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  • Jo Bowyer
    replied
    Child Abuse May Leave Molecular Scars on Victims

    https://neurosciencenews.com/child-abuse-genetics-9946/

    Methylation acts as a “dimmer switch” on genes, affecting the degree to which a particular gene is activated or not. Scientists are increasingly looking at this turning on and turning off of genes, known as epigenetics, because it’s believed to be influenced by external forces—a person’s environment or life experiences.

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  • Jo Bowyer
    replied
    Mathematics meets biology to uncover unexpected biorhythms

    https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0920115521.htm

    "Circadian rhythms are physical, mental and behavioral changes that follow a 24-hour cycle driven by environmental light and darkness. One of the best known circadian cycles is sleeping at night and being awake during the day," said corresponding author Dr. Clifford C. Dacso, professor of molecular and cellular biology and member of the Dan L Duncan Comprehensive Cancer Center at Baylor College of Medicine. "These biological rhythms reflect complex interactions at the molecular level that occur among the paths mediating the expression of genes into active proteins carrying functions in the cell."

    There is evidence, however, that other biological cycles exist in addition to 24-hour rhythms. Blood pressure, body temperature, cognitive performance, some circulating hormones, reaction to stress and responses to drug therapy, for instance, appear to follow a 12-hour rhythm, but little is known about the biological basis of it. Dacso and his colleagues set out to find out answers.

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  • Jo Bowyer
    replied
    High-resolution genomic map gives scientists unprecedented view of brain development

    https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0913142033.htm

    Summary:
    Researchers have created a massive database of the changes in gene activity of individual cells in the cerebellum during embryonic development and immediately after birth. The analysis of thousands of brain cells isolated from mice offers researchers a high-resolution map that enables scientists to view the detailed genomic changes cells undergo as the cerebellum wires its neural circuitry.

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  • Jo Bowyer
    replied
    What Time is it in Your Body?

    https://neurosciencenews.com/body-in...ck-blood-9842/

    Processes in nearly every tissue and organ system in the body are orchestrated by an internal biological clock, which directs circadian rhythm, such as the sleep-wake cycle. Some individuals’ internal clocks are in sync with external time but others are out of sync and considered misaligned.
    “This is really an integral part of personalized medicine,” said coauthor Dr. Phyllis Zee, chief of sleep medicine in neurology at Feinberg and a Northwestern Medicine neurologist. “So many drugs have optimal times for dosing. Knowing what time it is in your body is critical to getting the most effective benefits. The best time for you to take the blood pressure drug or the chemotherapy or radiation may be different from somebody else.”
    The test measures 40 different gene expression markers in the blood and can be taken any time of day, regardless of whether the patient had a good night’s sleep or was up all night with a baby. It is based on an algorithm developed by Braun and colleagues by drawing subjects’ blood every two hours and examining which genes were higher or lower at certain times of day. Scientists also used gene expression data from studies conducted at four other centers.

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  • Jo Bowyer
    replied
    The Link Between Obesity, Genetics and the Brain

    https://neurosciencenews.com/genetic...ty-brain-9762/

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  • Jo Bowyer
    replied
    How do muscles know what time it is?

    https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0821111938.htm

    Circadian clocks are present in all cells of the body, and have a pervasive influence on all aspects of human physiology. This is because they regulate homeostasis by anticipating rhythmic changes in behavior and nutritional state, and by compartmentalizing incompatible metabolic pathways within precise temporal windows.

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  • Jo Bowyer
    replied
    Finding the proteins that unpack DNA

    https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0712114557.htm

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  • Jo Bowyer
    replied
    The world's tiniest first responders

    https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0620170951.htm

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  • Jo Bowyer
    replied
    Taking CRISPR from clipping scissors to word processor

    New platform transforms gene editor into precision tool

    https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0508102209.htm

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  • Jo Bowyer
    replied
    We reconstructed the genome of the ‘first animal’


    https://theconversation.com/we-recon...first%20animal

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  • Jo Bowyer
    replied
    New computer algorithm deciphers DNA's most well-kept secrets; may help find the links between genes and disease

    https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0405223355.htm

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  • Jo Bowyer
    replied
    Adult Onset Neurodegeneration Has Roots in Early Development

    http://neurosciencenews.com/neurodeg...elopment-8714/

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  • Jo Bowyer
    replied
    Pain catastrophizing, neuroticism, fear of pain, and anxiety: Defining the genetic and environmental factors in a sample of female twins

    http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0194562

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  • Jo Bowyer
    replied
    Mysterious skeleton shows molecular complexity of bone diseases

    https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0322134307.htm

    To understand the genetic drivers at play, Butte and Nolan extracted a small DNA sample from Ata's ribs and sequenced the entire genome. The skeleton is approximately 40 years old, so its DNA is modern and still relatively intact. Moreover, data collected from whole-genome sequencing showed that Ata's molecular composition aligned with that of a human genome. Nolan noted that 8 percent of the DNA was unmatchable with human DNA, but that was due to a degraded sample, not extraterrestrial biology. (Later, a more sophisticated analysis was able to match up to 98 percent of the DNA, according to Nolan.)

    The genomic results confirmed Ata's Chilean descent and turned up a slew of mutations in seven genes that separately or in combinations contribute to various bone deformities, facial malformations or skeletal dysplasia, more commonly known as dwarfism. Some of these mutations, though found in genes already known to cause disease, had never before been associated with bone growth or developmental disorders.

    Knowing these new mutational variants could be useful, Nolan said, because they add to the repository of known mutations to look for in humans with these kinds of bone or physical disorders.

    "For me, what really came of this study was the idea that we shouldn't stop investigating when we find one gene that might explain a symptom. It could be multiple things going wrong, and it's worth getting a full explanation, especially as we head closer and closer to gene therapy," Butte said. "We could presumably one day fix some of these disorders, and we're going to want to make sure that if there's one mutation, we know that -- but if there's more than one, we know that too."

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  • Jo Bowyer
    replied
    Men and Women Have Opposite Genetic Alterations in Depression

    http://neurosciencenews.com/genetics...pression-8631/

    The study combined eight published datasets (four in men and four in women) in a meta-analysis. Senior author Etienne Sibille, PhD, of CAMH, and colleagues analyzed gene expression levels, which indicate how much protein a gene is producing, in postmortem brain tissue of 50 people with MDD (26 men and 24 women) and the same number of unaffected men and women for comparison.

    Most of the genes that had altered expression were changed in only men or only women. However, genes that were altered in both men and women were changed in opposite directions. Women had increased expression of genes affecting synapse function, whereas men had decreased expression of the same genes. Women had decreases in genes affecting immune function, whereas men had increased expression of these genes. Additionally, the researchers applied their methods to data from a different set of subjects and replicated the opposing changes.

    The analysis included three different brain regions that regulate mood—the anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and amygdala—and that are dysfunctional in MDD. The opposite changes in gene expression were specific to the different brain regions. So if women had increased expression of a particular gene in one region and decreased in another, men showed just the opposite.
    “These results have significant implications for development of potential novel treatments and suggest that these treatments should be developed separately for men and women,” said Dr. Seney. For example, in the paper the authors suggest that new treatments targeting the sex-specific pathology in MDD might suppress immune function in men, or boost its function in women.

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