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  • ASA Ruling on Alzheimer’s Research UK

    https://www.asa.org.uk/Rulings/Adjud...x#.WKQ9GzuLRQI

    Ad
    A TV ad, shown on various channels, for an Alzheimer's charity, was seen in November 2016. It depicted an animated story of a young girl being told that Santa had stopped delivering presents because he had developed a disease. She then travelled to see the elves, who explained that research could find a way to fix him. A voice-over at the end of the ad stated Alzheimer's disease can affect anyone. Only research has the power to change the future."

    The ad was cleared by Clearcast with an ex-kids timing restriction, whereby it should not be transmitted in or adjacent to programmes commissioned for, principally directed at or likely to appeal to children under 16 years of age.

    Issue
    Thirty-six complainants challenged whether the ad, particularly the depiction of Santa as suffering from Alzheimer's disease, was offensive, could cause distress to children and whether it was suitable to be broadcast at times when children could see it.
    Young children cope well with injury, illness, disability and ageing provided that the adults around them have positive attitudes.

    Many years ago while I was buying fruit in a supermarket, I noticed that my three year old had run up to a guy in a wheelchair and was insisting that she be allowed to examine it in order to see the engine. He explained that he was the engine and gave her a very impressive demonstration of what he could do in the way of spins, jumps and wheelies. Had her questioning become impolite, I would have removed her and apologized.

    She now works with autistic adults, some of whom have complex medical conditions and mobility issues.
    Jo Bowyer
    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

    Comment


    • 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 exert distinct effects on human skeletal muscle function and gene expression

      http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0170665

      Abstract

      Age-associated decline in muscle function represents a significant public health burden. Vitamin D-deficiency is also prevalent in aging subjects, and has been linked to loss of muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia), but the precise role of specific vitamin D metabolites in determining muscle phenotype and function is still unclear. To address this we quantified serum concentrations of multiple vitamin D metabolites, and assessed the impact of these metabolites on body composition/muscle function parameters, and muscle biopsy gene expression in a retrospective study of a cohort of healthy volunteers. Active serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3), but not inactive 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3), correlated positively with measures of lower limb strength including power (rho = 0.42, p = 0.02), velocity (Vmax, rho = 0.40, p = 0.02) and jump height (rho = 0.36, p = 0.04). Lean mass correlated positively with 1α,25(OH)2D3 (rho = 0.47, p = 0.02), in women. Serum 25OHD3 and inactive 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (24,25(OH)2D3) had an inverse relationship with body fat (rho = -0.30, p = 0.02 and rho = -0.33, p = 0.01, respectively). Serum 25OHD3 and 24,25(OH)2D3 were also correlated with urinary steroid metabolites, suggesting a link with glucocorticoid metabolism. PCR array analysis of 92 muscle genes identified vitamin D receptor (VDR) mRNA in all muscle biopsies, with this expression being negatively correlated with serum 25OHD3, and Vmax, and positively correlated with fat mass. Of the other 91 muscle genes analysed by PCR array, 24 were positively correlated with 25OHD3, but only 4 were correlated with active 1α,25(OH)2D3. These data show that although 25OHD3 has potent actions on muscle gene expression, the circulating concentrations of this metabolite are more closely linked to body fat mass, suggesting that 25OHD3 can influence muscle function via indirect effects on adipose tissue. By contrast, serum 1α,25(OH)2D3 has limited effects on muscle gene expression, but is associated with increased muscle strength and lean mass in women. These pleiotropic effects of the vitamin D ‘metabolome’ on muscle function indicate that future supplementation studies should not be restricted to conventional analysis of the major circulating form of vitamin D, 25OHD3.
      Introduction

