Announcement

Collapse
No announcement yet.

NERVOUS SYSTEM BASICS

Collapse
This is a sticky topic.
X
X
 
  • Filter
  • Time
  • Show
Clear All
new posts

  • #16
    I am about to drive everyone (look out, proud...) mad here on this forum this summer, bringing forward information about glia. I just got Glial Neurobiology (Verkhratsky and Butt) and Neuroglia 2ndEd (Kettenmann and Ransom) in the mail. Whoohoo. Look out.
    Diane
    www.dermoneuromodulation.com
    SensibleSolutionsPhysiotherapy
    HumanAntiGravitySuit blog
    Neurotonics PT Teamblog
    Canadian Physiotherapy Pain Science Division (Archived newsletters, paincasts)
    Canadian Physiotherapy Association Pain Science Division Facebook page
    @PainPhysiosCan
    WCPT PhysiotherapyPainNetwork on Facebook
    @WCPTPTPN
    Neuroscience and Pain Science for Manual PTs Facebook page

    @dfjpt
    SomaSimple on Facebook
    @somasimple

    "Rene Descartes was very very smart, but as it turned out, he was wrong." ~Lorimer Moseley

    “Comment is free, but the facts are sacred.” ~Charles Prestwich Scott, nephew of founder and editor (1872-1929) of The Guardian , in a 1921 Centenary editorial

    “If you make people think they're thinking, they'll love you, but if you really make them think, they'll hate you." ~Don Marquis

    "In times of change, learners inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists" ~Roland Barth

    "Doubt is not a pleasant mental state, but certainty is a ridiculous one."~Voltaire

    Comment


    • #17
      Bonanza!
      I found an online version of a new book I bought, Glial Neurobiology. It just came out last year.

      You have to download it in chunks, and it's not free, but it's great.
      Preface

      Contemporary understanding of brain organization and function follows the neuronal doctrine, which places the nerve cell and neuronal synaptic contacts at the very centre of the nervous system. This doctrine considers glia as passive supportive cells, which are not involved in the informational exchange, and therefore secondary elements of the nervous system.

      In the last few decades, however, our perception of the functional organization of the brain has been revolutionized. New data forces us to reconsider the main postulate of the neuronal doctrine – that neurones and synapses are the only substrate of integration in the central nervous system. We now learn that astroglial cells, which are the most numerous cells in the brain, literally control the naissance, development, functional activity and death of neuronal circuits. Astroglial cells are in fact the stem elements from which neurones are born.

      They also create the compartmentalization of the CNS and integrate neurones, synapses, and brain capillaries into inter-dependent functional units. Furthermore, astroglial cells form a functional syncytium, connected through gap junction bridges, which provides an elaborate intercellular communication route. This allows direct translocation of ions, metabolic factors and second messengers throughout the CNS, thereby providing a sophisticated means for information exchange. In a way the binary coded electrical communication within neuronal networks may be considered as highly specialized for rapid conveyance of information, whereas astroglial cells may represent the true substance for information processing, integration and storage.

      Will this truly heretical theory which subordinates neurones to glia be victorious at the end? Forthcoming years hold the answer. When writing this book we have attempted to create a concise yet comprehensive account of glial cells and their role in physiology and pathology of the nervous system. We hope very much that this account may help the reader to discover a
      fascinating world of brain ‘secondary’ cells, which in fact are essential elements of the nervous system, whose functions and importance are yet to be fully appreciated.

      Alexei Verkhratsky (now at U. Manchester)
      Arthur Butt
      Last edited by Diane; 23-07-2008, 04:04 PM.
      Diane
      www.dermoneuromodulation.com
      SensibleSolutionsPhysiotherapy
      HumanAntiGravitySuit blog
      Neurotonics PT Teamblog
      Canadian Physiotherapy Pain Science Division (Archived newsletters, paincasts)
      Canadian Physiotherapy Association Pain Science Division Facebook page
      @PainPhysiosCan
      WCPT PhysiotherapyPainNetwork on Facebook
      @WCPTPTPN
      Neuroscience and Pain Science for Manual PTs Facebook page

      @dfjpt
      SomaSimple on Facebook
      @somasimple

      "Rene Descartes was very very smart, but as it turned out, he was wrong." ~Lorimer Moseley

      “Comment is free, but the facts are sacred.” ~Charles Prestwich Scott, nephew of founder and editor (1872-1929) of The Guardian , in a 1921 Centenary editorial

