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SKIN IS THE OUTSIDE OF THE BRAIN

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  • Tip SKIN IS THE OUTSIDE OF THE BRAIN

    This is a new page I put up on my wikisite.
    Cutis/Subcutis : Skin is the Outside of the Brain

    Major thanks to Karen Lines for pulling all the threads together so I could find these references.

    UPDATE October 2013: I wiped the wikilink clean, ages ago, and moved the reference list to a google doc. Here it is:
    DNM reference list.
    Last edited by Diane; 14-10-2013, 03:34 PM. Reason: Add new link
    Diane
    www.dermoneuromodulation.com
    SensibleSolutionsPhysiotherapy
    HumanAntiGravitySuit blog
    Neurotonics PT Teamblog
    Canadian Physiotherapy Pain Science Division (Archived newsletters, paincasts)
    Canadian Physiotherapy Association Pain Science Division Facebook page
    @PainPhysiosCan
    WCPT PhysiotherapyPainNetwork on Facebook
    @WCPTPTPN
    Neuroscience and Pain Science for Manual PTs Facebook page

    @dfjpt
    SomaSimple on Facebook
    @somasimple

    "Rene Descartes was very very smart, but as it turned out, he was wrong." ~Lorimer Moseley

    “Comment is free, but the facts are sacred.” ~Charles Prestwich Scott, nephew of founder and editor (1872-1929) of The Guardian , in a 1921 Centenary editorial

    “If you make people think they're thinking, they'll love you, but if you really make them think, they'll hate you." ~Don Marquis

    "In times of change, learners inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists" ~Roland Barth

    "Doubt is not a pleasant mental state, but certainty is a ridiculous one."~Voltaire

  • #2
    So, back about 10-12 years ago, this paper appears: Expression of Neuropsin in the Keratinizing Epithelial Tissue–Immunohistochemical Analysis of Wild-Type and Nude Mice.
    ABSTRACT: Neuropsin is a trypsin-type serine protease that was first cloned from the mouse brain as a factor related to neural plasticity. Subsequent in situ hybridization histochemical analysis indicated a broad localization of its mRNA throughout the whole body, although the details remain obscure. In this study, we showed that neuropsin immunoreactivity is localized in the keratinized stratified epithelia of the mouse epidermis, hair, tongue, palate, nasal cavity, pharynges, esophagus, and forestomach. In the skin and mucous membranes, neuropsin immunoreactivity was found in the stratum spinosum and the stratum granulosum. The immunoreactivity in the former sublayer was mainly present in the cytoplasm, but that in the latter sublayer was exclusively present in the intercellular space or on the outer surface of the cell membrane and thus exhibited a lamellar-like peripheral distribution. During development, the appearance of neuropsin immunoreactivity in the various epithelia was found at embryonic days 14.5–15.5, prior to formation of the stratum corneum. More extensive expression of neuropsin immunoreactivity was found in the nude mouse skin and mucous membranes than in wild-type mice. Because the nude mouse is characterized by genetic impairment of keratinization, such abnormal neuropsin expression might be caused or affected by this impairment. Therefore, neuropsin, an extracellular serine protease, is suggested to be involved in keratinization in the stratified epithelia.
    So, originally found in the brain, but lots found on the outside of skin cells, having to do with "defending" skin cells, or at least, "keratinizing" them.