      The effects of vitamin D on calcium homeostasis and bone health are well established. In recent years there has been great interest in its non-skeletal actions, with growing evidence from epidemiological, basic and clinical studies that vitamin D status is associated with effects including those on muscle function, body fat, immunity and cardiovascular disease risk [1]. Myopathy has long-been recognised to co-exist with reduced bone mineralization in the severe vitamin D deficiency states of rickets and osteomalacia [2]. In view of the great public health burden of so-called ‘sarcopenia’ and age-associated declines in muscle strength and function, there is significant interest in whether vitamin D may have a role in improving the healthy lifespan. Recent meta-analyses indicate that vitamin D supplementation in deficient elderly individuals reduces risk of falls [3]. There is also some evidence of beneficial effects on muscle strength and physical performance, however this is limited by heterogeneity of study designs, so that current guidelines do not recommend vitamin D supplementation for this indication [4–6].
      Jo Bowyer
      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

      Comment


      • To Drink or Not To Drink: The Aging Brain and Alcohol

        http://neurosciencenews.com/alcohol-brain-aging-6156/

        Wisdom and grace come with age, but so do mental slowing and increased risk for dementia. As the elderly population continues to grow, preserving brain health to maintain independence and quality of life into older age is a pressing concern. Researchers have identified some unsurprising factors that reduce one’s risk for cognitive decline, including education, exercise or a healthy diet. But a more controversial question that continues to perplex scientists is whether alcohol consumption might also stave off cognitive impairment with age.
        Despite overwhelming evidence that moderate alcohol intake can be healthy for the aging brain, there are striking incongruences across findings–which may be due to differences in study design or confounding factors*–that muddle our understanding of alcohol’s benefits. ‘Survival bias,’ in which healthier individuals participate in studies for longer, is an unavoidable complication in longitudinal studies of aging. This could significantly skew results if unhealthy drinkers drop out early, leaving only “healthy” drinkers to be studied in very old age. Furthermore, most human studies on alcohol and brain aging rely on observed associations, which can be replete with confounding factors. For instance, it’s known that drinkers tend to live more healthy lifestyles (e.g., they may exercise more or follow a Mediterranean diet), or may drink more often simply because they’re more socially active, which alone is known to be brain-healthy. What’s more, effects of alcohol on cognitive aging may depend on the type of alcohol consumed, how alcohol intake is measured, or the definition of “non-drinkers.”
        Jo Bowyer
        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

        Comment


        • Elderly people who choose the wrong shoes have a lower quality of life 83% use the wrong shoes

          https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0301130822.htm

          As people get older, they experience changes in their foot morphology. If they do not change their shoe size along with these transformations, older people -- most of whom choose the wrong shoes -- suffer, among other things, anxiety, apathy, loss of balance and falls, according to a study by the University of A Coruña.
          Jo Bowyer
          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

          Comment


          • Physical activity behavior predicts endogenous pain modulation in older adults

            http://journals.lww.com/pain/Fulltex...ogenous.5.aspx

            1. Introduction
            The experience of pain depends on complex interactions between ascending peripheral signals and modulation of those signals in the central nervous system by descending inhibitory and facilitatory systems.40 A dysregulated pattern of endogenous pain modulation, characterized by greater facilitation of pain and a reduced capacity to inhibit pain on dynamic quantitative sensory tests, is a shared characteristic of many chronic pain syndromes (eg, fibromyalgia, back pain, and osteoarthritis17,19,26,41), is associated with increased reports of clinical pain in healthy adults,9,11 and predicts the transition from acute to chronic postoperative pain.47 Accumulating evidence indicates that aging is associated with a dysregulated pain profile as well,9,10,13,24,28,31 and the age-related imbalance of pain inhibition and facilitation places older adults at a greater risk of developing chronic pain compared with younger adults. Alarmingly, the prevalence estimates of chronic pain among the elderly may be as high as 60% to 75% in the United States.20 Determining modifiable and behavioral factors contributing to this dysregulated pattern of pain modulation in older adults is crucial to the development of strategies to prevent persistent pain in older people.