      “If you make people think they're thinking, they'll love you, but if you really make them think, they'll hate you." ~Don Marquis

      "In times of change, learners inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists" ~Roland Barth

      "Doubt is not a pleasant mental state, but certainty is a ridiculous one."~Voltaire

      Comment


      • #18
        I haven't found out yet whether or not microglia eat their own dead, but they certainly eat all the other dead. Here is a paper about it.
        What is so cool about this, in my mind anyway, is the reference to the ancient-ness of receptors of various kinds. It really does look like it's the receptors where all action is, that are the "immortal" parts, i.e., not changing much through time. I guess once a good one gets built, one that works to reduce a chemo-gradient, there is no point in changing it. "Nature abhors a gradient" (Into the Cool, Sagan/Schneider). Back to Seth Grant and System Proteomics, which is what finally got me going on glia in the first place.
        Diane
        www.dermoneuromodulation.com
        SensibleSolutionsPhysiotherapy
        HumanAntiGravitySuit blog
        Neurotonics PT Teamblog
        Canadian Physiotherapy Pain Science Division (Archived newsletters, paincasts)
        Canadian Physiotherapy Association Pain Science Division Facebook page
        @PainPhysiosCan
        WCPT PhysiotherapyPainNetwork on Facebook
        @WCPTPTPN
        Neuroscience and Pain Science for Manual PTs Facebook page

        @dfjpt
        SomaSimple on Facebook
        @somasimple

        "Rene Descartes was very very smart, but as it turned out, he was wrong." ~Lorimer Moseley

        “Comment is free, but the facts are sacred.” ~Charles Prestwich Scott, nephew of founder and editor (1872-1929) of The Guardian , in a 1921 Centenary editorial

        “If you make people think they're thinking, they'll love you, but if you really make them think, they'll hate you." ~Don Marquis

        "In times of change, learners inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists" ~Roland Barth

        "Doubt is not a pleasant mental state, but certainty is a ridiculous one."~Voltaire

        Comment


        • #19
          I'm still checking out glia, in particular microglia, and their relationship to the nervous system, dorsal horn, pain facilitation. In looking up information about Linda Watkins I found this paper, Gateways to Pathological Pain at TheScientist.com.

          Points to take home:
          1.
          With regard to what turns p38 on in the spinal cord, "the search is on," says Linda Watkins, professor of psychology at the University of Colorado, Boulder. Imagine the peripheral neuron firing with intensity, sending signals into the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. "Some are very unique neuron-to-glia signals, such as fractalkine," says Watkins. Fractalkine is a protein in the chemokine family that is expressed only on the outside surface of neurons. Shed from neurons sending distress signals, fractalkines bind to and activate nearby glial cells. "The only cells that express receptors for [fractalkine] are microglia," says Watkins.
          OK, so the neurons send out distress calls, and like a nervous sweat, fractaline emerges on their surfaces, and microglia are drawn like sharks to blood.

          2.
          In addition to hypertrophy, there is hyperplasia. "Perhaps the most dramatic thing that [microglia] do is they divide," says Wolfgang "Jake" Streit, professor of neuroscience at University of Florida's Evelyn F. and William L. McKnight Brain Institute in Gainesville. "They divide like you wouldn't believe."
          They are capable of nearly tripling their numbers in a short time.
          Last edited by Diane; 12-10-2008, 07:28 PM.
          Diane
          www.dermoneuromodulation.com
          SensibleSolutionsPhysiotherapy
          HumanAntiGravitySuit blog
          Neurotonics PT Teamblog
          Canadian Physiotherapy Pain Science Division (Archived newsletters, paincasts)
          Canadian Physiotherapy Association Pain Science Division Facebook page
          @PainPhysiosCan
          WCPT PhysiotherapyPainNetwork on Facebook
          @WCPTPTPN
          Neuroscience and Pain Science for Manual PTs Facebook page

          @dfjpt
          SomaSimple on Facebook
          @somasimple

          "Rene Descartes was very very smart, but as it turned out, he was wrong." ~Lorimer Moseley

          “Comment is free, but the facts are sacred.” ~Charles Prestwich Scott, nephew of founder and editor (1872-1929) of The Guardian , in a 1921 Centenary editorial

          “If you make people think they're thinking, they'll love you, but if you really make them think, they'll hate you." ~Don Marquis

          "In times of change, learners inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists" ~Roland Barth

          "Doubt is not a pleasant mental state, but certainty is a ridiculous one."~Voltaire

