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  • Oops, I missed that one!
    We don't see things as they are, we see things as WE are - Anais Nin

    I suppose it's easier to believe something than it is to understand it.
    Cmdr. Chris Hadfield on rise of poor / pseudo science

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    Comment


    • The one you posted was the WHO report, so it was good to have the facts on which the Guardian article was probably based.
      Jo Bowyer
      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

      Comment


      • Ebolaviruses need very few mutations to cause disease in new host species

        https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0215084047.htm

        Ebola is one of the world's most virulent diseases, though rodent species such as guinea pigs, rats and mice are not normally susceptible to it. However, through repeated infection of a host animal, Ebola virus strains can be generated that replicate and cause disease within new host rodent species.

        Scientists in the University of Kent's School of Biosciences examined the changes associated with Ebolavirus adaptation to rodents including guinea pigs and mice across four different studies. They found that only very few mutations, probably fewer than five, are required for the virus to adapt.

        In particular, a change in the Ebolavirus protein VP24 seems to be critical for Ebola viruses to infect a new animal species. Ebolaviruses infecting domestic species, including pigs and dogs, may also result in virus changes that may increase the risk to humans. Reston viruses, Ebolaviruses that have not been shown to cause disease in humans, so far, are known to circulate in domestic pigs in Asia.


        Living 'flying syringes' could detect emerging infectious diseases
        https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0328082920.htm

        Blood-sucking flies can act as 'flying syringes' to detect emerging infectious diseases in wild animals before they spread to humans, according to new research.
        Last edited by Jo Bowyer; 30-03-2017, 03:05 AM.
        Jo Bowyer
        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

        Comment


        • Superspreaders are local and disproportionate

          http://science.sciencemag.org/conten...et_cid=1207368

          Certain individuals, known as superspreaders, disproportionately infect more people with disease-causing organisms than the average infectious case. Lau et al. identified key drivers of Ebola virus (EBOV) superspreading during the 2014 West Africa outbreak. Unexpectedly, secondary cases largely did not transmit tertiary cases; thus, epidemic growth was fueled and sustained by a few superspreaders, and transmission occurred locally, within 2.5 km of the source. Community-based EBOV cases progressed more rapidly than those identified in clinical care settings. The most infectious age groups tended to be the young or people over 45 years old, which may reflect social structure, such as the intimacy of care needs, or immunological factors. This work helps to identify the most vulnerable groups and provide parameters for control efforts in future outbreaks of EBOV.


          A big-picture look at the world's worst Ebola epidemic
          International team of scientists show how real-time sequencing and data-sharing can help stop the next outbreak


          https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0412132313.htm

          An international effort to analyze the entire database of Ebola virus genomes from the 2013-2016 West African epidemic reveals insights into factors that sped or slowed the rampage and calls for using real-time sequencing and data-sharing to contain future viral disease outbreaks.

          Published in the journal Nature, the analysis found that the epidemic unfolded in small, overlapping outbreaks with surprisingly few infected travelers sparking new outbreaks elsewhere, each case representing a missed opportunity to break the transmission chain and end the epidemic sooner. For a video animation of the study's findings, visit https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j4Ut4krp8GQ.

          "We calculated that 3.6 percent of cases traveled, basically meaning that if you were able to focus on those mobile cases and reduce their mobility, you might have had a disproportionate effect on the epidemic," said computational biologist Dr. Gytis Dudas, a Mahan Postdoctoral Fellow at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and the paper's lead author.

          The West African Ebola epidemic dwarfed all previous central African outbreaks of the virus, sickening more than 28,000 people and killing more than 11,000 of them.

          The 1,610 Ebola virus genomes analyzed by the researchers represented more than 5 percent of the known cases, the largest sample analyzed for a single human epidemic. The analysis is the first to look at how Ebola spread, proliferated and declined across all three countries most affected: Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia. Previous analyses used fewer sequences or focused primarily on either a single country or a limited time frame.