            A growing body of evidence has begun to link physical activity behavior to endogenous pain modulatory function,12,18,30,43 with generally more efficacious pain modulation observed in more active individuals. Importantly, older adults are the least physically active cohort of all age groups.29 Reduced physical activity facilitates the aging process and physiological decline, and hence could play an important role in the decline of endogenous pain inhibitory and facilitatory systems observed in older adults. Supporting this notion, we recently showed that self-reported levels of vigorous and total physical activity were related to the functioning of endogenous pain modulatory systems in healthy younger and older adults.30 Individuals who reported more vigorous and total physical activity demonstrated enhanced pain inhibition during the conditioned pain modulation test and less temporal summation (TS) of pain. However, a major limitation of this study was that physical activity was assessed by a questionnaire rather than by objective methods, which often results in highly variable estimations of the amount of physical activity reported.16,28 In addition, only a portion of the participants were older adults. Thus, studies using objective measures of physical activity are needed to substantiate the relationship between physical activity behavior and endogenous pain modulatory function in a full sample of older adults.

            The purpose of this study was 2-fold. We sought to determine whether objective measures of physical activity in healthy older adults predicted (1) pain facilitatory function as tested by TS of pain, and (2) pain inhibitory function as tested by conditioned pain modulation (CPM). Temporal summation of pain and CPM are the 2 most extensively studied dynamic quantitative sensory tests and are considered human behavioral correlates of ascending facilitatory and descending inhibitory limbs of central pain modulation, respectively.1 We hypothesized that older adults who did greater amounts of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) would exhibit reduced TS of pain, and greater inhibition of pain on the CPM test.
            via @dibbygibby
            Jo Bowyer
            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

            Comment


            • Resting-State Network Topology Differentiates Task Signals across the Adult Life Span

              http://www.jneurosci.org/content/37/10/2734?etoc=

              Abstract

              Brain network connectivity differs across individuals. For example, older adults exhibit less segregated resting-state subnetworks relative to younger adults (Chan et al., 2014). It has been hypothesized that individual differences in network connectivity impact the recruitment of brain areas during task execution. While recent studies have described the spatial overlap between resting-state functional correlation (RSFC) subnetworks and task-evoked activity, it is unclear whether individual variations in the connectivity pattern of a brain area (topology) relates to its activity during task execution. We report data from 238 cognitively normal participants (humans), sampled across the adult life span (20–89 years), to reveal that RSFC-based network organization systematically relates to the recruitment of brain areas across two functionally distinct tasks (visual and semantic). The functional activity of brain areas (network nodes) were characterized according to their patterns of RSFC: nodes with relatively greater connections to nodes in their own functional system (“non-connector” nodes) exhibited greater activity than nodes with relatively greater connections to nodes in other systems (“connector” nodes). This “activation selectivity” was specific to those brain systems that were central to each of the tasks. Increasing age was accompanied by less differentiated network topology and a corresponding reduction in activation selectivity (or differentiation) across relevant network nodes. The results provide evidence that connectional topology of brain areas quantified at rest relates to the functional activity of those areas during task. Based on these findings, we propose a novel network-based theory for previous reports of the “dedifferentiation” in brain activity observed in aging.

              SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Similar to other real-world networks, the organization of brain networks impacts their function. As brain network connectivity patterns differ across individuals, we hypothesized that individual differences in network connectivity would relate to differences in brain activity. Using functional MRI in a group of individuals sampled across the adult life span (20–89 years), we measured correlations at rest and related the functional connectivity patterns to measurements of functional activity during two independent tasks. Brain activity varied in relation to connectivity patterns revealed by large-scale network analysis. This relationship tracked the differences in connectivity patterns accompanied by older age, providing important evidence for a link between the topology of areal connectivity measured at rest and the functional recruitment of these areas during task performance.
              aging connectivity dedifferentiation networks resting-state task activity
              Jo Bowyer
              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

              Comment


              • Rapid Blood Pressure Drops in Middle Age Linked to Dementia in Old Age

                http://neurosciencenews.com/blood-pr...ia-aging-6228/

                Temporary episodes of dizziness or light-headedness when standing could reduce blood flow to the brain with lasting impacts.

