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  • Tip Ebola Virus Disease

    http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs103/en/

    Independent 30.08.14.
    Doctors around the world, including now in the UK, have been urged to look out for patients exhibiting the early symptoms of the virus, which include fever, headaches, joint and muscle pain and lack of appetite.
    Jo Bowyer
    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

  • #2
    At Least One Ebola Patient Is Headed To An Atlanta Hospital

    http://www.businessinsider.com.au/re...spital-2014-7/

    Emory University Hospital has been informed that there are plans to transfer a patient with Ebola virus infection to its special facility containment unit within the next several days. We do not know at this time when the patient will arrive.

    Emory University Hospital has a specially built isolation unit set up in collaboration with the CDC to treat patients who are exposed to certain serious infectious diseases. It is physically separate from other patient areas and has unique equipment and infrastructure that provide an extraordinarily high level of clinical isolation. It is one of only four such facilities in the country.

    Emory University Hospital physicians, nurses and staff are highly trained in the specific and unique protocols and procedures necessary to treat and care for this type of patient. For this specially trained staff, these procedures are practiced on a regular basis throughout the year so we are fully prepared for this type of situation.
    Jo Bowyer
    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

    Comment


    • #3
      New Fears That 'Bush Meat' Could Spread Ebola

      From 'The Voice' 2.8.14

      THERE ARE new fears that the deadly Ebola virus can be could be spread into the UK through meat.

      Experts said ‘bush meat’ which has been smuggled into Britain could be carrying the virus, which has already killed at least 672 people in West Africa.

      While the meat is often disguised as beef, it is often found to be the meat of wild animals such as rat or antelope.

      Professor Robert Dingwall, an expert in infectious diseases at Nottingham Trent University, told The Sun: "Lots of wild animals carry the virus, and bush meat is often badly prepared.

      "Similar meat that could have caused this outbreak may well end up in a market stall in London."

      Of the 7,500 tonnes of illegal meat that enters the country every year, 55 per cent is said to be 'bush meat', which is then distributed through wholesalers or at local markets.


      EBOLA DEATH: Patrick Sawyer, 40, an American citizen, died on July 25 after becoming noticeably ill on a flight from Liberia, West Africa - where the worst ever outbreak of Ebola is gathering pace - to the city of Lagos in Nigeria

      Humans can contract Ebola from eating or handling infected meat from chimpanzees, fruit bats, forest antelopes and porcupines.

      The latest warning comes as British airports and airlines remain on high alert to prevent travellers bringing the deadly virus back to the UK.

      Last week, businessman Patrick Sawyer was found to have travelled through a major Nigerian airport after being infected.

      Sawyer, 40, died of the disease. His case sparked worldwide alarm as he was able to board an international flight while carrying the incurable disease – potentially infecting other passengers.

      Several West African airlines have now stopped flying to Liberia and Sierra Leone over concerns about the outbreak.

      Posted on: 01/08/2014 11:29 AM
      Jo Bowyer
      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

      Comment


      • #4
        Sunday Express August 3, 2014

        HIDDEN away on the 11th floor of one of London’s top hospitals is Britain’s frontline in the fight against the dreaded Ebola disease.

        Should the killer virus strike in the UK, victims will be taken to the country’s only high security isolation unit at the Royal Free Hospital in Hampstead.

        Just seven doctors specially trained in infectious diseases and a small team of nurses are allowed to enter and the ward is sealed tight with automatic door locks.

        There are two “isolator” beds, each in a separate room, a space that would normally hold 20 beds.

        Each £25,000 bed is contained within an airtight tent that generates its own air supply and includes built-in suits for the medical staff to wear when attending to a patient. Whenever a bed is used it is destroyed afterwards.

        The ward also has its own laboratory and three large “autoclaves”, similar to pressure cookers, which safely dispose of all human waste in heat-sealed plastic bags.