    Then, today, 12 years later, along comes this: Neuropsin cleaves EphB2 in the amygdala to control anxiety.
    ABSTRACT: A minority of individuals experiencing traumatic events develop anxiety disorders. The reason for the lack of correspondence between the prevalence of exposure to psychological trauma and the development of anxiety is unknown. Extracellular proteolysis contributes to fear-associated responses by facilitating neuronal plasticity at the neuron–matrix interface1, 2, 3, 4. Here we show in mice that the serine protease neuropsin is critical for stress-related plasticity in the amygdala by regulating the dynamics of the EphB2–NMDA-receptor interaction, the expression of Fkbp5 and anxiety-like behaviour. Stress results in neuropsin-dependent cleavage of EphB2 in the amygdala causing dissociation of EphB2 from the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor and promoting membrane turnover of EphB2 receptors. Dynamic EphB2–NR1 interaction enhances NMDA receptor current, induces Fkbp5 gene expression and enhances behavioural signatures of anxiety. On stress, neuropsin-deficient mice do not show EphB2 cleavage and its dissociation from NR1 resulting in a static EphB2–NR1 interaction, attenuated induction of the Fkbp5 gene and low anxiety. The behavioural response to stress can be restored by intra-amygdala injection of neuropsin into neuropsin-deficient mice and disrupted by the injection of either anti-EphB2 antibodies or silencing the Fkbp5 gene in the amygdala of wild-type mice. Our findings establish a novel neuronal pathway linking stress-induced proteolysis of EphB2 in the amygdala to anxiety.
    So, skin, neuropsin, amygdala, all have something to do with each other (apart from the obvious, i.e., embryology and evolution). Neuropsin might be one of those "somethings."
    I'd leap to the conclusion that plenty of skin contact in infancy builds a more stress-resistant brain. I'd leap to a second conclusion that human primate social grooming might help semi-anxious brains to learn how to handle stress a bit better, and that pain (as a symptom or expression of stress), as long as it hasn't taken over completely, can be fought from within by getting some manual contact help from without.
    Diane
    www.dermoneuromodulation.com
    SensibleSolutionsPhysiotherapy
    HumanAntiGravitySuit blog
    Neurotonics PT Teamblog
    Canadian Physiotherapy Pain Science Division (Archived newsletters, paincasts)
    Canadian Physiotherapy Association Pain Science Division Facebook page
    @PainPhysiosCan
    WCPT PhysiotherapyPainNetwork on Facebook
    @WCPTPTPN
    Neuroscience and Pain Science for Manual PTs Facebook page

    @dfjpt
    SomaSimple on Facebook
    @somasimple

    "Rene Descartes was very very smart, but as it turned out, he was wrong." ~Lorimer Moseley

    “Comment is free, but the facts are sacred.” ~Charles Prestwich Scott, nephew of founder and editor (1872-1929) of The Guardian , in a 1921 Centenary editorial

    “If you make people think they're thinking, they'll love you, but if you really make them think, they'll hate you." ~Don Marquis

    "In times of change, learners inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists" ~Roland Barth

    "Doubt is not a pleasant mental state, but certainty is a ridiculous one."~Voltaire

    Comment


    • #3
      I made a picture today of areas of skin:
      1. the more densely red in color, the more sensory-discriminative/spatially acute/ high density of large fibre, tiny receptive field

      2. the more green in color, the more affective-motivational the input, the larger the receptive fields, less dense the innervation, the more the ratio skews toward thin unmyelinated fiber away from large fast fiber, the less spatially acute.
      Attached Files
      Diane
      www.dermoneuromodulation.com
      SensibleSolutionsPhysiotherapy
      HumanAntiGravitySuit blog
      Neurotonics PT Teamblog
      Canadian Physiotherapy Pain Science Division (Archived newsletters, paincasts)
      Canadian Physiotherapy Association Pain Science Division Facebook page
      @PainPhysiosCan
      WCPT PhysiotherapyPainNetwork on Facebook
      @WCPTPTPN
      Neuroscience and Pain Science for Manual PTs Facebook page

      @dfjpt
      SomaSimple on Facebook
      @somasimple

      "Rene Descartes was very very smart, but as it turned out, he was wrong." ~Lorimer Moseley

      “Comment is free, but the facts are sacred.” ~Charles Prestwich Scott, nephew of founder and editor (1872-1929) of The Guardian , in a 1921 Centenary editorial

      “If you make people think they're thinking, they'll love you, but if you really make them think, they'll hate you." ~Don Marquis

      "In times of change, learners inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists" ~Roland Barth

      "Doubt is not a pleasant mental state, but certainty is a ridiculous one."~Voltaire

      Comment


      • #4
        New link from Karen Lines: Unexpected Role for Laminin in Skin Sensation

        This will appeal to
        a)peripheralists who insist that pain comes up to the brain from the body, and
        b)ectodermalists who see skin as part of the brain.
        Diane
        www.dermoneuromodulation.com
        SensibleSolutionsPhysiotherapy
        HumanAntiGravitySuit blog
        Neurotonics PT Teamblog
        Canadian Physiotherapy Pain Science Division (Archived newsletters, paincasts)
        Canadian Physiotherapy Association Pain Science Division Facebook page
        @PainPhysiosCan
        WCPT PhysiotherapyPainNetwork on Facebook
        @WCPTPTPN
        Neuroscience and Pain Science for Manual PTs Facebook page

        @dfjpt
        SomaSimple on Facebook
        @somasimple

        "Rene Descartes was very very smart, but as it turned out, he was wrong." ~Lorimer Moseley

        “Comment is free, but the facts are sacred.” ~Charles Prestwich Scott, nephew of founder and editor (1872-1929) of The Guardian , in a 1921 Centenary editorial

