look for ways to make treatment easier to handle for those who need it most.

                  In studies recently published in the Journal of Anxiety Disorders and forthcoming in Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, Concordia psychology researchers Hannah Levy and Adam Radomsky show that the very behaviours people use to avoid anxiety could become part of an effective treatment, and that patients have a significant role to play in deciding when those behaviours are no longer necessary.

                  Radomsky and Levy focus on safety behaviours -- things people do to make themselves feel less anxious. Examples include wearing gloves when touching dirty objects, avoiding eye contact during stressful interactions, distracting yourself when doing something scary -- any behaviour that increases feelings of safety in anxiety-provoking situations.

                  "Traditionally, psychologists thought that fading out or eliminating these behaviours entirely should be the primary focus of the therapy used to combat anxiety disorders. But we found that changing those behaviours and giving patients greater agency is much more effective," says Radomsky, professor in Concordia's Department of Psychology and senior author of the studies.



                  Why Some With Autism Avoid Eye Contact

                  http://neurosciencenews.com/eye-contact-autism-6995/

                  Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often find it difficult to look others in the eyes. This avoidance has typically been interpreted as a sign of social and personal indifference, but reports from people with autism suggests otherwise. Many say that looking others in the eye is uncomfortable or stressful for them – some will even say that “it burns” – all of which points to a neurological cause. Now, a team of investigators based at the Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging at Massachusetts General Hospital has shed light on the brain mechanisms involved in this behavior. They reported their findings in a Nature Scientific Reports paper published online this month.

                  “The findings demonstrate that, contrary to what has been thought, the apparent lack of interpersonal interest among people with autism is not due to a lack of concern,” says Nouchine Hadjikhani, MD, PhD, director of neurolimbic research in the Martinos Center and corresponding author of the new study. “Rather, our results show that this behavior is a way to decrease an unpleasant excessive arousal stemming from overactivation in a particular part of the brain.”

                  The key to this research lies in the brain’s subcortical system, which is responsible for the natural orientation toward faces seen in newborns and is important later for emotion perception. The subcortical system can be specifically activated by eye contact, and previous work by Hadjikhani and colleagues revealed that, among those with autism, it was oversensitive to effects elicited by direct gaze and emotional expression. In the present study, she took that observation further, asking what happens when those with autism are compelled to look in the eyes of faces conveying different emotions.

                  Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), Hadjikhani and colleagues measured differences in activation within the face-processing components of the subcortical system in people with autism and in control participants as they viewed faces either freely or when constrained to viewing the eye-region. While activation of these structures was similar for both groups exhibited during free viewing, overactivation was observed in participants with autism when concentrating on the eye-region. This was especially true with fearful faces, though similar effects were observed when viewing happy, angry and neutral faces.

                  The findings of the study support the hypothesis of an imbalance between the brain’s excitatory and inhibitory signaling networks in autism – excitatory refers to neurotransmitters that stimulate the brain, while inhibitory refers to those that calm it and provide equilibrium. Such an imbalance, likely the result of diverse genetic and environmental causes, can strengthen excitatory signaling in the subcortical circuitry involved in face perception. This in turn can result in an abnormal reaction to eye contact, an aversion to direct gaze and consequently abnormal development of the social brain.
                  Update 28/06/2017
                  Last edited by Jo Bowyer; 28-06-2017, 08:01 PM.
                  Jo Bowyer
                  Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                  "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                  Comment


                  • Extreme Beliefs Often Mistaken For Psychosis

                    http://www.jaapl.org/content/44/1/28.abstract

                    Summary:
                    Researchers proposes a new term to classify non-psychotic behavior that is associated with extreme beliefs and leads to acts of criminal violence.
                    Jo Bowyer
                    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                    Comment


                    • “Reminders Through Association” by Todd Rogers and Katherine L. Milkman in Psychological Science.

                      http://pss.sagepub.com/content/early...43071.abstract

                      Abstract
                      People often fail to follow through on good intentions. While limited self-control is frequently the culprit, another cause is simply forgetting to enact intentions when opportunities arise. We introduce a novel, potent approach to facilitating follow-through: the reminders-through-association approach. This approach involves associating intentions (e.g., to mail a letter on your desk tomorrow) with distinctive cues that will capture attention when you have opportunities to act on those intentions (e.g., Valentine’s Day flowers that arrived late yesterday, which are sitting on your desk). We showed that cue-based reminders are more potent when the cues they employ are distinctive relative to (a) other regularly encountered stimuli and (b) other stimuli encountered concurrently. Further, they can be more effective than written or electronic reminder messages, and they are undervalued and underused. The reminders-through-association approach, developed by integrating and expanding on past research on self-control, reminders, and prospective memory, can be a powerful tool for policymakers and individuals.
                      Patients needing balance training are asked to adjust the height of the treatment table to the height of their kitchen sink and then taken through the prescribed exercise(s). At home they are asked to do between 15 -60" every time they walk past it and more if they are actually using the sink. I get bored counting reps, those who like it can do so if they wish.
                      Last edited by Jo Bowyer; 24-05-2016, 10:48 PM.
                      Jo Bowyer
                      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                      Comment