                Middle-aged people who experience temporary blood pressure drops that often cause dizziness upon standing up may be at an increased risk of developing cognitive decline and dementia 20 years later, new Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health research suggests.

                The findings, being presented March 10 at the American Heart Association’s EPI|LIFESTYLE 2017 Scientific Sessions in Portland, Ore., suggest that these temporary episodes – known as orthostatic hypotension – may cause lasting damage, possibly because they reduce needed blood flow to the brain. Previous research has suggested a connection between orthostatic hypotension and cognitive decline in older people, but this appears to be the first to look at long-term associations.

                “Even though these episodes are fleeting, they may have impacts that are long lasting,” says study leader Andreea Rawlings, PhD, MS, a post-doctoral researcher in the Department of Epidemiology at the Bloomberg School. “We found that those people who suffered from orthostatic hypotension in middle age were 40 percent more likely to develop dementia than those who did not. It’s a significant finding and we need to better understand just what is happening.”
                Jo Bowyer
                Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                Comment


                • Ageing causes prominent neurovascular dysfunction associated with loss of astrocytic contacts and gliosis

                  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/1...form=hootsuite

                  Abstract

                  Aims

                  Normal neurovascular coupling, mediated by the fine interplay and communication of cells within the neurovascular unit, is critical for maintaining normal brain activity and cognitive function. This study investigated whether, with advancing age there is disruption of neurovascular coupling and specific cellular components of the neurovascular unit, and whether the effects of increasing amyloid (a key feature of Alzheimer's disease) would exacerbate these changes.

                  Methods

                  Wild-type mice, in which amyloid deposition is absent, were compared to transgenic APP littermates (TgSwDI) which develop age-dependent increases in amyloid. Baseline cerebral blood flow and responses to whisker stimulation were measured. Components of the neurovascular unit (astrocytes, end-feet, pericytes, microglia) were measured by immunohistochemistry.

                  Results

                  Neurovascular coupling was progressively impaired with increasing age (starting at 12months) but was not further altered in TgSwDI mice. Aged mice showed reduced vascular pericyte coverage relative to young but this was not related to neurovascular function. Aged mice displayed significant reductions in astrocytic end-feet expression of aquaporin-4 on blood vessels compared to young mice, and a prominent increase in microglial proliferation which correlated with neurovascular function.

                  Conclusions

                  Strategies aimed to restore the loss of astrocytic end feet contact and reduce gliosis may improve neurovascular coupling.
                  Jo Bowyer
                  Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                  "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                  Comment


                  • Physical activity and exercise as countermeasures to physical frailty and sarcopenia

                    https://link.springer.com/article/10...520-016-0705-4

                    Abstract
                    The identification of cost-effective interventions that improve the health status and prevent disability in old age is one of the most important public health challenges. Regular physical activity is the only intervention that has consistently been shown to improve functional health and energy balance and to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, diabetes, several cancers, depression and falls. In advanced age, physical activity is also effective at mitigating sarcopenia, restoring robustness, and preventing/delaying the development of disability. On the other hand, physical inactivity is recognized as one of the leading causes of several chronic degenerative diseases and is also a major contributing factor to sarcopenia and functional disability. This compelling evidence has prompted the World Health Organization to recommend engaging in regular physical activity throughout one’s life course. The present review summarizes the available evidence in support of physical activity as a remedy against physical frailty and sarcopenia. The relevant pathways through which the benefits of physical activity are conveyed are also discussed.
                    Keywords

                    Skeletal muscle Physical performance Exercise Resistance training Endurance training

                    via @SimonGandevia
                    Jo Bowyer
                    Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                    "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                    Comment


                    • Contested spaces: we need to see public space through older eyes too

                      https://theconversation.com/conteste...eyes-too-72261

                      Participation, interaction and physical activity hold the promise of promoting health and independence and reducing the risk of disablement for older people.

