Announcement

Collapse
No announcement yet.

Neuroendocrine immune papers

Collapse
X
  • Filter
  • Time
  • Show
Clear All
new posts

  • Time of Day Affects Severity of Autoimmune Disease

    http://neurosciencenews.com/time-aut...-disease-8169/

    Although further investigations are needed to understand how to precisely modulate circadian rhythm or time-of-the-day cues for beneficial immunity, the findings in this article serve well to remind us the importance of ‘keeping the time’ when dealing with the immune system.
    Jo Bowyer
    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

    Comment


    • New evidence shows that healthy obesity is a myth

      https://theconversation.com/new-evid...s-a-myth-83667
      Jo Bowyer
      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

      Comment


      • Chemo-brain, or cancer-related cognitive impairment, is estimated to impact 80 percent of people in treatment.

        http://neurosciencenews.com/chemo-br...ammation-8188/

        Patients report fogginess, forgetfulness, and difficulty with multitasking and other problem-solving skills.

        Researchers discovered that one particular biomarker for acute inflammation—tumor necrosis factor-alpha—was the strongest indicator of cognitive problems. Generally, higher levels of inflammation can be caused by cancer, its treatment, or other health problems; but until lately little had been known about the interplay of inflammation, cancer, and quality of life.
        Jo Bowyer
        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

        Comment


        • Periods are extraordinary events, and it’s ok to skip them

          https://noijam.com/2017/12/19/period...-to-skip-them/

          Now, I can just hear you saying, “What?? No periods? Skipping periods? That’s not natural!”

          Well , as I explain to my younger patients, often with their mothers present, “Can you just check with your mum how many periods she had when she was pregnant? None of course – for 9 months. Nothing wrong with that, its natural”.

          So next, “Can you just check with your mum how many periods your mum had when she was breast feeding you?” Well, most women have none – and depending on how much, how often and for how long women breast feed, this can last for 2 or 3 or more years. So what about your great-great- grandmother, who had 15 kids and breastfed them all – how many periods do you think she had in her lifetime? Well we know that our great great grandmothers and those women in the world who are still having many children and breast feeding them all have only 40 periods in their life time. Now – is not having periods such an unnatural thing to do? Nature actually meant us to be pregnant and to be breast feeding, and certainly didn’t plan for us to have careers and only 1 or 2 children!!
          Jo Bowyer
          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

          Comment


          • Migrating Platelets Are Mechano-scavengers that Collect and Bundle Bacteria

            http://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(17)31310-7

            fx1.jpg
            Jo Bowyer
            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

            Comment


            • How T-cells navigate the rough-and-tumble environment of the bloodstream

              https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...1226154213.htm

              To eradicate pathogens or counteract inflammation, cells of the immune system move through often rapid blood flow toward peripheral disease sites, such as skin, gut or lung. Thus a goal of immunologists has been to define the repertoire of molecules that not only keep fast-moving immune cells on course but allow them to access inflamed tissues.
              Jo Bowyer
              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

              Comment


              • Metabolically healthy obese individuals present similar chronic inflammation level but less insulin-resistance than obese individuals with metabolic syndrome


                http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0190528

                Abstract


                The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, usually accompanied by the presence of insulin resistance (IR) and a systemic subclinical inflammation state. Metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals seem to be protected against cardiometabolic complications. The aim of this work was to characterize phenotypically the low-grade inflammation and the IR in MHO individuals in comparison to obese individuals with MetS and control non obese. We studied two different populations: 940 individuals from the general population of Buenos Aires and 518 individuals from the general population of Venado Tuerto; grouped in three groups: metabolically healthy non-obese individuals (MHNO), MHO and obese individuals with MetS (MSO). Inflammation was measured by the levels of hs-CRP (high-sensitivity C reactive protein), and we found that MHO presented an increase in inflammation when compared with MHNO (Buenos Aires: p<0.001; Venado Tuerto: p<0.001), but they did not differ from MSO. To evaluate IR we analyzed the HOMA (Homoeostatic Model Assessment) values, and we found differences between MHO and MSO (Buenos Aires: p<0.001; Venado Tuerto: p<0.001), but not between MHNO and MHO. In conclusion, MHO group would be defined as a subgroup of obese individuals with an intermediate phenotype between MHNO and MSO individuals considering HOMA, hs-CRP and central obesity.
                Jo Bowyer
                Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                Comment