        “If you make people think they're thinking, they'll love you, but if you really make them think, they'll hate you." ~Don Marquis

        "In times of change, learners inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists" ~Roland Barth

        "Doubt is not a pleasant mental state, but certainty is a ridiculous one."~Voltaire

        Comment


        • #5
          Here is a pdf of the latest incarnation of my slideshow. It doesn't have all the communication/thermoregulation stuff in it, which is from an earlier version.
          Attached Files
          Diane
          www.dermoneuromodulation.com
          SensibleSolutionsPhysiotherapy
          HumanAntiGravitySuit blog
          Neurotonics PT Teamblog
          Canadian Physiotherapy Pain Science Division (Archived newsletters, paincasts)
          Canadian Physiotherapy Association Pain Science Division Facebook page
          @PainPhysiosCan
          WCPT PhysiotherapyPainNetwork on Facebook
          @WCPTPTPN
          Neuroscience and Pain Science for Manual PTs Facebook page

          @dfjpt
          SomaSimple on Facebook
          @somasimple

          "Rene Descartes was very very smart, but as it turned out, he was wrong." ~Lorimer Moseley

          “Comment is free, but the facts are sacred.” ~Charles Prestwich Scott, nephew of founder and editor (1872-1929) of The Guardian , in a 1921 Centenary editorial

          “If you make people think they're thinking, they'll love you, but if you really make them think, they'll hate you." ~Don Marquis

          "In times of change, learners inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists" ~Roland Barth

          "Doubt is not a pleasant mental state, but certainty is a ridiculous one."~Voltaire

          Comment


          • #6
            Originally posted by Diane View Post
            Here is a pdf of the latest incarnation of my slideshow. It doesn't have all the communication/thermoregulation stuff in it, which is from an earlier version.
            Wonderful, Diane.
            Thanks.
            North Portugal
            Benjamim Fontes

            Comment


            • #7
              You're welcome Benjamin.
              Diane
              www.dermoneuromodulation.com
              SensibleSolutionsPhysiotherapy
              HumanAntiGravitySuit blog
              Neurotonics PT Teamblog
              Canadian Physiotherapy Pain Science Division (Archived newsletters, paincasts)
              Canadian Physiotherapy Association Pain Science Division Facebook page
              @PainPhysiosCan
              WCPT PhysiotherapyPainNetwork on Facebook
              @WCPTPTPN
              Neuroscience and Pain Science for Manual PTs Facebook page

              @dfjpt
              SomaSimple on Facebook
              @somasimple

              "Rene Descartes was very very smart, but as it turned out, he was wrong." ~Lorimer Moseley

              “Comment is free, but the facts are sacred.” ~Charles Prestwich Scott, nephew of founder and editor (1872-1929) of The Guardian , in a 1921 Centenary editorial

              “If you make people think they're thinking, they'll love you, but if you really make them think, they'll hate you." ~Don Marquis

              "In times of change, learners inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists" ~Roland Barth

              "Doubt is not a pleasant mental state, but certainty is a ridiculous one."~Voltaire

              Comment


              • #8
                Love it.
                We don't see things as they are, we see things as WE are - Anais Nin

                I suppose it's easier to believe something than it is to understand it.
                Cmdr. Chris Hadfield on rise of poor / pseudo science

                Pain is a conscious correlate of the implicit perception of threat to body tissue - Lorimer Moseley

                We don't need a body to feel a body. Ronald Melzack

                Comment


                • #9
                  Great job Diane :thumbs_up
                  Neurophile www.tmno.ch

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    Wow, that's fantastic! Thank you! :clap2: And the rest of this thread too!
                    Tord Helsingeng, mindfulness teacher and DNM shiatsu practitioner

                    "The greatest of all pleasures is the pleasure of learning." ~ Aristotle

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      Diane,
                      Amazing!! :thumbs_up:thumbs_up:thumbs_up:thumbs_up
                      Erica

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        The skin as a social organ.
                        Diane
                        www.dermoneuromodulation.com
                        SensibleSolutionsPhysiotherapy
                        HumanAntiGravitySuit blog
                        Neurotonics PT Teamblog
                        Canadian Physiotherapy Pain Science Division (Archived newsletters, paincasts)
                        Canadian Physiotherapy Association Pain Science Division Facebook page
                        @PainPhysiosCan
                        WCPT PhysiotherapyPainNetwork on Facebook
                        @WCPTPTPN
                        Neuroscience and Pain Science for Manual PTs Facebook page