          The new paper also amounts to a manifesto for collaborative science, with 93 scientists from 53 institutions in 16 countries listed as authors. Many of them had worked on earlier papers as clinicians gathering blood samples, researchers doing genome sequencing or analysts drawing on portions of the dataset. Dudas and senior author Dr. Andrew Rambaut of the Institute of Evolutionary Biology at Scotland's University of Edinburgh were involved in the analyses for many of these efforts.

          The authors' intention, they wrote, was for this comprehensive analysis to "provide a framework for predicting the behavior of future outbreaks for Ebola virus" and other human pathogens and to guide targeted, life-saving responses.
          Update 13/04/2017



          Updated: Will vaccine help curb new Ebola outbreak in the DRC?

          http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/...et_cid=1324255

          Update 15/05/3017




          Could pigs be involved in Congo's new Ebola outbreak?

          http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/...et_cid=1349465

          It might all just be a big coincidence. But scientists and public health officials are investigating whether pigs are somehow involved in the Ebola outbreak now underway in a remote region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). If so, it would add a new—but not totally unexpected—chapter to the virus's turbulent history.

          Scientists' interest stems from two data points. An epidemiological investigation has indicated that the first person to fall sick was a hunter who had come into contact with a wild boar carcass. And 84 pigs have recently died in eight villages in Nambwa, the epicenter of the current outbreak, according to a report issued yesterday by the DRC's Ministry of Health. Researchers have taken samples from those animals, according to the report, which says a "protocol for investigation of unusual deaths reported in pigs is under development.”

          “I’m doubtful that the pigs actually carry Ebola, but we have to test them,” says epidemiologist Fabian Leendertz of the Robert Koch Institute in Berlin, who has been consulted by the Institute of National Biomedical Research in Kinshasa about the potential link. Indeed, pigs in the DRC frequently die from other pathogens; the country often has outbreaks of African swine fever, which has a very high mortality rate. “Ebola is not even the prime suspect,” says Anne Rimoin, an epidemiologist from the University of California, Los Angeles, who has worked in the DRC for 15 years and is there now.

          Still, a role for pigs would not come as a complete scientific shock. In 2009, researchers reported in Science that they had isolated an Ebola strain called Reston from pigs in the Philippines that were suffering from a severe respiratory syndrome. Ebola Reston has never been found to cause human disease, but the study found that some pig farmers had antibodies to the virus as well, suggesting that they had been in contact with it.
          Update 29/05/2017



          Essential information: Uncertainty and optimal control of Ebola outbreaks

          http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/05/10/1617482114

          Significance

          The 2014 Ebola outbreak illustrates the complexities of decision making in the face of explosive epidemics; management interventions must be enacted, despite imperfect or missing information. The wide range in projected caseload generated attention as a source of uncertainty, but debate did not address whether uncertainty affected choice of action. By reevaluating 37 published models, we show that most models concur that reducing funeral transmission and reducing community transmission are robust and effective management actions to minimize projected caseload. Although models disagreed about absolute caseload, this measure has little relevance for evaluating candidate interventions. Our study highlights the importance of projecting the impact of interventions and is applicable to management of other epidemic outbreaks where rapid decision making is critical.

          Abstract
          Early resolution of uncertainty during an epidemic outbreak can lead to rapid and efficient decision making, provided that the uncertainty affects prioritization of actions. The wide range in caseload projections for the 2014 Ebola outbreak caused great concern and debate about the utility of models. By coding and running 37 published Ebola models with five candidate interventions, we found that, despite this large variation in caseload projection, the ranking of management options was relatively consistent. Reducing funeral transmission and reducing community transmission were generally ranked as the two best options. Value of information (VoI) analyses show that caseloads could be reduced by 11% by resolving all model-specific uncertainties, with information about model structure accounting for 82% of this reduction and uncertainty about caseload only accounting for 12%. Our study shows that the uncertainty that is of most interest epidemiologically may not be the same as the uncertainty that is most relevant for management. If the goal is to improve management outcomes, then the focus of study should be to identify and resolve those uncertainties that most hinder the choice of an optimal intervention. Our study further shows that simplifying multiple alternative models into a smaller number of relevant groups (here, with shared structure) could streamline the decision-making process and may allow for a better integration of epidemiological modeling and decision making for policy.
          value of information VoI epidemiological outbreak management decision making