                • Life expectancy with and without cognitive impairment by diabetes status among older Americans

                  http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0190488



                  In addition to substantially raising the risk of death, diabetes is an important risk factor for cognitive impairment. A recent estimate suggests that diabetes is associated with a 40% increase in the odds of dementia among older Americans [5]. The association between diabetes and cognitive impairment was noted by Miles and Root in 1922 [6]. Nearly a century later, the precise physiologic pathways linking the two conditions remain largely undetermined. Hypothesized pathways include those related to neuronal glucose processing, cerebrovascular complications, and frequent episodic hypoglycemia [79]. Individuals with diabetes are also more likely to have comorbid cardiovascular disease, which is itself predictive of cognitive decline through cerebrovascular events and other pathways [10].

                  Given that cognitive impairment is a major cause of loss of independence [11], presents a barrier to medication adherence [12], and results in extremely high care costs [13], policies aimed at improving outcomes among those with diabetes should be informed by the level of cognitive impairment in this population. It would be expected that those with diabetes experience an earlier age at onset of cognitive impairment compared to those without diabetes. However, despite the documented links between diabetes and cognitive function, we do not know how much earlier that age is. Furthermore, we do not know how long those with diabetes are expected to live in a cognitively impaired state. It may be that those with diabetes experience an earlier onset of cognitive impairment but once that impairment develops they go on to experience a shorter life compared to those without diabetes.
                  Jo Bowyer
                  Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                  "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                  Comment


                  • High fructose corn syrup induces metabolic dysregulation and altered dopamine signaling in the absence of obesity


                    http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0190206

                    Introduction


                    Obesity has increased dramatically in recent decades [1], a phenomenon widely associated with the so-called ‘western diet’: energy-dense, highly palatable foods with high fat and sugar content [2]. More recently, there has been an interest in the possible contribution of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) to the rise in obesity. Used widely in nearly all commercial foods, from bread to beverages [3], HFCS consumption has risen in parallel with increasing body weights and rates of obesity [4]. While evidence suggests links between increased sugar consumption and the rising prevalence of obesity and metabolic disorder [57], the contribution of HFCS per se, because of its higher fructose content, has been controversial with arguments for [4,811] and against [1215] HFCS constituting a specific liability beyond increased sugar consumption generally.

                    HFCS-55, containing 55% fructose, 42% glucose, and 3% other saccharides, is primarily used in liquid products [3]. Fructose, including HFCS with its higher fructose content, is more lipogenic compared to other sugars [11,16] and is metabolized differently [17]. Where glucose can enter the cells through GLUT4 (various tissues), GLUT3 (neurons), GLUT2 (homeostasis though uptake in intestine), and GLUT1 (astrocytes and insulin-independent), fructose primarily uses GLUT5, which is not found in pancreatic beta cells, is specific for fructose, and not responsive to insulin [18]. GLUT2 also transports fructose non-selectively, though this low-affinity transporter is involved in transport primarily in the liver, intestine and kidneys [19].

                    While evidence suggests that fructose [7,11,20,21], and possibly HFCS [22,23] can contribute to the development of metabolic disorder, whether it contributes to weight gain is controversial. Some studies have reported weight gain with fructose or HFCS consumption [23,24] while others have not [21,25,26]. Furthermore, obesity has been associated with altered dopamine (DA) signaling in both human [2729] and animal studies [3032]. Reduced dopamine signaling has been suggested to promote compulsive overeating, likening obesity to a dopamine-mediated addiction to food [33,34]. When alterations in dopamine function are observed under high fat diet (HFD), it is difficult to disentangle the potential contribution of increased weight, altered macromolecule composition of the diet per se, and effects secondary of metabolic disorder, including altered insulin and leptin signaling and resistance. Here, we examine whether prolonged consumption of HFCS alters dopamine signaling in the dorsal striatum, a region implicated in reinforcement learning, habit and motivated behaviors, including critical for regulating feeding [3537].
                    Jo Bowyer
                    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                    Comment


                    • 3-D imaging of fat reveals potential targets for new obesity treatments

                      https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0109185055.htm



                      "When people think about adipose tissue, it's just a lump of fat," Chi says. But the images she captured were anything but bland. They provide a striking and unprecedented look at the functional features of beige fat, including blood vessels and projections from nerve cells that appear as filamentous networks.