                      • Unpeeling the layers of language: Bonobos and chimpanzees engage in cooperative turn-taking sequences

                        http://www.nature.com/articles/srep25887

                        Introduction
                        “Language didn’t make interactional intelligence possible, it is interactional intelligence that made language possible as a means of communication”
                        Those with ASD may have difficulty with several aspects of interactional intelligence.
                        Jo Bowyer
                        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                        Comment


                        • Changes in conceptions in women younger than 18 years and the circumstances of young mothers in England in 2000–12: an observational study

                          http://www.thelancet.com/journals/la...449-4/abstract

                          Summary
                          Background
                          In 2000, a 10-year Teenage Pregnancy Strategy was launched in England to reduce conceptions in women younger than 18 years and social exclusion in young parents. We used routinely collected data and data from Britain's National Surveys of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal) to examine progress towards these goals.

                          Methods
                          In this observational study, we used random-effects meta-regression to analyse the change in conception rates from 1994–98 to 2009–13 by top-tier local authorities in England, in relation to Teenage Pregnancy Strategy-related expenditure per head, socioeconomic deprivation, and region. Data from similar probability sample surveys: Natsal-1 (1990–91), Natsal-2 (1999–2001), and Natsal-3 (2010–12) were used to assess the prevalence of risk factors and their association with conception in women younger than 18 years in women aged 18–24 years; and the prevalence of participation in education, work, and training in young mothers.

                          Findings
                          Conception rates in women younger than 18 years declined steadily from their peak in 1996–98 and more rapidly from 2007 onwards. More deprived areas and those receiving greater Teenage Pregnancy Strategy-related investment had higher rates of conception in 1994–98 and had greater declines to 2009–13. Regression analyses assessing the association between Teenage Pregnancy Strategy funding and decline in conception rates in women younger than 18 years showed an estimated reduction in the conception rate of 11·4 conceptions (95% CI 9·6–13·2; p<0·0001) per 1000 women aged 15–17 years for every £100 Teenage Pregnancy Strategy spend per head and a reduction of 8·2 conceptions (5·8–10·5; p<0·0001) after adjustment for socioeconomic deprivation and region. The association between conception in women younger than 18 years and lower socioeconomic status weakened slightly between Natsal-2 and Natsal-3. The prevalence of participation in education, work, or training among young women with a child conceived before age 18 years was low, but the odds of them doing so doubled between Natsal-2 and Natsal-3 (odds ratio 1·99, 95% CI 0·99–4·00).

                          Interpretation
                          A sustained, multifaceted policy intervention involving health and education agencies, alongside other social and educational changes, has probably contributed to a substantial and accelerating decline in conceptions in women younger than 18 years in England since the late 1990s.
                          I saw the difference first hand with my daughter's generation of young teenagers. The centres often had young, cool, HCPs and became places to visit and hang out. It meant that when someone did have a sexual health issue, or a pregnancy scare, there were no qualms about going and getting timely advice.
                          Jo Bowyer
                          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                          Comment


                          • Subjective health complaints, functional ability, fear avoidance beliefs, and days on sickness benefits after work rehabilitation – a mediation model

                            http://bmcmusculoskeletdisord.biomed...891-016-1084-x

                            Abstract

                            Background
                            Long-term sick leave and withdrawal from working life is a concern in western countries. In Norway, comprehensive inpatient work rehabilitation may be offered to sick listed individuals at risk of long-term absence from work. Knowledge about prognostic factors for work outcomes after long-term sick leave and work rehabilitation is still limited. The aim of this study was to test a mediation model for various hypothesized biopsychosocial predictors of continued sick leave after inpatient work rehabilitation.

                            Methods
                            One thousand one hundred fifty-five participants on long-term sick leave from eight different work rehabilitation clinics answered comprehensive questionnaires at arrival to the clinic, and were followed with official register data on sickness benefits for 3 years. Structural equation models were conducted, with days on sickness benefits after work rehabilitation as the outcome.

                            Results
                            Fear avoidance beliefs for work mediated the relation between both musculoskeletal complaints and education on days on sickness benefits after work rehabilitation. The relation between musculoskeletal complaints and fear avoidance beliefs for work was furthermore fully mediated by poor physical function. Previous sick leave had a strong independent effect on continued sick leave after work rehabilitation. Fear avoidance beliefs for work did not mediate the small effect of pseudoneurological complaints on continued sick leave. Poor coping/interaction ability was neither related to continued sick leave nor fear avoidance beliefs for work.