        The reason behind the unit is to protect health care workers from highly contagious infections such as Ebola. Everything is contained within the tent under negative pressure so the air is constantly added and removed

        Dr Stephen Mepham, an infectious disease specialist, allowed the Sunday Express a glimpse of what would be Ground Zero in the event of an Ebola outbreak in Britain.

        He said: “The reason behind the unit is to protect health care workers from highly contagious infections such as Ebola.

        “Everything is contained within the tent under negative pressure so the air is constantly added and removed.

        “Outside the tent, the air flows through a series of filters and is deposited outside the hospital.

        “Linked to the unit is a dedicated laboratory. One of the big risks of viral haemorrhagic fever [the group of illnesses to which Ebola belongs] is that when samples go to different labs, if lab staff are not aware of the potential risks they can become infected.

        “The benefit of this laboratory is that it is small and self-contained and has all the essential pieces of equipment to hand.

        “The unit also has the ability to get rid of hospital waste. We have three autoclaves on site which make safe hospital waste before it’s put into the main waste stream of the hospital to be disposed of.”

        So far four people have been tested for Ebola in Britain during the latest outbreak but all have been proven to be clear of the disease. In the event of a positive test, however, the Royal Free unit would be placed into lockdown.

        Dr Mepham said: “The first call we’d get would be from the Porton Down research facility in Wiltshire to say that we have a positive case.

        “There would then be a very coordinated response to inform all of the operational sides to the hospital, alerting all the nursing and medical staff.

        “There is a time gap, on average eight hours, before we can expect anybody.

        “Then it’s about trying to arrange safe passage from the back of the hospital, where the London Ambulance or Royal Air Force would arrive, up the escalator and into the isolation unit.” The unit opened at the Royal Free in 2006. So far only two patients have been treated there.

        In 2008 a man contracted Lassa fever after visiting Africa and four years later another man was treated for the first confirmed British case of the African illness Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever. Both patients died.

        Senior nurse Oliver Carpenter said: “Lassa fever is endemic to places like Sierra Leone and Nigeria where there is a lot of traffic to the UK.

        “Lassa fever, however, is a level down from Ebola, with only a one per cent mortality rate. Ebola has between 60 and 90 per cent mortality rate. That’s why we need to be so vigilant.”
        Jo Bowyer
        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

        Comment


        • #5
          http://news.sky.com/story/1314817/eb...e-of-emergency

          The World Health Organisation will reveal this morning whether the Ebola outbreak has become a global health emergency.

          A state of emergency has been declared in Liberia where bodies lay in streets, with passers-by too scared to touch or help them.

          In Sierra Leone, troops were sent to guard hospitals and clinics handling ebola cases.
          The disease has killed at least 932 people in Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia and Nigeria since it first emerged in remote tropical forests earlier this year.
          Two Americans who worked for Christian aid agencies in Liberia and were infected with ebola while taking care of patients in Monrovia were recently flown to the US for treatment.

          They have shown signs of improvement after being given an experimental US-developed drug known as ZMapp, which is difficult to produce on a large scale.

          Nigeria is holding out hope that it could receive ZMapp - a drug which is proving controversial as it not being made available to victims in Africa.

          There is growing pressure on the World Health Organisation to sanction the use of such drugs in Africa.

          But US President Barack Obama said it was too soon to send ZMapp to the continent, adding: "We've got to let the science guide us."

          He said: "I don't think all the information is in on whether this drug is helpful."

          http://www.ibtimes.com/zmapp-ebola-t...obacco-1650870
          ZMapp Ebola Treatment: What To Know About The Experimental Drug Made From Tobacco



          http://www.npr.org/blogs/goatsandsod...e-next-big-one

          To find out more about the origins of Ebola — and what may lie ahead — we talked to author David Quammen. He wrote the book Spillover, which traces the evolution of Ebola, HIV and other diseases that move from animals to people.
          Do you think this Ebola outbreak is the next "big one"?