          Comment


          • #20
            I found a recent paper (see Voltage-gated sodium channel expression in rat and human epidermal keratinocytes: evidence for a role in pain)

            It talks about those P2X receptors. Every time I see P2X I immediately associate it with microglia - for better or worse, microglia have definitely made themselves apparent to me as being unavoidable players in pain.
            Diane
            www.dermoneuromodulation.com
            SensibleSolutionsPhysiotherapy
            HumanAntiGravitySuit blog
            Neurotonics PT Teamblog
            Canadian Physiotherapy Pain Science Division (Archived newsletters, paincasts)
            Canadian Physiotherapy Association Pain Science Division Facebook page
            @PainPhysiosCan
            WCPT PhysiotherapyPainNetwork on Facebook
            @WCPTPTPN
            Neuroscience and Pain Science for Manual PTs Facebook page

            @dfjpt
            SomaSimple on Facebook
            @somasimple

            "Rene Descartes was very very smart, but as it turned out, he was wrong." ~Lorimer Moseley

            “Comment is free, but the facts are sacred.” ~Charles Prestwich Scott, nephew of founder and editor (1872-1929) of The Guardian , in a 1921 Centenary editorial

            “If you make people think they're thinking, they'll love you, but if you really make them think, they'll hate you." ~Don Marquis

            "In times of change, learners inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists" ~Roland Barth

            "Doubt is not a pleasant mental state, but certainty is a ridiculous one."~Voltaire

            Comment


            • #21
              Here is another one, open access this time.
              Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 functions as a neuromodulator in the dorsal root ganglia neurons.
              Abstract:
              It has previously been observed that expression of chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) and its receptor CCR2 is upregulated by dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in association with rodent models of neuropathic pain. MCP-1 increases the excitability of nociceptive neurons after a peripheral nerve injury, while disruption of MCP-1/CCR2 signaling blocks the development of neuropathic pain, suggesting MCP-1 signaling is responsible for heightened pain sensitivity. In order to define the mechanisms of MCP-1 signaling in DRG, we studied intracellular processing, release, and receptor-mediated signaling of MCP-1 in DRG neurons. We found that in a focal demyelination model of neuropathic pain both MCP-1 and CCR2 were upregulated by the same neurons including TRPV1 expressing nociceptors. MCP-1 expressed by DRG neurons was packaged into large dense-core vesicles (LDCVs) whose release could be induced from the soma by depolarization in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Activation of CCR2 by MCP-1 could sensitize nociceptors via transactivation of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Our results suggest that MCP-1 and CCR2, upregulated by sensory neurons following peripheral nerve injury, might participate in neural signal processing which contributes to sustained excitability of primary afferent neurons.
              Karen has probably already seen this. In fact Karen has probably already linked it here somewhere..

              One other thing I've learned, for better or worse, monocyte = immune system = microglia = little pests.
              Diane
              www.dermoneuromodulation.com
              SensibleSolutionsPhysiotherapy
              HumanAntiGravitySuit blog
              Neurotonics PT Teamblog
              Canadian Physiotherapy Pain Science Division (Archived newsletters, paincasts)
              Canadian Physiotherapy Association Pain Science Division Facebook page
              @PainPhysiosCan
              WCPT PhysiotherapyPainNetwork on Facebook
              @WCPTPTPN
              Neuroscience and Pain Science for Manual PTs Facebook page

              @dfjpt
              SomaSimple on Facebook
              @somasimple

              "Rene Descartes was very very smart, but as it turned out, he was wrong." ~Lorimer Moseley

              “Comment is free, but the facts are sacred.” ~Charles Prestwich Scott, nephew of founder and editor (1872-1929) of The Guardian , in a 1921 Centenary editorial

              “If you make people think they're thinking, they'll love you, but if you really make them think, they'll hate you." ~Don Marquis

              "In times of change, learners inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists" ~Roland Barth

              "Doubt is not a pleasant mental state, but certainty is a ridiculous one."~Voltaire

              Comment


              • #22
                indebted

                Hi Diane

                superb material, thank you for posting these links

                ANdy
                "Here is Edward Bear coming downstairs now, bump, bump, bump, on the back of his head behind Christopher Robin. It is, as far as he knows, the only way of coming downstairs, but sometimes he feels that there is another way, if only he could stop bumping for a moment and think of it." A.A. Milne