                      The presence and density of those nerve projections -- both large nerve bundles and fine structures called neurites -- predicted the activity level of the beige fat. The most active fat tissue had the most nerve projections.

                      The 3D images also revealed important differences between visceral and subcutaneous fat. Visceral fat, which in humans is found in the belly, surrounds internal organs and is associated with diabetes and other metabolic diseases. Subcutaneous fat, which people carry under the skin on the hips and elsewhere, can develop into beige fat when exposed to cold and is not linked to disease.
                      Jo Bowyer
                      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                      Comment


                      • Low fitness is associated with abdominal adiposity and low-grade inflammation independent of BMI

                        http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0190645

                        Jo Bowyer
                        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                        Comment


                        • Serum and synovial fluid cytokine profiling in hip osteoarthritis: distinct from knee osteoarthritis and correlated with pain

                          https://bmcmusculoskeletdisord.biome...891-018-1955-4

                          In addition to biochemical markers, it is also important to gain a better understanding of pain in OA. Pain is the leading disabling symptom of OA [24]. According to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for OA, pain is a necessary condition for clinical diagnosis of OA, with the support by other sufficient conditions such as age, radiographic evidences or physical examinations. OA pain is hard to quantify from patient to patient based on a number of confounding factors [25] and its inconsistency with other symptoms such as radiographic findings is not yet well understood. Recent studies have greatly improved our understanding of pain at the molecular level [26], and new biochemical markers have also been reported to be correlated with severity of OA pain in the past decade (Additional file 1: Table S1). Cytokines play an important role in the pain signal pathway from lesions to higher brain processing centers [27]. While cytokines can change the sensitivity of peripheral receptors to nociceptive input by a variety of mechanisms in experimental animal models [28, 29, 30], very few human studies have reported correlations between cytokines and OA pain. The chemokine sub-family of cytokines is also of specific interest in patients with arthritis since these small molecules are capable of recruiting additional immune and/or stem/progenitor cells to sites of injury and/or increased inflammation.

                          With our incomplete understanding of the role of any specific cytokine in the inflammatory process, understanding the ‘profile’ of inflammation in a given patient population is an essential starting point. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to examine system and local inflammatory profiles in hip OA patients, using knee OA and non-OA control as comparator groups to identify if differences exist between hip and knee OA. Furthermore in the hip OA cohort, it was attempted to determine if there were any cytokine (s) that correlated with pain symptoms, as well as other clinical measurements.
                          Jo Bowyer
                          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                          Comment


                          • A bug for Alzheimer’s?

                            https://aeon.co/essays/how-microbial...c9ade-69418129

                            It will take decades of careful work for researchers to untangle the complex web connecting infections, genes, and immunity to Alzheimer’s disease, assuming that they secure enough funding to do so. Still, Moir says he senses that the research community is slowly becoming more receptive to the idea. He and his colleagues recently secured funding from the Cure Alzheimer’s Fund in Massachusetts for a handful of related projects, including a Brain Microbiome Project in which they will sequence DNA from postmortem brains to characterise the types of microbes that hide there. At a neurodegeneration conference held in Korea in 2016, Moir says attendees were asked to raise their hands if they thought infections might be involved in Alzheimer’s, and a majority of hands went up. ‘Ten years ago, it would have been four guys in a corner, all huddled together, not talking to anyone else,’ Moir says. ‘My impression is that this is an idea whose time has come.’
                            Jo Bowyer
                            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                            Comment


                            • Cells communicate in a dynamic code

                              https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0216150338.htm

                              Scientists discover an unexpectedly dynamic vocabulary for the language of cellular communication.

                              180216150338_1_540x360.jpg

                              This is an artist's concept of a cell expressing the Delta1 ligand (left) and a cell expressing the Delta4 ligand (right). While these two ligands activate cellular receptors in the same way, they do so in different patterns over time. In this way, a receiving cell can decode instructions.
                              Jo Bowyer
                              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                              Comment

                              Working...
                              X