          I would hope that this outbreak could — however bad it may become — could be controlled short of the scope of the big epidemics and pandemics. It seems more than likely that it can.

          So I don't think this Ebola outbreak is the next big one. But I think it's a dress rehearsal for the next big one.

          The experts I talk to say the next big one will almost certainly be caused by a zoonotic virus, coming out of animals. And it's likely to be one that is transmissible through the respiratory route — that is, through a sneeze or cough.

          Ebola is not an easily transmissible virus. It requires direct contact with bodily fluids. It doesn't travel on the respiratory route.

          Viruses such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome and SARS are much more of a concern to scientists that study these things than Ebola because they are already transmissible through the respiratory route. They are also highly adaptable, and they mutate quickly.

          In terms of the next big one, SARS and MERS stand higher on the watch list than Ebola
          Jo Bowyer
          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

          Comment


          • #6
            WHO declares Ebola outbreak an international public health emergency

            http://www.theguardian.com/society/2...alth-emergency

            The World Health Organisation has declared the Ebola outbreak an international public health emergency, but it is not recommending general bans on travel or trade.

            The global body said the Ebola outbreak – the largest and longest in history – was happening in countries without the resources to manage the infections, some with devastated healthcare systems still recovering from war, and called on the international community to help.

            For those travelling to affected areas, the WHO describes the risk of business travellers or tourists returning with the virus as "extremely low" – even, it says, "if the visit included travel to the local areas from which primary cases have been reported".

            The long list of advice to affected states includes screening all travellers leaving for fever, banning the remains of those who have died of Ebola from being transported across borders, and ensuring "funerals and burials are conducted by well-trained personnel".

            Countries with land borders with the affected states are urged "urgently to establish surveillance for clusters of unexplained fever or deaths due to febrile illness", and to act within 24 hours of any suspected cases.

            The United States is sending teams of experts to Liberia, including 12 specialists from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, after the Liberian president, Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, declared a 90-day state of emergency and said the disease had overwhelmed her country's healthcare system.
            Jo Bowyer
            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

            Comment


            • #7
              Ebola: Why is it this disease we fear? By Dr Seth Berkley CEO of the GAVI Alliance

              http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-28689949

              The fact is while Ebola means a painful and isolated death, away from loved ones, there are other diseases that are horrific and equally deserving of both our fear and respect; diseases which, like Ebola, are still dreaded in West Africa and beyond, and which regularly kill hundreds of thousands of people throughout the world's poorest countries.

              However, in wealthy countries, thanks to the availability of modern medicines, many of these diseases can now usually be treated or cured, and thanks to vaccines they rarely have to be.

              Because of this blessing we have simply forgotten what it is like to live under threat of such infectious and deadly diseases, and forgotten what it means to fear them.

              So when an outbreak like this comes along, from the comfort of our relatively disease-free surroundings it is only natural to look on in horror and be terrified by the prospect of something like Ebola making its way to our shores.

              Attention 'welcome'
              But while Ebola remains a genuine concern in West Africa, if it ever did make it to Europe or North America the chances of it spreading far are remote.

              This is for two important reasons: first our disease surveillance is more stringent, and second Ebola kills or immobilises its host before they have much of a chance to spread it.

              In reality, a bigger concern far closer to home is that some diseases which we once vanquished, like measles, rubella and pertussis, are now making a comeback.

              Thanks to an insidious complacency we have seen significant drops in vaccination rates in many parts of the western world, to the extent that diseases are not only coming back but to levels where we are actually exporting them to poorer countries.

              Why should we see deaths from diseases we have previously wiped out and for which we have safe and effective vaccinations?

              And yet in these same wealthy countries people are now asking why there isn't an Ebola vaccine.

              So the fact that this Ebola outbreak has received so much attention is something to be applauded.

              For one thing it may help to accelerate the progress of some of the quite promising candidate drug treatments and vaccines whose development have otherwise been stalling.