          17/05/2017



          Undetected Ebola infection in international healthcare workers very unlikely

          https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0516143422.htm

          Undiagnosed Ebola virus infection was probably very rare in international workers who were deployed during the 2013-2015 outbreak of the virus in West Africa, despite mild and asymptomatic cases of Ebola being known to occur, according to new research published in the journal PLOS Medicine.

          As part of the study, more than 250 UK and Ireland healthcare and other workers were tested for Ebola virus antibodies after returning from West Africa -- no evidence of missed infections was found. This suggests that the vast majority of volunteers were kept safe by Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and the Ebola treatment centre procedures in place. However, the study also found that potentially avoidable events putting frontline workers at risk of infection were quite common during the outbreak, with one in six participants classified as having 'near miss' exposure events.

          In what is believed to be the first study of the prevalence of Ebola infection in international responders the research team, led by the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and funded by the Wellcome Trust, enrolled 300 UK and Ireland healthcare and other frontline workers¹ for the study and sent them oral fluid collection devices. Among the 268 respondents who returned their samples, 99% showed negative results on an antibody test which the authors had already proved gave very accurate results in Sierra Leone2. The remaining two people, who had no known exposure or symptoms, had positive results, but follow-up testing using different methods was negative, making Ebola virus infection very unlikely.The research team, led by the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and funded by the Wellcome Trust, enrolled 300 UK and Ireland healthcare and other frontline workers¹ for the study and sent them oral fluid collection devices. Among the 268 respondents who returned their samples, 99% showed negative results on an antibody test which the authors had already proved gave very accurate results in Sierra Leone2. The remaining two people, who had no known exposure or symptoms, had positive results, but follow-up testing using different methods was negative, making Ebola virus infection very unlikely.

          Lead author Dr Catherine Houlihan from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and UCL said: "The 2013-2015 Ebola outbreak was unprecedented -- the commitment and bravery of those who volunteered saved many lives. We know a small number of international health workers were infected with the virus but we thought it was possible that some infections had been missed, as we know asymptomatic or unrecognised infections can occur. However, our research suggests undetected infection in this group is, at most, a very rare event, and that the Personal Protective Equipment did its job well."

          Participants, who included clinicians, laboratory workers and epidemiologists, also completed an online survey which asked if they experienced possible exposure to Ebola virus while in West Africa. Using 268 respondents' descriptions, 16% (43 people) were identified as having 'near miss' exposure events.

          27 respondents reported experiencing very low-risk incidents³ such as having a facemask dislodged. Ten were identified as having low-risk exposure events which were classified as having direct physical contact with an Ebola patient who does not have vomiting, diarrhea, or bleeding. Five faced an intermediate risk incident with one respondent reporting 'being vomited on while wearing just gloves' and not full PPE, and one experienced the high-risk incident of a 'sharp injury with a broken vial of medication inside the 'red zone' with dirty and contaminated gloves'. The antibody tests showed that none of these individuals had any evidence of infection with Ebola.

          Participants reported PPE suits torn by catching on doorways or corners, PPE breaches in Ebola laboratories, such as torn outer gloves, as well as the additional anxiety and distress these incidents caused them.

          Dr Catherine Houlihan said: "The scale of the outbreak meant frontline workers faced demanding and draining circumstances. Participants have given crucial insights which provide valuable lessons for future Ebola outbreaks. Regular debriefing after work in the clinical red zone or laboratory, and blame-free reporting of near misses, should be part of routine practice in emergency treatment response work. Simple changes such as banning glass vials in the red zone could reduce the number of staff experiencing skin lacerations, and further testing of the robustness and fit of PPE suits, could potentially save health workers' lives in the future."