                Comment


                • #23
                  ANdy, you are welcome.
                  I appreciate that you found and are reading them.
                  Diane
                  www.dermoneuromodulation.com
                  SensibleSolutionsPhysiotherapy
                  HumanAntiGravitySuit blog
                  Neurotonics PT Teamblog
                  Canadian Physiotherapy Pain Science Division (Archived newsletters, paincasts)
                  Canadian Physiotherapy Association Pain Science Division Facebook page
                  @PainPhysiosCan
                  WCPT PhysiotherapyPainNetwork on Facebook
                  @WCPTPTPN
                  Neuroscience and Pain Science for Manual PTs Facebook page

                  @dfjpt
                  SomaSimple on Facebook
                  @somasimple

                  "Rene Descartes was very very smart, but as it turned out, he was wrong." ~Lorimer Moseley

                  “Comment is free, but the facts are sacred.” ~Charles Prestwich Scott, nephew of founder and editor (1872-1929) of The Guardian , in a 1921 Centenary editorial

                  “If you make people think they're thinking, they'll love you, but if you really make them think, they'll hate you." ~Don Marquis

                  "In times of change, learners inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists" ~Roland Barth

                  "Doubt is not a pleasant mental state, but certainty is a ridiculous one."~Voltaire

                  Comment


                  • #24
                    Diane, I'm a little late getting these copied and am really looking forward to reading them. Thank you so much!
                    "The danger is not that the soul should doubt whether there is any bread, but that, by a lie, it should persuade itself that it is not hungry" (Simone Weil)

                    Comment


                    • #25
                      My pleasure.
                      Diane
                      www.dermoneuromodulation.com
                      SensibleSolutionsPhysiotherapy
                      HumanAntiGravitySuit blog
                      Neurotonics PT Teamblog
                      Canadian Physiotherapy Pain Science Division (Archived newsletters, paincasts)
                      Canadian Physiotherapy Association Pain Science Division Facebook page
                      @PainPhysiosCan
                      WCPT PhysiotherapyPainNetwork on Facebook
                      @WCPTPTPN
                      Neuroscience and Pain Science for Manual PTs Facebook page

                      @dfjpt
                      SomaSimple on Facebook
                      @somasimple

                      "Rene Descartes was very very smart, but as it turned out, he was wrong." ~Lorimer Moseley

                      “Comment is free, but the facts are sacred.” ~Charles Prestwich Scott, nephew of founder and editor (1872-1929) of The Guardian , in a 1921 Centenary editorial

                      “If you make people think they're thinking, they'll love you, but if you really make them think, they'll hate you." ~Don Marquis

                      "In times of change, learners inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists" ~Roland Barth

                      "Doubt is not a pleasant mental state, but certainty is a ridiculous one."~Voltaire

                      Comment


                      • #26
                        Check out "Translational Pain Research: From Mouse to Man" - chapters are available to read online.

                        As one would guess from the title, the word "pain" is substituted for "nociception" all the way through. However, it's a great collection of info.
                        Last edited by Diane; 05-02-2012, 05:00 PM.
                        Diane
                        www.dermoneuromodulation.com
                        SensibleSolutionsPhysiotherapy
                        HumanAntiGravitySuit blog
                        Neurotonics PT Teamblog
                        Canadian Physiotherapy Pain Science Division (Archived newsletters, paincasts)
                        Canadian Physiotherapy Association Pain Science Division Facebook page
                        @PainPhysiosCan
                        WCPT PhysiotherapyPainNetwork on Facebook
                        @WCPTPTPN
                        Neuroscience and Pain Science for Manual PTs Facebook page

                        @dfjpt
                        SomaSimple on Facebook
                        @somasimple

                        "Rene Descartes was very very smart, but as it turned out, he was wrong." ~Lorimer Moseley

                        “Comment is free, but the facts are sacred.” ~Charles Prestwich Scott, nephew of founder and editor (1872-1929) of The Guardian , in a 1921 Centenary editorial

                        “If you make people think they're thinking, they'll love you, but if you really make them think, they'll hate you." ~Don Marquis

                        "In times of change, learners inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists" ~Roland Barth

                        "Doubt is not a pleasant mental state, but certainty is a ridiculous one."~Voltaire

                        Comment


                        • #27
                          Thank you Diane for making these. A lot of knowledge you have gathered.:thumbs_up

                          I was reading this paper and I would like to get some clarification on this part which I have quoted.