              More of a certainty is that it will help bring in improved emergency response plans in affected countries, measures which could help prevent any future outbreaks from spreading quite so fast and so far.
              Jo Bowyer
              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

              Comment


              • #8
                Tracing Ebola’s Breakout to an African 2-Year-Old

                The treatment room at Donka was poorly lit and had no sink. There were few buckets of chlorine solution, and the staff found it impossible to clean their hands between patients.

                The man died two hours after arriving. Tests later showed he had been positive for Ebola. Untold numbers of health care workers and their subsequent patients had been exposed to the disease.

                Gloves, in short supply at the hospitals, were selling for 50 cents a pair on the open market, a huge sum for people who often live on less than a dollar a day. At homes where families cared for patients, even plastic buckets to hold water and bleach for washing hands and disinfecting linens were lacking.

                Workers were failing to trace all patients’ contacts. The resulting unsuspected cases, appearing at hospitals without standard infection control measures, worsened the spread in a “vicious circle,” Dr. Mardel said.

                Mark Crislip on the topic, from a few days ago. Yet another plague panic
                Excerpt:
                Now Ebola is the current infection most in the news with 1,700 cases and 930 deaths as of today. It took six months to cause that many cases in an area with a population of around 20,000,000. And this in an area with a horrible infrastructure for both health care and infection control. While a ghastly outbreak, Ebola does not appear to be particularly infectious or pose much of a pandemic risk.
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                "Rene Descartes was very very smart, but as it turned out, he was wrong." ~Lorimer Moseley

                “Comment is free, but the facts are sacred.” ~Charles Prestwich Scott, nephew of founder and editor (1872-1929) of The Guardian , in a 1921 Centenary editorial

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                Comment


                • #9
                  I am honoured to have 3 nurse practitioners amongst my patients who get sent out to disaster zones all over the world. While in the UK they work in 'walk in centres'.

                  I hear many such descriptions of poor infrastructure.

                  Working in sport gave me some sense of being part of a global family, I sense that these nurse practitioners feel this at a deeper level than I ever could.
                  Last edited by Jo Bowyer; 10-08-2014, 09:16 PM.
                  Jo Bowyer
                  Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                  "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    Fear of Ebola Virus's Spread Prompts Extraordinary Precautions Hospitals Take Measures Beyond Those Recommended by Experts

                    http://online.wsj.com/articles/fear-...ons-1407975436

                    Health officials in Charlotte, N.C., are taking no chances with three missionaries who returned to the U.S. earlier this week from Liberia. All had contact with patients sick with Ebola. So even though they are healthy, the three have been quarantined on the campus of the religious organization for which they work.

                    Quarantining people who were exposed to Ebola but don't have symptoms is unusual. But their employer and the public health department say they want to go the extra mile. "We want to be overly cautious," said Stephen Keener, medical director of the Mecklenburg County Health Department, which issued a quarantine order for the missionaries.

                    Current CDC guidelines call for people who are at high risk of exposure to Ebola, but who don't have symptoms, to take their temperatures twice daily for 21 days, avoid long-distance travel, consult with health authorities on local travel and symptoms, and stay close to a hospital that can treat Ebola in case they develop symptoms.
                    The special isolation unit at Emory University Hospital in Atlanta where two infected Americans are being treated was designed for patients with diseases more contagious than Ebola, such as SARS. While technically they could be treated in any hospital capable of isolating a patient in a single room, the Emory facility has staff specially trained in infection control and an ambulance equipped to transport infectious patients.
                    In New York City, Mount Sinai Hospital health staff wore respirators and hood-like devices on their heads, in addition to standard gear recommended by the CDC, when they treated a man last week who was suspected of having Ebola but released after testing negative for the disease.

                    Standard CDC guidelines call for hospital staff to wear gowns, gloves, face masks and eye protection. That is all that is routinely needed for treating single patients in an isolation unit in a U.S. hospital, as compared to an Ebola treatment center in Africa full of very ill patients, infection- control experts say. But CDC guidelines also say that additional protective clothing or respirators can be used in certain situations, such if a patient needs to be intubated, to prevent infection.