                      Our participants identified several key design considerations that help make public spaces usable and comfortable places. Many of these aspects are linked to walkability.
                      Jo Bowyer
                      Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                      "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                      Comment


                      • Can volunteering in later life reduce the risk of dementia? A 5-year longitudinal study among volunteering and non-volunteering retired seniors

                        http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0173885

                        Abstract

                        We propose that voluntary work, characterized by social, physical and cognitive activity in later life is associated with fewer cognitive problems and lower dementia rates. We test these assumptions using 3-wave, self-reported, and registry data from the 2010, 2012, and 2014 Swedish National Prescribed Drug Register. We had three groups of seniors in our data: 1) no volunteering (N = 531), 2) discontinuous volunteering (N = 220), and 3) continuous volunteering (N = 250). We conducted a path analysis in Mplus to investigate the effect of voluntary work (discontinuously and continuously) on self-reported cognitive complaints and the likelihood of being prescribed an anti-dementia treatment after controlling for baseline and relevant background variables. Our results indicated that seniors, who continuously volunteered, reported a decrease in their cognitive complaints over time, whereas no such associations were found for the other groups. In addition, they were 2.44 (95%CI [1.86; 3.21]) and 2.46 (95%CI [1,89; 3.24]) times less likely to be prescribed an anti-dementia treatment in 2012 and 2014, respectively. Our results largely support the assumptions that voluntary work in later life is associated with lower self-reported cognitive complaints and a lower risk for dementia, relative to those who do not engage, or only engage episodically in voluntary work.
                        Some of my fellow Independent Custody Visitors are senior seniors. The work involves keeping abreast of changes in the legislation and health and welfare issues affecting detainees. It can take a couple of hours to walk around a custody suite during which time we are interacting with people who may not be best pleased to see us. There is also the paperwork to be done at the end of the visit.
                        Jo Bowyer
                        Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                        "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                        Comment


                        • Is intraindividual reaction time variability an independent cognitive predictor of mortality in old age? Findings from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study

                          http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0181719
                          Abstract

                          Intraindividual variability of reaction time (IIVRT), a proposed cognitive marker of neurobiological disturbance, increases in old age, and has been associated with dementia and mortality. The extent to which IIVRT is an independent predictor of mortality, however, is unclear. This study investigated the association of IIVRT and all-cause mortality while accounting for cognitive level, incident dementia and biomedical risk factors in 861 participants aged 70–90 from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study. Participants completed two computerised reaction time (RT) tasks (76 trials in total) at baseline, and comprehensive medical and neuropsychological assessments every 2 years. Composite RT measures were derived from the two tasks—the mean RT and the IIVRT measure computed from the intraindividual standard deviation of the RTs (with age and time-on-task effects partialled out). Consensus dementia diagnoses were made by an expert panel of clinicians using clinical criteria, and mortality data were obtained from a state registry. Cox proportional hazards models estimated the association of IIVRT and mean RT with survival time over 8 years during which 191 (22.2%) participants died. Greater IIVRT but not mean RT significantly predicted survival time after adjusting for age, sex, global cognition score, cardiovascular risk index and apolipoprotein ɛ4 status. After excluding incident dementia cases, the association of IIVRT with mortality changed very little. Our findings suggest that greater IIVRT uniquely predicts shorter time to death and that lower global cognition and prodromal dementia in older individuals do not explain this relationship.

                          I don't have access to this type of testing, but I have seen deterioration in vestibular function when someone starts to go downhill.
                          Jo Bowyer
                          Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                          "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                          Comment


                          • Combined sprint and resistance training abrogates age differences in somatotropic hormones