                            Conclusions
                            The mediation model was partly supported by the data, and provides some possible new insight into how fear avoidance beliefs for work and functional ability may intervene with subjective health complaints and days on sickness benefits after work rehabilitation.
                            Keywords

                            Sickness absence Sick leave Functional ability Subjective health complaints Musculoskeletal diseases Mental disorders Fear avoidance beliefs Rehabilitation Prognostic factors Return to work
                            Jo Bowyer
                            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                            Comment


                            • The impact of work related physical activity and leisure physical activity on the risk and prognosis of neck pain – a population based cohort study on workers

                              http://bmcmusculoskeletdisord.biomed...891-016-1080-1

                              Abstract

                              Background
                              The effect of physical activity on risk and prognosis for neck pain has been studied earlier with inconclusive results. There is a need for large prospective studies on the subject. The aim of this study was to investigate if work related physical activity and physical activity during leisure time are of importance for the risk and prognosis of neck pain in men and women.

                              Methods
                              We used the Stockholm Public Health Cohort and formed two sub-cohorts of the working population based on data from 2002. Cohort I (risk cohort) included persons without neck pain (n = 4681), and cohort II (prognostic cohort) included persons with occasional neck pain (n = 6820) during the previous six months. Both cohorts were assessed for the outcome long duration troublesome neck pain (LDNP) in 2007.

                              The exposures and potential confounders were assessed through a questionnaire in 2002. The question regarding work related physical activity over the past 12 months had five answering categories ranging from “sedentary” to”heavy”. The question regarding leisure physical activity for the past 12 months had five answering categories ranging from “sedentary” to “regular physical activity”.

                              LDNP in 2007 was defined as having had troublesome neck pain lasting ≥ 3 consecutive months during the previous five years. Associations between work related physical activity and LDNP, as well as leisure physical activity and LDNP, were investigated by multivariable logistic regression, considering potential confounding factors.

                              Results
                              In cohort I (risk cohort) we found an association between leisure physical activity and LDNP. In cohort II (prognostic cohort) we found no association between the exposures and the outcome.

                              Conclusion
                              The results suggest that leisure physical activity has a protective effect on the risk of developing LDNP in a population free from neck pain. It did not, however, affect the prognosis of occasional neck pain. Neither the risk nor the prognosis of neck pain was affected by work related physical activity in this study.
                              Keywords

                              Epidemiology Neck pain Prognosis Risk factor Physical activity Cohort study Longitudinal study
                              Jo Bowyer
                              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                              Comment


                              • Health-related quality of life and clinical outcomes following medial open wedge high tibial osteotomy: a prospective study

                                http://bmcmusculoskeletdisord.biomed...891-016-1076-x

                                Abstract

                                Background
                                Open wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) is an established method for the treatment of patients with varus malalignment and medial compartment osteoarthritis. In these patients, health-related quality of life (HRQL) can be improved by using this procedure. The purpose of the present study consisted in evaluating HRQL up to 18 months after HTO, comparing the results to values of the German normal population, and in analyzing the impact of preoperative HRQL on the postoperative clinical result. It was hypothesized that normal values in physical and mental health can be achieved within 18 months after operation. Study design: Prospective case series. Level of evidence: IV.

                                Methods
                                120 patients were included in this prospective case series from 12/2008 to 12/2011. All patients underwent open wedge HTO without a bone graft using the TomoFixTM plate. HRQL was assessed by using the SF-36 questionnaire, preoperatively, as well as 6, 12, and 18 months postoperatively. Regular scoring, norm-based scaling, and the physical and mental component summary scores (PCS and MCS) were evaluated. Clinical outcome was assessed by using Lequesne, Lysholm, HSS and IKDC Score.

                                Results
                                HRQL could be described in 96 patients. The PCS of HRQL showed a statistically significant pre- to postoperative improvement (30.2 ± 13.4 to 45.9 ± 13.5 after 18 months). A reduced preoperative mental component summary score (MCS) resulted in lower values of each clinical score (p < 0.05) and in a prolonged duration of incapacity for work (MCS < 50:15.0 ± 12.8 weeks, vs. MCS ≥ 50: 9.1 ± 4.8 weeks, p < 0.05). MCS values improved from the pre- to postoperative measurements and comparable values to the normal population were reached already within 6 months after surgery (46.0 ± 14.9 pre-operatively and 48.5 ± 13.7 after 6 months), and after 18 months even a score of 49.5 ± 12.4 was achieved.

                                Conclusion
                                Lower preoperative mental component score results in reduced postoperative clinical outcome and prolonged duration of incapacity for work after HTO. In contrast to PCS, MCS showed comparable values to the normal population within 6 months after HTO.
                                Keywords

                                Open wedge high tibial osteotomy HTO Varus deformity Health-related quality of life SF-36
                                Jo Bowyer
                                Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                                "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                                Comment

                                Working...
                                X