                    The measures are "not strictly necessary, but we allowed them for the comfort of the staff," said David Reich, Mount Sinai's president. Staff had seen pictures of health workers in Africa and at Emory wearing full gear, including the hoods, he said.
                    Jo Bowyer
                    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      Ebola crisis: Confusion as patients vanish in Liberia

                      http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-28827091

                      There are conflicting reports over the fate of 17 suspected Ebola patients who vanished after a quarantine centre in the Liberian capital was looted.

                      An angry mob attacked the centre in Monrovia's densely populated West Point township on Saturday evening.

                      A senior health official said all of the patients had been moved to another medical facility.

                      But a reporter told the BBC that 17 had escaped while 10 others were taken away by their families.

                      Assistant Health Minister Tolbert Nyenswah said protesters had been unhappy that patients were being brought in from other parts of the capital.

                      Other reports suggested the protesters had believed Ebola was a hoax and wanted to force the quarantine centre to close.

                      Ebola is spread by contact with an infected person's bodily fluids, such as sweat and blood, and no cure or vaccine is currently available.

                      Blood-stained mattresses, bedding and medical equipment were taken from the centre, a senior police officer told BBC News, on condition of anonymity


                      "This is one of the stupidest things I have ever seen in my life," he said. "All between the houses you could see people fleeing with items looted from the patients."

                      The looting spree, he added, could spread the virus to the whole of the West Point area
                      Jo Bowyer
                      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        Ebola outbreak: Five reasons why it's out of control.

                        Health officials in West Africa have underestimated the Ebola outbreak, the World Health Organization said in a blunt statement on Friday.
                        Since the Ebola outbreak started, 2,615 probable, suspected or confirmed cases have been reported, including 1,427 deaths, according to the WHO's latest numbers.
                        Liberia and Sierra Leone have been the hardest-hit, while Nigeria is still trying to contain a handful of cases stemming from one airline passenger who brought the virus into the country in July.
                        1. Initial symptoms look like the flu
                        The WHO says one of the biggest problems with containing Ebola is that families are hiding any relatives they suspect of having the disease, for fear of the social stigma that comes with admitting a case of infection.
                        Others have been denying that an infected person is sick with Ebola, and will send that person to an isolation ward, the WHO says. The WHO calls these isolation wards "an incubator of the disease," in a news release issued Friday. Ebola patients are cared for in the same communal room where patients with other diseases are being treated, and the Ebola virus can easily spread to the entire ward.
                        2. Ebola is easy to transmit
                        Ebola patients become walking human-to-human virus transmitters as soon as they begin to show symptoms, and remain contagious even after death. The virus spreads through all bodily fluids, including blood, vomit, feces, saliva and sweat. Male patients who've recovered from the virus can also pass it on through their semen up to seven weeks after recovery.
                        Patients must be isolated immediately, but many caregivers have been infected while diagnosing and treating the disease, making it more difficult to enforce quarantine and stop the virus from spreading.
                        Authorities believed they'd properly quarantined the airline passenger who brought Ebola to Nigeria last July, but 13 more cases have been reported in the country since then. On Friday, two new cases were discovered in the spouses of doctors who came in contact with the airline passenger. They were the first two cases outside the group of caregivers who treated the patient.
                        The WHO warns that even lab technicians testing blood samples must take extra precautions, as contact with a blood sample can be enough to cause infection.
                        Dead Ebola victims must be burned, but the WHO says some rural villages are burying their dead instead. Rural areas have also been reluctant to report their Ebola cases.
                        3. Some people are resisting healthcare efforts
                        Health officials are also dealing with what the WHO calls "shadow zones," Ebola-affected areas where the locals will not allow doctors to visit or help the infected. Officials don't know how many people have been infected in these shadow zones.
                        4. Ebola is difficult to treat or control
                        It can take between two and 21 days for someone infected with the virus to begin showing symptoms, and it's been difficult for officials to convince some patients to stay in quarantine for that length of time.
                        The WHO says every time a new clinic opens in Liberia, a flood of previously unreported Ebola patients arrives, suggesting there is a large population of undiagnosed Ebola cases in the country.
                        At the same time, many clinics and treatment centres have closed their doors because doctors and patients are too afraid to expose themselves to the virus, the WHO says.
                        There is currently no WHO-approved vaccine for the Ebola virus, although some experimental vaccines have been produced and tested in an effort to stem the outbreak. However, the vaccines have already run out.
                        Patients infected with Ebola require intensive supportive care, which can be taxing on hospital resources and poses a risk to healthcare workers who can be easily infected. There is no specific treatment for Ebola patients, other than to keep them constantly hydrated.
                        5. Ebola hides in animals
                        Africa has faced more than a dozen Ebola outbreaks since the virus was first reported in 1976. Ebola is usually slightly different from outbreak to outbreak, meaning it can behave in unpredictable ways.
                        Ebola has survived through the last 38 years by hiding in "reservoir" animals that can support the virus without dying from it. The virus will multiply and mutate while it lives in the reservoir animal, thus giving rise to multiple strains of the same Ebola.
                        This current strain is believed to have come from fruit bats that passed it on when they were eaten by primates or humans.
                        The WHO says pig farms may also play a role in transmitting the virus, as pigs can come in contact with fruit bats and pass on the infection to farmers.
                        Jo Bowyer
                        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          Student Slips Over Border, Spreads Ebola to Senegal