                            http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0183184


                            Abstract


                            The aim of this investigation was to compare serum growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in response to a combined sprint and resistance training (CSRT) program in young and middle-aged men.Thirty-eight healthy, moderately trained men participated in this study. Young and middle-aged men were randomly assigned to, a young training group (YT = 10, 21.4±1.2yrs) ora young control group (YC = 9, 21.6±1.8 yrs), a middle-aged training group (MAT = 10, 40.4±2.1 yrs) or a middle-aged control group (MAC = 9, 40.5±1.8 yrs). Participants performed the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) before and after a 13-week CSRT program (three sessions per week). Blood samples were collected at rest, after warm-up, immediately post-WAnT, and 10 min post-WAnT. CSRT induced increases in GH at rest and in response to the WAnT in YT and MAT (P<0.05). CSRT-induced increases were observed for IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 at rest in MAT only (P<0.05). Pre-training, GH, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 were significantly higher at rest and in response to the WAnT in young participants as compared to their middle-aged counterparts (P<0.05). Post-training, YT and MAT had comparable basal GH (P>0.05). In response to the WAnT, amelioration of the age-effect was observed between YT and MAT for IGF-1 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio following CSRT (P>0.05). These data suggest that CSRT increases the activity of the GH/IGF-1 axis at rest and in response to the WAnT in young and middle-aged men. In addition, CSRT reduces the normal age-related decline of somatotropic hormones in middle-age men.
                            Introduction


                            The aging process is associated with a precipitous decline in skeletal muscle mass and strength, estimated as 35–40% between 20 and 80 yrs[1], with an accelerated decline after 50 yrs[2]. Moreover, cross-sectional studies have observed that the ability to develop muscle strength and power declines from 40 to 80 yrs[3, 4]. It has been suggested that reduced muscle function may result from neural degeneration combined with muscle atrophy. Muscle atrophy occurs when muscle protein degradation exceeds muscle protein synthesis. Said muscle atrophy may be partly attributable to a reduction in anabolic hormone production [5], whilstage-associated physical inactivity may exacerbate muscle loss. Moreover, the reduction in systemic anabolic hormones may be further exacerbated by physical inactivity in older adults[6].

                            The systemic reduction in insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)has been attributed, in part, to decreased secretion of growth hormone (GH), the main secretagogue of IGF-1. GH secretion reduces ~14% per decade after the second decade [7], and reaches, by the age of ~60 yrs, half of the GH secretion of younger counterparts (20–30 yrs[8]). IGF-1, the main stimulated protein downstream of GH, concomitantly decreases with age (~10% per decade) and is associated with cell proliferation, cell differentiation, energy metabolism and prevention of apoptosis [9]. Most IGF-1 circulates in the blood bound to IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) which mediate bioavailability into tissue [10]. The most abundant is the insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), which carries 90–95% of IGF-1 in circulation [11]. Hence, it is necessary to consider IGFBP-3 when total serum IGF-1 is determined to provide a measure of bioavailability. Serum IGFBP-3 is regulated by GH signaling [12, 13] and reduced with advanced age [14]. The main function of IGFBP-3 is to permit IGF-1 transport and to regulate anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects through cell surface receptor by opposing IGF-1 action [15, 16]. Moreover, IGFBP-3 is a valuable tool for diagnosis of GH perturbation during the aging process [17].

                            Because GH naturally declines with age, there has been increasing interest in the role of GH as an anti-aging factor, and some evidence suggests GH administration increases fatty acid oxidation, protein synthesis and, consequently, lean body mass [18]. To date, however, there have been no approved clinical studies to assess the effects of GH administration on muscle mass loss with aging. In fact, GH administration has been shown to have no effect on muscle function in healthy aged men and women [19].As GH administration is widely used as a muscle mass and performance enhancer [20], whether exercise could be a nonpharmacological intervention to enhance GH and subsequently muscle mass and muscle strength, requires further investigation.