                          Axonal transport consists of various components. Fast axonal transport (as much as 410 millimeters per day) involves various enzymes, transmitter substance vesicles, and glycoproteins, and slow transport (as much as thirty millimeters per day) involves primarily cytoskeletal elements such as subunits of microtubules and neurofilaments.
                          In the paper reads that for example slow transport (as much as 30 mm per day) involves cytoskeletal elements. Does that mean the nerve could acquire length 30 mm per day or just that the elements are being transported with that speed to wherever they are needed through the axon?

                          In the 7th part: Anatomy of a Neuron is written about neurofibrils:
                          they play a vital role in intracellular transport of vesicles and organelles which move along their surface through cell body and along axon
                          - they turn over constantly

                          Did intracellular transport mean moving inside only one particular cell?

                          Are the elements being transported in epi or perineurium or in some smaller or larger scale?(only moving inside one cell)?

                          Comment


                          • #28
                            Originally posted by Curious View Post
                            I was reading this paper and I would like to get some clarification on this part which I have quoted.
                            Axonal transport consists of various components. Fast axonal transport (as much as 410 millimeters per day) involves various enzymes, transmitter substance vesicles, and glycoproteins, and slow transport (as much as thirty millimeters per day) involves primarily cytoskeletal elements such as subunits of microtubules and neurofilaments.
                            In the paper reads that for example slow transport (as much as 30 mm per day) involves cytoskeletal elements. Does that mean the nerve could acquire length 30 mm per day or just that the elements are being transported with that speed to wherever they are needed through the axon?
                            The latter, the elements are being transported with that speed to wherever they are needed through the axon. Literal growth in length is a lot slower.

                            In the 7th part: Anatomy of a Neuron is written about neurofibrils:
                            they play a vital role in intracellular transport of vesicles and organelles which move along their surface through cell body and along axon
                            - they turn over constantly
                            Did intracellular transport mean moving inside only one particular cell?

                            Are the elements being transported in epi or perineurium or in some smaller or larger scale?(only moving inside one cell)?
                            Inside one cell.
                            "Intra" means "inside", and "cellular" means "cell". :angel:
                            Diane
                            www.dermoneuromodulation.com
                            SensibleSolutionsPhysiotherapy
                            HumanAntiGravitySuit blog
                            Neurotonics PT Teamblog
                            Canadian Physiotherapy Pain Science Division (Archived newsletters, paincasts)
                            Canadian Physiotherapy Association Pain Science Division Facebook page
                            @PainPhysiosCan
                            WCPT PhysiotherapyPainNetwork on Facebook
                            @WCPTPTPN
                            Neuroscience and Pain Science for Manual PTs Facebook page

                            @dfjpt
                            SomaSimple on Facebook
                            @somasimple

                            "Rene Descartes was very very smart, but as it turned out, he was wrong." ~Lorimer Moseley

                            “Comment is free, but the facts are sacred.” ~Charles Prestwich Scott, nephew of founder and editor (1872-1929) of The Guardian , in a 1921 Centenary editorial

                            “If you make people think they're thinking, they'll love you, but if you really make them think, they'll hate you." ~Don Marquis

                            "In times of change, learners inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists" ~Roland Barth

                            "Doubt is not a pleasant mental state, but certainty is a ridiculous one."~Voltaire

                            Comment


                            • #29
                              Thank you for posting all of this helpful material and the great links. It is greatly appreciated!

                              Comment


                              • #30
                                You are most welcome Anna.
                                Diane
                                www.dermoneuromodulation.com
                                SensibleSolutionsPhysiotherapy
                                HumanAntiGravitySuit blog
                                Neurotonics PT Teamblog
                                Canadian Physiotherapy Pain Science Division (Archived newsletters, paincasts)
                                Canadian Physiotherapy Association Pain Science Division Facebook page
                                @PainPhysiosCan
                                WCPT PhysiotherapyPainNetwork on Facebook
                                @WCPTPTPN
                                Neuroscience and Pain Science for Manual PTs Facebook page

                                @dfjpt
                                SomaSimple on Facebook
                                @somasimple

                                "Rene Descartes was very very smart, but as it turned out, he was wrong." ~Lorimer Moseley

                                “Comment is free, but the facts are sacred.” ~Charles Prestwich Scott, nephew of founder and editor (1872-1929) of The Guardian , in a 1921 Centenary editorial

                                “If you make people think they're thinking, they'll love you, but if you really make them think, they'll hate you." ~Don Marquis

                                "In times of change, learners inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists" ~Roland Barth

                                "Doubt is not a pleasant mental state, but certainty is a ridiculous one."~Voltaire

                                Comment

                                Working...
                                X