                          NBC news 30.08.14
                          A university student infected with Ebola evaded health surveillance for weeks as he slipped into Senegal, carrying the deadly virus to a fifth West African nation. The incident illustrates how quarantines, border closures and flight bans can fail to contain outbreaks, experts say. The student from Guinea showed up for treatment at a hospital in Dakar on Tuesday, but he didn’t tell anyone he had been in contact with other Ebola victims, Health Minister Awa Marie Coll Seck said. Now health officials must try to identify all of his contacts in Dakar — a big city with more than 2 million people that’s a major transportation hub and tourist destination.

                          Health experts in Guinea said they had lost track of someone they’d been watching three weeks earlier, and told officials he may have crossed into Senegal. The student was tracked down in the Dakar hospital and quarantined, Seck said. Senegal has closed major border crossings and banned flights from Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia and Nigeria. "I think it illustrates the ineffectiveness of closing borders and canceling flights. People will still find a way to get around," said Dr. Peter Piot, a co-discoverer of Ebola who directs the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
                          Last edited by Jo Bowyer; 30-08-2014, 07:45 AM.
                          Jo Bowyer
                          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                          Comment


                          • #14
                            Ebola virus is 'mutating rapidly', experts warn

                            Daily Mail 30.08.14
                            Researchers claim the Ebola virus disease (EVD) is rapidly and continually mutating, making it harder to diagnose and treat.
                            A study of the initial patients diagnosed with the virus in Sierra Leone revealed almost 400 genetic modifications.
                            And it could be detrimental not only to current treatments, but also to future vaccines that are in the works.

                            The team found more than 300 genetic changes that make the 2014 Ebola virus genomes distinct from the viral genomes tied to previous Ebola outbreaks.
                            They also found variations in the genome sequence indicating that, from the samples analysed, the outbreak started from a single introduction into humans, subsequently spreading from person to person over many months.
                            To accelerate response efforts, the research team released the full-length sequences on the National Center for Biotechnology Information's (NCBI's) DNA sequence database, in advance of publication.
                            This means the data is available to the global scientific community.
                            'By making the data immediately available to the community, we hope to accelerate response efforts,' said co-senior author Dr Pardis Sabeti, a senior associate member at the Broad Institute and an associate professor at Harvard University.
                            'Upon releasing our first batch of Ebola sequences in June, some of the world's leading epidemic specialists contacted us, and many of them are now also actively working on the data. We were honored and encouraged.
                            'A spirit of international and multidisciplinary collaboration is needed to quickly shed light on the ongoing outbreak.'