                            Whilst acute exercise-induced elevations in GH and IGF-1 are consistently reported [2026], the effect of long-term exercise training on basal GH and IGF-1 secretion is more ambiguous. It is well known that GH response exercise training depends on several factors including age, diet, stress, or training intensity [20, 27]. Metabolic (i.e glucose) and hormonal (i.e. catecholamines, cortisol, testosterone) factors also influence GH [2830] which in turn are also dependent upon exercise intensity and training type[31, 32]. In this context, increase of these hormones is greater following anaerobic training in young and middle-aged trained men [6, 3133]. Moreover, Nevill et al. [34] suggested that serum GH response to treadmill running was greater in sprinters compared to endurance athletes. In addition, endurance training (running for eight weeks) resulted in increased systemic IGF-1 (+15%) in subjects aged ~66 yrs [35], yet Vitiello, Wilkinson [36] observed no perturbation in IGF-1 amongst moderately and well-trained endurance athletes aged ~69 yrs. As such, intensive training using sprint or resistance training appears necessary to induce changes to serum GH. Moreover, numerous studies suggest sprint training may elicits greater increase in muscle strength than the endurance training[31, 34]. Borst et al. [37] suggested that 25 weeks’ resistance training in middle-aged men (~37 yrs) resulted in increased GH and IGF-1 with increase in strength performances. However, Adams et al. [38] suggested it necessary to add different types of exercise to resistance exercise in order to obtain higher muscle power during sprint exercise. In fact, some authors suggest combined sprint and resistance training is more efficient than sprint training only [39] or resistance training only [40].
                            Jo Bowyer
                            Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                            "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                            Comment


                            • New Machine Learning Program Shows Promise For Early Alzheimer’s Diagnosis

                              http://neurosciencenews.com/machine-...zheimers-7305/



                              More than 5 million Americans may have Alzheimer’s disease, according to estimates, and the numbers are growing as the population ages. The disease is an irreversible, progressive brain disorder that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills. And while there is no cure, several drugs can delay or prevent symptoms from worsening for up to five years or more, according to the National Institute on Aging and published research.

                              Meanwhile, early diagnosis and treatment–the goal of the new computer based program–is key to allowing those with the disease to remain independent longer.

                              The computer program integrates a range of Alzheimer’s disease indicators, including mild cognitive impairment. In two successive stages, the algorithm selects the most pertinent to predict who has Alzheimer’s.

                              “Many papers compare the healthy to those with the disease, but there’s a continuum,” said Anant Madabhushi, F. Alex Nason professor II of biomedical engineering at Case Western Reserve. “We deliberately included mild cognitive impairment, which can be a precursor to Alzheimers, but not always.”

                              machine-learning-alzheimers-public-neurosciencenws.jpg?w=750.jpg
                              Jo Bowyer
                              Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                              "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                              Comment


                              • Dose of physical activity, physical functioning and disability risk in mobility-limited older adults: Results from the LIFE study randomized trial


                                http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0182155

                                Abstract


                                Understanding the minimal dose of physical activity required to achieve improvement in physical functioning and reductions in disability risk is necessary to inform public health recommendations. To examine the effect of physical activity dose on changes in physical functioning and the onset of major mobility disability in The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study. We conducted a multicenter single masked randomized controlled trial that enrolled participants in 2010 and 2011 and followed them for an average of 2.6 years. 1,635 sedentary men and women aged 70–89 years who had functional limitations were randomized to a structured moderate intensity walking, resistance, and flexibility physical activity program or a health education program. Physical activity dose was assessed by 7-day accelerometry and self-report at baseline and 24 months. Outcomes included the 400 m walk gait speed, the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), assessed at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months, and onset of major mobility disability (objectively defined by loss of ability to walk 400 m in 15 min). When the physical activity arm or the entire sample were stratified by change in physical activity from baseline to 24 months, there was a dose-dependent increase in the change in gait speed and SPPB from baseline at 6, 12, and 24 months. In addition, the magnitude of change in physical activity over 24 months was related to the reduction in the onset of major mobility disability (overall P < 0.001) (highest versus the lowest quartile of physical activity change HR 0.23 ((95% CI:0.10–0.52) P = 0.001) in the physical activity arm. We observed a dose-dependent effect of objectively monitored physical activity on physical functioning and onset of major mobility disability. Relatively small increases (> 48 minutes per week) in regular physical activity participation had significant and clinically meaningful effects on these outcomes.
                                Jo Bowyer
                                Chartered Physiotherapist Registered Osteopath.
                                "Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,there is a field. I'll meet you there." Rumi

                                Comment

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