          Participants, who were based mostly in Sierra Leone, were also asked whether they experienced fever or diarrhoea while in West Africa or within one month of their return, and if so whether they were tested for Ebola virus at the time. Despite symptoms in 21% (57/268) of the respondents, 70% were not tested, with those still in West Africa much less likely to receive a test -- 11 out of 17 who fell ill on their return were tested, but just one person out of 21 who fell ill in West Africa was tested.

          Dr Houlihan said: "This study provides reassuring evidence about the lack of Ebola infection in individuals who had not previously been tested for the virus. However, the high proportion of health workers who didn't get tested when falling ill in West Africa, coupled with returnees' potential exposure to Ebola, are a concern. Although we don't know how many health workers reported being ill and were assessed to decide if they needed to be tested, protocols for the management of possible exposure to the virus, and for the management of illness, may need reviewing and to be standardised across organisations that deploy staff to outbreaks.

          "Importantly, these protocols must be applicable to national as well as international staff. West African responders worked in large numbers from the early stages of the epidemic right through to its conclusion, and were undoubtedly at the highest risk. We must also ensure that every individual who works in these high-risk settings receives strong support and is thoroughly trained ahead of starting work, including on the use of PPE, how to reduce risk in and out of the red zone, and what to do if they think they have been exposed or if they become unwell."

          The authors acknowledge limitations of the study including that not all returning responders were included and participants were not a random sample. It is therefore possible that those who knew of possible exposures, or who had had symptoms, were particularly keen to participate. Since these were the people who were most likely to have been infected, the absence of undiagnosed infections is reassuring.
          18/05/2017




          Congo declares Ebola outbreak under control

          http://www.sciencemag.org/news/sifte...et_cid=1367382



          Oly Ilunga Kalenga, the minister of health in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, announced today that the Ebola outbreak in a remote northeast region of the country “has been brought under control,” Reuters reports. All told, there have been four confirmed cases and four deaths. Three of the deaths are listed as “probable” cases and are not confirmed. The last confirmed case was 21 days ago, which is the incubation period of the virus, so no one is currently deemed infectious. The World Health Organization first reported the outbreak on 11 May. The country will continue “heightened surveillance” for more cases, and if 42 days pass without a case, the outbreak will be declared officially over.
          Hurrah for science!!

          Update 06/06/2017
          Last edited by Jo Bowyer; 06-06-2017, 03:14 PM.
          Jo Bowyer
          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

          Comment


          • Disability among Ebola survivors and their close contacts in Sierra Leone: a retrospective case-controlled cohort study.

            https://academic.oup.com/cid/article...nd-their-close

            Abstract

            Ebola survivors [21/27 (77.8%)] suffer more disability than their close contacts [6/54 (11.1%), (aOR 23.52; 95%CI 6.46-85.67; p<0.001)] when measured by Washington Group-Disability Extended Questionnaire. Major limitations in vision, mobility, cognition, and affect were observed in survivors one year following the 2014-6 Ebola outbreak, highlighting the need for long-term rehabilitation.
            Jo Bowyer
            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

            Comment


            • Systems Vaccinology Identifies an Early Innate Immune Signature as a Correlate of Antibody Responses to the Ebola Vaccine rVSV-ZEBOV

              http://www.cell.com/cell-reports/ful...showall%3Dtrue
              Jo Bowyer
              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