                            The team found more than 300 genetic changes that make the 2014 Ebola virus genomes distinct from the viral genomes tied to previous Ebola outbreaks.
                            They also found variations in the genome sequence indicating that, from the samples analysed, the outbreak started from a single introduction into humans, subsequently spreading from person to person over many months.
                            To accelerate response efforts, the research team released the full-length sequences on the National Center for Biotechnology Information's (NCBI's) DNA sequence database, in advance of publication.
                            This means the data is available to the global scientific community.
                            'By making the data immediately available to the community, we hope to accelerate response efforts,' said co-senior author Dr Pardis Sabeti, a senior associate member at the Broad Institute and an associate professor at Harvard University.
                            'Upon releasing our first batch of Ebola sequences in June, some of the world's leading epidemic specialists contacted us, and many of them are now also actively working on the data. We were honored and encouraged.
                            'A spirit of international and multidisciplinary collaboration is needed to quickly shed light on the ongoing outbreak.'

                            The research team increased the amount of genomic data available on the Ebola virus by four-fold and used the technique of 'deep sequencing' on all available samples.
                            Deep sequencing is sequencing done enough times to generate high confidence in the results.

                            In this study, researchers sequenced at a depth of 2,000 times on average for each Ebola genome to get an extremely close-up view of the virus genomes from 78 patients.
                            This high-resolution view allowed the team to detect multiple mutations that alter protein sequences - potential targets for future diagnostics, vaccines and therapies.
                            The Ebola strains responsible for the current outbreak likely have a common ancestor, dating back to the very first recorded outbreak in 1976.
                            The researchers also traced the transmission path and evolutionary relationships of the samples, revealing that the lineage responsible for the current outbreak diverged from the Middle African version of the virus within the last ten years and spread from Guinea to Sierra Leone by 12 people who had attended the same funeral.
                            The team's catalogue of 395 mutations may serve as a starting point for other research groups.
                            'We've uncovered more than 300 genetic clues about what sets this outbreak apart from previous outbreaks,' said Stephen Gire, a research scientist in the Sabeti lab at the Broad Institute and Harvard.
                            'Although we don't know whether these differences are related to the severity of the current outbreak, by sharing these data with the research community, we hope to speed up our understanding of this epidemic and support global efforts to contain it.'
                            'There is an extraordinary battle still ahead, and we have lost many friends and colleagues already like our good friend and colleague Dr. Humarr Khan, a co-senior author here,' said Sabeti.
                            'By providing this data to the research community immediately and demonstrating that transparency and partnership is one way we hope to honor Humarr's legacy. We are all in this fight together.'
                            Jo Bowyer
                            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                            Comment


                            • #15
                              Ebola outbreak: Five co-authors of latest study killed by virus before their research was published

                              http://www.independent.co.uk/news/wo...d-9701346.html

                              Independent 30.08.14
                              Five co-authors of the latest study on Ebola were killed by the virus before their research was published, highlighting the huge risks undertaken by those working to combat its spread.

                              The study, published on Thursday, discovered the virus has mutated many times during the outbreak in West Africa, making establishing a treatment more difficult.

                              Mbalu Fonnie, Alex Moigboi, Alice Kovoma, Mohamed Fullah and Sheik Umar Khan worked with lead researchers at Harvard University to examine the current outbreak.

                              Science Mag said all five were experienced members of the Kenema Government Hospital’s (KGH) Lassa fever team. Lassa fever infections have similar symptoms to Ebola.

                              Their work sequenced the virus genomes from 78 patients and traced the outbreak in Sierra Leone to a funeral of a healer, which a pregnant Kenema Government Hospital Ebola patient and other women who were also infected had attended.
                              Jo Bowyer
                              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

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