                        @dfjpt
                        SomaSimple on Facebook
                        @somasimple

                        "Rene Descartes was very very smart, but as it turned out, he was wrong." ~Lorimer Moseley

                        “Comment is free, but the facts are sacred.” ~Charles Prestwich Scott, nephew of founder and editor (1872-1929) of The Guardian , in a 1921 Centenary editorial

                        “If you make people think they're thinking, they'll love you, but if you really make them think, they'll hate you." ~Don Marquis

                        "In times of change, learners inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists" ~Roland Barth

                        "Doubt is not a pleasant mental state, but certainty is a ridiculous one."~Voltaire

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          Neural correlates of a single-session massage treatment

                          Nice paper, open access, 2012. Neural correlates of a single-session massage treatment.
                          The current study investigated the immediate neurophysiological effects of different types of massage in healthy adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Much attention has been given to the default mode network, a set of brain regions showing greater activity in the resting state. These regions (i.e. insula, posterior and anterior cingulate, inferior parietal and medial prefrontal cortices) have been postulated to be involved in the neural correlates of consciousness, specifically in arousal and awareness. We posit that massage would modulate these same regions given the benefits and pleasant affective properties of touch. To this end, healthy participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: 1. Swedish massage, 2. reflexology, 3. massage with an object or 4. a resting control condition. The right foot was massaged while each participant performed a cognitive association task in the scanner. We found that the Swedish massage treatment activated the subgenual anterior and retrosplenial/posterior cingulate cortices. This increased blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal was maintained only in the former brain region during performance of the cognitive task. Interestingly, the reflexology massage condition selectively affected the retrosplenial/posterior cingulate in the resting state, whereas massage with the object augmented the BOLD response in this region during the cognitive task performance. These findings should have implications for better understanding how alternative treatments might affect resting state neural activity and could ultimately be important for devising new targets in the management of mood disorders.
                          Diane
                          www.dermoneuromodulation.com
                          SensibleSolutionsPhysiotherapy
                          HumanAntiGravitySuit blog
                          Neurotonics PT Teamblog
                          Canadian Physiotherapy Pain Science Division (Archived newsletters, paincasts)
                          Canadian Physiotherapy Association Pain Science Division Facebook page
                          @PainPhysiosCan
                          WCPT PhysiotherapyPainNetwork on Facebook
                          @WCPTPTPN
                          Neuroscience and Pain Science for Manual PTs Facebook page

                          @dfjpt
                          SomaSimple on Facebook
                          @somasimple

                          "Rene Descartes was very very smart, but as it turned out, he was wrong." ~Lorimer Moseley

                          “Comment is free, but the facts are sacred.” ~Charles Prestwich Scott, nephew of founder and editor (1872-1929) of The Guardian , in a 1921 Centenary editorial

                          “If you make people think they're thinking, they'll love you, but if you really make them think, they'll hate you." ~Don Marquis

                          "In times of change, learners inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists" ~Roland Barth

                          "Doubt is not a pleasant mental state, but certainty is a ridiculous one."~Voltaire

                          Comment


                          • #14
                            The slideshow is great Diane, thank you so much.

                            Comment


                            • #15
                              Check out the story about skin as radiator, and about cooling down the AV anatomoses in the hands with cooling gloves, to recover faster from exercise.
                              Diane
                              www.dermoneuromodulation.com
                              SensibleSolutionsPhysiotherapy
                              HumanAntiGravitySuit blog
                              Neurotonics PT Teamblog
                              Canadian Physiotherapy Pain Science Division (Archived newsletters, paincasts)
                              Canadian Physiotherapy Association Pain Science Division Facebook page
                              @PainPhysiosCan
                              WCPT PhysiotherapyPainNetwork on Facebook
                              @WCPTPTPN
                              Neuroscience and Pain Science for Manual PTs Facebook page

                              @dfjpt
                              SomaSimple on Facebook
                              @somasimple

                              "Rene Descartes was very very smart, but as it turned out, he was wrong." ~Lorimer Moseley

                              “Comment is free, but the facts are sacred.” ~Charles Prestwich Scott, nephew of founder and editor (1872-1929) of The Guardian , in a 1921 Centenary editorial

                              “If you make people think they're thinking, they'll love you, but if you really make them think, they'll hate you." ~Don Marquis

                              "In times of change, learners inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists" ~Roland Barth

                              "Doubt is not a pleasant mental state, but certainty is a ridiculous one."~Voltaire

                              Comment

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