              Comment


              • Ebola Virus Binding to Tim-1 on T Lymphocytes Induces a Cytokine Storm


                http://mbio.asm.org/content/8/5/e00845-17

                ABSTRACT


                Ebola virus (EBOV) disease (EVD) results from an exacerbated immunological response that is highlighted by a burst in the production of inflammatory mediators known as a “cytokine storm.” Previous reports have suggested that nonspecific activation of T lymphocytes may play a central role in this phenomenon. T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 1 (Tim-1) has recently been shown to interact with virion-associated phosphatidylserine to promote infection. Here, we demonstrate the central role of Tim-1 in EBOV pathogenesis, as Tim-1−/− mice exhibited increased survival rates and reduced disease severity; surprisingly, only a limited decrease in viremia was detected. Tim-1−/− mice exhibited a modified inflammatory response as evidenced by changes in serum cytokines and activation of T helper subsets. A series of in vitro assays based on the Tim-1 expression profile on T cells demonstrated that despite the apparent absence of detectable viral replication in T lymphocytes, EBOV directly binds to isolated T lymphocytes in a phosphatidylserine–Tim-1-dependent manner. Exposure to EBOV resulted in the rapid development of a CD4Hi CD3Low population, non-antigen-specific activation, and cytokine production. Transcriptome and Western blot analysis of EBOV-stimulated CD4+ T cells confirmed the induction of the Tim-1 signaling pathway. Furthermore, comparative analysis of transcriptome data and cytokine/chemokine analysis of supernatants highlight the similarities associated with EBOV-stimulated T cells and the onset of a cytokine storm. Flow cytometry revealed virtually exclusive binding and activation of central memory CD4+ T cells. These findings provide evidence for the role of Tim-1 in the induction of a cytokine storm phenomenon and the pathogenesis of EVD.
                IMPORTANCE

                Ebola virus infection is characterized by a massive release of inflammatory mediators, which has come to be known as a cytokine storm. The severity of the cytokine storm is consistently linked with fatal disease outcome. Previous findings have demonstrated that specific T-cell subsets are key contributors to the onset of a cytokine storm. In this study, we investigated the role of Tim-1, a T-cell-receptor-independent trigger of T-cell activation. We first demonstrated that Tim-1-knockout (KO) mice survive lethal Ebola virus challenge. We then used a series of in vitro assays to demonstrate that Ebola virus directly binds primary T cells in a Tim-1–phosphatidylserine-dependent manner. We noted that binding induces a cytokine storm-like phenomenon and that blocking Tim-1–phosphatidylserine interactions reduces viral binding, T-cell activation, and cytokine production. These findings highlight a previously unknown role of Tim-1 in the development of a cytokine storm and “immune paralysis.”
                KEYWORDS
                Jo Bowyer
                Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                Comment


                • Breakthrough in rapid, mass screening for the Ebola virus

                  https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0928084926.htm
                  Jo Bowyer
                  Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                  "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                  Comment


                  • Unlocking the secrets of Ebola

                    https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...1116172452.htm

                    Scientists have identified a set of biomarkers that indicate which patients infected with the Ebola virus are most at risk of dying from the disease. The results come from one of the most in-depth studies ever of blood samples from patients with Ebola. Researchers found 11 biomarkers that distinguish fatal infections from non-fatal ones and two that, when screened for early upon symptom onset, accurately predict which patients are likely to die.
                    Jo Bowyer
                    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                    Comment


                    • Mass vaccinations will not prevent Ebolavirus outbreaks

                      https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0509121600.htm



                      The study, entitled Herd immunity to Ebolaviruses is not a realistic target for current vaccination strategies identified that, in the critical phases of many Ebola virus outbreaks, the average infected individual infects four or more other people, which enables the virus to spread rapidly.

                      At this level, 80% of a population would need to be immunised to prevent outbreaks, even if a highly effective vaccine that protects 90% of individuals after vaccination was available.

                      Such vaccination rates are currently unachievable. In a vaccination trial during the West African Ebola virus epidemic, only 49% of individuals who had been in contact with Ebola virus patients could be vaccinated. Thirty-four per cent of contacts refused vaccination although they had been exposed to the disease.

                      There are currently no clinical vaccine candidates available that protect against all four human-pathogenic Ebolaviruses. It also remains unclear, say the researchers led by Professor Martin Michaelis, of Kent's School of Biosciences, whether the available vaccine candidates provide the long-term protection (? 10 years) that is required for the sort of prophylactic mass vaccination programme that could prevent Ebola, which becomes repeatedly introduced into the human population from animal reservoirs.

                      A large vaccination programme would also be costly and impractical, the study points out. Costs for current Ebolavirus vaccine candidates are estimated to be in a range of US$ 15-20 per dose, with some 462 million people living in the areas affected by Ebolavirus outbreaks, many of them in very remote rural areas.

                      In the absence of a realistic prophylactic mass vaccination programme, the reasearchers conclude that clinical vaccine candidates will need to be focused on health care workers who are often involved in disease transmission, potentially in combination with the vaccination of patient contacts.
                      Jo Bowyer
                      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                      Comment


                      • Ebola outbreak in DRC: are we better prepared this time?

                        https://theconversation.com/ebola-ou...-time-96368?ut


                        The DRC has the means to diagnose the virus locally, get boots on the ground, and contain the spread and treat sick people. Also, the world is better able to support affected countries, and continue testing the Ebola vaccine, which was trialled somewhat in West Africa.

                        Although the DRC is resource poor, along with the WHO, MSF and Africa CDC, they are experience rich. If history is anything to go by, they will be probably be successful in stopping this outbreak before it gets out of control. But swift action is needed.
                        Jo Bowyer
                        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                        Comment


                        • Case Series of Severe Neurologic Sequelae of Ebola Virus Disease during Epidemic, Sierra Leone

                          https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/24/8/17-1367_article

                          Abstract


                          We describe a case series of 35 Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors during the epidemic in West Africa who had neurologic and accompanying psychiatric sequelae. Survivors meeting neurologic criteria were invited from a cohort of 361 EVD survivors to attend a preliminary clinic. Those whose severe neurologic features were documented in the preliminary clinic were referred for neurology specialist evaluation, ophthalmology examination, and psychiatric assessment. Of 35 survivors with neurologic sequelae, 13 had migraine headache, 2 stroke, 2 peripheral sensory neuropathy, and 2 peripheral nerve lesions. Of brain computed tomography scans of 17 patients, 3 showed cerebral and/or cerebellar atrophy and 2 confirmed strokes. Sixteen patients required mental health followup; psychiatric disorders were diagnosed in 5. The 10 patients who experienced greatest disability had co-existing physical and mental health conditions. EVD survivors may have ongoing central and peripheral nervous system disorders, including previously unrecognized migraine headaches and stroke.
                          Jo Bowyer
                          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                          Comment


                          • DRC may provide model for containing future Ebola outbreaks

                            https://theconversation.com/drc-may-...la%20outbreaks
                            Jo Bowyer
                            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                            Comment


                            • Worsening Ebola crisis leaves UN Security Council with few options

                              https://theconversation.com/worsenin...0few%20options

                              The Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is quickly becoming an international concern. With 489 people diagnosed with the disease and 280 deaths, it is already the second largest Ebola outbreak in history (although still dwarfed by the 2014 West Africa outbreak). While the DRC has a good track record of responding to these outbreaks, the ongoing military conflict in the country is making the response much more difficult.

                              Healthcare workers have been attacked, vaccination campaigns haltedand, most recently, experts from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were recalled from an outbreak zone due to security fears. This is all despite the DRC hosting the UN’s largest peacekeeping force, MONUSCO (Mission de l'Organisation des Nations unies pour la stabilisation en République démocratique du Congo).
                              Jo Bowyer
                              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                              Comment


                              • Ebola-fighting protein discovered in human cells

                                Drug that mimics function of protein could one day become an effective therapy to fight Ebola virus

                                https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...1214093817.htm
                                Jo Bowyer
                                Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                                "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                                Comment

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